All about Computers!


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This presentation shows us the history of computers, the components of the computer, the IPOS and many more!

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All about Computers!

  1. 1. Photo taken from:
  2. 2. 1. People – are users of the computer system. The most important part of the computer system. 2. Procedures – are steps in accomplishing tasks. 3. Hardware – mechanical devices in the computer; anything that can be touched. ELEMENTS OF THE COMPUTER PROCESS Source:
  3. 3. ELEMENTS OF THE COMPUTER PROCESS 4. Software – is sets of procedure, sets of data and programs, which control the operation of any computer system. 5. Data – are raw materials to be processed by the computer into information. 6. Communication or connectivity – is the transmission of information from one computer to another. Source:
  4. 4. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) It stores, recalls and processes data. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  5. 5. COMPUTER CASE Contains the major components of the computer. It helps protect them. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  6. 6. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM MONITOR A display screen to provide “output” to the user. It is where you view the information your are working on. Photo taken from 07/1050.Dell-S2340T-multi_2D00_touch-Windows-8-monitor-_2800_front_2900_.jpg
  7. 7. KEYBOARD Used to enter information into the computer and for giving commands. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  8. 8. MOUSE An input device operated by rolling its ball across a flat surface. The mouse is used to control the on-screen pointer by pointing and clicking, double- clicking, or dragging objects on the screen. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  9. 9. PRINTER An output device that produces a hard copy on paper. It gives information to the user in printed form. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  10. 10. MICROPHONE Allows the user to record sounds as input to their computer. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
  11. 11. SPEAKERS Used to generate or reproduce voice, music, and other sounds. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from:
  12. 12. MODEM The place where the computer is connected to the phone line. BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM Photo taken from: linksys-wag120n-compatible-con-infinitum_MLM-F-3135125852_092012.jpg
  13. 13. GENERATION OF COMPUTERS Generation of Computers First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation
  14. 14. CHARACTERIZED BY: MAGNETIC DRUMS MAGNETIC TAPES DIFFICULT TO PROGRAM USED MACHINE LANGUAGE & ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE Time Period : 1941 to 1956 Technology : Vacuum Tubes Size : Very Large System Processing : Very Slow First generation computers
  15. 15. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS Time Period : 1956 to 1963 Technology : Transistors & semiconductors Size : Smaller Processing : Faster Characterized By: • Magnetic Cores • Magnetic Disc • Used high level language • Easier to program
  16. 16. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS Time Period : 1964 to 1971 Technology : ICs (Integrated Circuits) invented by Jack Kilby Incorporated many transistors & electronic circuits on a single chip Size : Small as compared to 2nd generation computers Processing : Faster then 2nd generation computers Characterized by:- • Minicomputers accessible by multiple users from remote terminals.
  17. 17. FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS Time Period : 1971 to Present Technology : Microprocessors Incorporated many millions of transistors & electronic circuits on a single chip Size : Small as compared to first generation computer Processing : Faster then first generation computer Characterized by: • The personal computer and user friendly micro-programs, very fast processor chip high level language, OOP (Object Oriented Programming) • With capacities from megabytes to gigabytes
  18. 18. FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS Time Period: present and beyond Technology : AI - Artificial Intelligence Computers that are able to take commands and carry out instructions
  19. 19. NEXT GENERATION OPTICAL DISC The following formats go beyond the current third-generation discs and have the potential to hold more than one terabyte (1TB) of data: • Holographic Versatile Disc (3.9TB=850 DVDs) • LS-R • Protein-coated disc
  20. 20. INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLE Steps followed to process data • Input • Processing • Output • Storage Source:
  21. 21. • It is the computer itself. • Everything that you can see and touch in the computer is called the hardware. COMPUTER HARDWARE Photo taken from:
  22. 22. • Input Devices • Output Devices • Storage Devices • Processing Devices DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER HARDWARE Photo taken from:
  23. 23. An input device helps users to enter data into the computer for processing. 1. Keyboard – The typical keyboard has 104 keys. There are 5 parts of a keyboard. • Numeric keys • Function keys • Typing keys • Control keys • Special purpose keys INPUT DEVICE: KEYBOARD Photo taken from:
  24. 24. 2. Non-Keyboard Devices These devices minimize human activity. They are also called data entry. The information needed is converted in computer-usable form. • Mouse –part of a desktop computer, the mouse is moved by hand on a flat surface to control the cursor in the screen. Wireless mouse are also available today. INPUT DEVICE: NON-KEYBOARD DEVICES Photo taken from:
