Information Processing Theory


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This presentation is all about learning and cognition. Understanding the Information Processing System and Memory as well as it's implications for instruction.

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Information Processing Theory

  1. 1.  Name the seven dwarves….. Now name them…..
  2. 2. • • • It depends on several things…. If you like Disney movies? When was the last time you have seen the movie or have read the book?
  3. 3. RECALL   you must retrieve the information from your memory fill-in-the blank or essay tests RECOGNITION   you must identify the target from possible targets multiple-choice tests
  4. 4.  INFORMATION PROCESSING -The human mind’s activity of taking in, storing, and using information.  The whole system is guided by control processes that determine how and when information will flow through the system.  Early information processing views of memory used the computer as a model.  Like the computer, the human mind takes in information, performs operations on it to change its form and content, stores the information, retrieves it when needed, and generates responses to it.
  5. 5. Three step process…. 1. Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. 2. Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. 3. Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
  6. 6.  Stimuli from the environment (sights, sounds, smell, etc.) constantly bombard our body’s mechanisms for seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling.  Sensory memory is the initial processing that transforms these incoming stimuli into information so we can make sense of them
  7. 7.  Perception – the  process of detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it.  stimulus must be analyzed into features or parts and assembled into a meaningful pattern. Gestalt German for pattern or whole. Gestalt theorists hold that people organize their perceptions into coherent wholes. Bottom-up processing (feature analysis)-the  Top-down processing – to recognize patterns rapidly, in addition to noting features, we use what we already know about the situation
  8. 8.  Attention is selective. Attention and Teaching The fist step in learning is paying attention.  Students cannot process  By paying attention to information that they do selected stimuli and not recognize or perceive. ignoring others, we  Eye-catching or startling limit the possibilities displays or actions can draw that we will perceive attention at the beginning and process. of a lesson. 
  9. 9. • The st uf f we encode f r om t he sensor y goes t o STM. • Event s ar e encoded visually, acoust ically or semant ically. • Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) it ems f or about 20 seconds. • We r ecall digit s bet t er t han let t er s.
  10. 10. Short-term memory is often  Working Memory used interchangeably with includes both working memory, but the temporary storage two should be utilized and active separately. processing –the  Working memory refers WORKBENCH of to the processes that are memory –where active used to temporarily store, mental effort is applied organize and manipulate to both new and old information. information. 
  11. 11.  Short-term memory, on the other hand, refers only to the temporary storage of information in memory.  It just usually means storage, the immediate memory for new information that can be held for 15-20 seconds
  12. 12. 1. Central Executive – 3. Visuospatial that controls attention Sketchpad –for and other mental resources (the “worker” of working memory) 2. Phonological Loop – that holds verbal and acoustical (sound) information visual and spatial information
  13. 13. Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Mnemonic devices (knuckle mnemonic) Rehearsal  Maintenance Rehearsal involves repeating the information in our mind (phone number or a location on a map)  Elaborative Rehearsal involves connecting the information you are trying to remember with something you already know, with knowledge from long-term memory. (ex. You meet someone at a party whose name is the same as your brother’s—you make the ASSOCIATION)
  14. 14.  Information may be lost from working memory through interference or decay  DECAY – the weakening and fading of memory with the passage of time  INTERFERENCE – processing new information interferes with old information
  15. 15.  Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.  Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.
  16. 16. Unlimited storehouse of information.  Permanent store of knowledge  Contents of LT Memory; 1. Declarative K nowledge 2. P rocedural K nowledge 3. Conditional K nowledge
  17. 17. 1. - Declarative Knowledge- is 2. Procedural Knowledge- knowledge that is demonstrated when knowledge that can we perform a task; be declared, through “knowing how” words and symbol systems of all kinds 3. Conditional verbal information; Knowledge – “knowing facts; “knowing when and why” to use that” something is declarative and procedural the case. knowledge
  18. 18. Explicit Memory   Information that you have to consciously work to remember Long-Term memories that involve deliberate or conscious recall Implicit Memory  (non-declarative) memories  information that you remember unconsciously and effortlessly
  19. 19.  When you are trying to intentionally remember something (like a formula for your statistics class or a list of dates for your history class), this information is stored in your explicit memory.  We use these memories every day, from remembering information for a test to recalling the date and time of a doctor's appointment.  This type of memory is also known as declarative memory, since you can consciously recall and explain the information.  Some tasks that require the use of explicit memory include remembering what you learned in your psychology class, recalling your phone number, identifying who the current President is, writing a research paper, and remembering what time you are meeting a friend to go to a movie.
  20. 20.  Episodic memory: These are your long-term memories of specific events, such as what you did yesterday or your high school graduation. (YOUR OWN EXPERIENCES)  Semantic memory: These are memories of facts, concepts, names, and other general knowledge information.
  21. 21.   Things that we don't purposely try to remember are stored in implicit memory. This kind of memory is both unconscious and unintentional.  This type of memory is also known as nondeclarative memory, since you are NOT able to consciously bring it into awareness.
  22. 22. 1. Classical Conditioning Effects – some out-ofawareness memories may cause you to feel anxious as you take a test or make your heart rate increase when you hear a dentist’s drill 2. Priming –activating information that already is in long-term memory through some out-of-awareness process ME_ _ _ _
  23. 23. 3.Procedural Memories  such as how to perform a specific task like swinging a baseball bat or making toast, are one type of implicit memory since you don't have to consciously recall how to perform these tasks.  Some examples of implicit memory include singing a familiar song, typing on your computer keyboard, daily habits, and driving a car.  Riding a bicycle is another great example.  Even after going years without riding one, most people are able to hop on a bike and ride it effortlessly.
  24. 24.   Primacy Effect This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle.   Recency Effect You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect.   Serial Positioning Effect This term is a memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle.
  25. 25. DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!  Spacing Effect states that we learn material more effectively and easily when we study it several times spaced out over a longer time span, rather than trying to learn it in a short period of time.  This means that cramming for an exam the night before is not as effective as studying material each night over a week or some period of time.  This holds true for material you want to store for a long time (i.e., really store it in memory), whereas cramming can work to store information for short periods of time.
  26. 26. Encoding Exercise • • • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.
  27. 27. Flashbulb Memories A flashbulb memory (FM) is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event.  What makes the flashbulb memory special is the emotional arousal at the moment that the event was registered to the memory. 
  28. 28.  Mood Congruent Memory  The mood congruence effect refers to the tendency of individuals to retrieve information more easily when it has the same emotional content as their current emotional state.  For instance, being in a depressed mood increases the tendency to remember negative events.
  29. 29. • • • • • Memories are not always what they seem. A reconstructed memory is a created memory. Misinformation effect Makes use of logic, cues, and other knowledge to construct a reasonable answer by filling in any missing parts Sometimes reconstructed recollections are incorrect
  30. 30.  One area where reconstructed memory can play a major role is eyewitness testimony.  Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues have conducted a number of studies showing tha t misleading questions can affect memory.  For example, in a classic study, Loftus and Palmer (1974) showed subjects slides of a car wreck. Question: “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”  Question: “How fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?”  The difference in verbs was enough to bias the subjects’ memories – the hit subjects estimated the cars were travelling an average of 34 miles per hour, but the smashed subjects estimated almost 41 miles per hour. 
  31. 31. Information in working memory that is lost before it has a chance to integrate into the network of long term memory truly disappears.  No amount of effort or searching will bring it back.  But information stored in long term memory may be available, given the right cues.  Some people believe that nothing is ever lost from long term memory; however, research casts doubts on this assertion (Schwartz,  Wasserman, & Robbins, 2002).