  25. 25. • Joystick – this pointing device is used to move an object on screen in any direction. • Trackball – this stationary pointing device contains a movable ball rotated with the fingers or palm. INPUT DEVICE: NON-KEYBOARD DEVICES Joystick picture taken from: Trackball picture taken from:
  26. 26. OTHER EXAMPLES OF NON-KEYBOARD DEVICES Touch screens Light Pen Digitizing Tablet Pen Based System Photos taken from: Touchscreen_IMG_2796.jpg
  27. 27. • Scanning Devices –translate image and objects, photos, drawing, and text into digital form. Examples of Scanning Devices: • Barcode • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) INPUT DEVICE: SCANNING DEVICES Photos taken from:,Scott/Barcodes_b.jpg
  28. 28. • Electronic Camera – It captures images for easy viewing on desktop or laptop. • DSLR Camera – The Digital Single Lens Reflex camera is a digital still image camera that uses a single lens reflex (SLR) mechanism. • Video-Input Device – By using a video card, the video may be transferred to a PC or laptop. OTHER INPUT DEVICES Photos taken from:
  29. 29. It converts the activities or movement of the human body into computer usable form, for example, finger prints, optical scanners, voice recognition, and other applications. INPUT DEVICE: HUMAN BIOLOGY INPUT DEVICE Photo taken from:
  30. 30. • Storage Hardware – Storage devices permanently store data for future use. There are 2 types of storage devices: • Primary • Secondary STORAGE HARDWARE Photos taken from:
  31. 31. • Random Access Memory (RAM) – This is the primary memory that holds data while the program is running. -- It is an electronic memory that erases the data when the computer is turned off. • Read Only Memory (ROM) – -- This is also a primary memory that knows the basic information about the hardware and settings of your computer. -- The data on this memory cannot be changed. STORAGE HARDWARE: PRIMARY STORAGEPhotos taken from:
  32. 32. Magnetic Disk/ Tape Devices – These devices provide fast access and storage capacities. • Hard Disc (HD) – This is also called disc drive. All personal computers have hard discs. The famous external hard disc has capacities from 80 gigabytes (GB) to terabyte (TB). • Diskette or floppy disc – Its memory is 1.44 Megabyte (MB). It is often called floppy disc because it is made of flexible material. • Zip Drive – This was developed by Iomega Corporation. It is a small portable disc drive, with capacities of 100, 240, and 750 MB. • Magnetic Tape – This is used to store data in sequence. They are commonly used in audio and video tapes, e.g. cassettes, VHS, betamax. STORAGE HARDWARE: SECONDARY STORAGE Photos taken from: transparent.png/220px-Zip-100a-transparent.png _ubt.jpeg/220px-Kaseta_magnetofonowa_ubt.jpeg
  33. 33. • Optical Storage Devices – These involve the use of high powered laser beams to store information. -- CD-ROM – CD-ROM (COMPACT DISC –READ ONLY MEMORY) – Its storage capability is 540 to 748 MB. It is the oldest and best defined optical storage technology. --CD-R (COMPACT DISC - RECORDABLE) – This allows recording of data, but data cannot be erased once they are recorded. STORAGE HARDWARE: OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES Photos taken from:
  34. 34. --CD-RW (COMPACT DISC- REWRITEABLE) – This allows you to rewrite, erase, and update data. Capacity is 650 to 800 MB. --DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) – It can hold up to 4.7 GIG of information, which is enough for a 133-minute video. STORAGE HARDWARE: OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES Photos taken from:
  35. 35. • Flash Drive – This is also called USB flash drive or thumb drive. From megabytes, today’s flash drive capacity is 128 to 256 Gigabytes. STORAGE HARDWARE: NEW STORAGE DEVICES Photo taken from:
  36. 36. • Output Hardware – these translate information processed by the computer into a form that users can understand. Output information may be hard copy or soft copy. -- Hard copy outputs – are tangible, like printed essays on bond paper, and micro film. -- Soft copy outputs – are those that can be seen on the screen. OUTPUT HARDWARE Photos taken from:
  37. 37. • Hardcopy Output Devices Two Types of Printers Impact Printer – printer that has contact with the paper. E.g. Dot Matrix Non-Impact Printer – printer that does not strike the characters against ribbon or paper. • Plotter- is a device that produces permanent graphic output in large sheets. OUTPUT HARDWARE Photos taken from:
  38. 38. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) - is the most popular softcopy output device used by microcomputer systems Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors - are lighter, much thinner, and have less power. OUTPUT HARDWARE Photos taken from: Crt14.jpg
  39. 39. Central Processing Unit (CPU) - is the most important hardware, called the brain of the computer system. It has 3 major sub-units: 1. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) – is required for arithmetic and comparison operation. 2. Control Unit (CU) 3. Memory Unit (MU) – works closely with the CPU. It stores the data temporarily. The smallest measuring unit of memory is Bit (Binary Digit -0, 1). PROCESSING HARDWARE 8 bits 1 byte 1024 bytes 1 kilo bytes 1024 KB 1 mega bytes 1024 MB 1 giga byte 1024 GB 1 tera byte 1024 TB 1 peta byte Source: Magadia, J. Computer Learning Package Movie Maker and IT Fundamentals
  40. 40. REFERENCES • Magadia, J. Computer Learning Package Movie Maker and IT Fundamentals • Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton McGraw-Hill. • • •
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