006b NCWRM 2011 Papadakis_AgrUoA

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Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

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006b NCWRM 2011 Papadakis_AgrUoA

  1. 1. Advances in Renewable Energy Driven Desalination George Papadakis, Professor Agricultural University of Athens www.renewables.aua.grAdvancing Non-Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, Hilton, 14-15 Σεπτεµβρίου 2011
  2. 2. Presentation Structure1. Desalination in the world2. Desalination technologies3. Renewable energies and desalination4. Wind, solar PV, solar thermal5. Conclusions Agricultural University of Athens
  3. 3. Desalination production capacity in the Mediterranean countries in 2006 values in m3 per day Portugal; 2,325 Morocco; 36,070 Algeria; 1,430,892 Spain ; 2,069,191 Tunisia; 54,564France; 150,787 Libya; 415,919 Italy; 152,718 Egypt; 158,243 Israel; 551,474 Slovenia; 1,102 Jordan; 90,935 Croatia; 432 Lebanon; 350 Malta; 93,676 Syria; 5,640 Cyprus; 103,325 Greece; 24,140 Turkey; 3,601Source: MEDRC, Quteishat 2008, ADIRAworkshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  4. 4. Global installed capacity since 1966Source: MEDRC Quteishat 2008,ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  5. 5. Agricultural University of Athens
  6. 6. Desalination processesDesalination Processes Thermal – needs thermal and electrical energy Membranes – needs electrical energy onlyBoth are energy intensive, accounting for40-75% of the operating cost Agricultural University of Athens
  7. 7. Energy requirementsEnergy is needed to get fresh water fromsaline water Depends on the technology (specific energyconsumption kWh/m3) Increases as salinity increases Agricultural University of Athens
  8. 8. Membrane processesThermal processes involve phase change(evaporation) high energy requirementsNeed to produce water without involvingphase change to reduce energy consumptionTwo processes emerged: Reverse Osmosis(RO) and Electrodialysis. RO is predominant Agricultural University of Athens
  9. 9. Reverse osmosisSource: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  10. 10. Typical RO designSource: Mokhlisse 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  11. 11. Reverse osmosisEnergy consumption initially high, 12 kWh/m3Major method to reduce energy consumption isto recover energy from reject brine withenergy recovery devices Agricultural University of Athens
  12. 12. Energy recoveryTurbo-machine systems, e.g. Reversible Pumps Pelton TurbinesVolumetric Systems, e.g. ERI (Pressure Exchanger) Axial Piston Pressure Exchanger Pump (LATEST) Agricultural University of Athens
  13. 13. Energy recovery - turbine Permeate 45% E ∼ 3.5 kWh/m3 HP pump 100% Turbine Reject 55%Source: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  14. 14. Energy recovery – pressure exchangeBooster-Pump 60% Permeate 45% E ∼ 2.4 - 2,8 kWh/m3 HP-Pump 45% Pressure exchanger brine 55% 100% Source: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  15. 15. Hydraulic energy recoverySource: Spectrawater Agricultural University of Athens
  16. 16. Desalination and renewablesAttractive to reduce dependence on fossilfuels and CO2 emissionsCapital costs still highOperating costs very low Solar thermal systems, photovoltaic, wind, wave, and geothermal can provide thermal, electrical or mechanical energy Can be used in remote and rural areas for small scale applications Can be used for medium scale plants True but commercialization is forthcoming Agricultural University of Athens
  17. 17. Desalination and renewablesMost attractive renewable energy sources Wind energy Solar energy (PV and solar thermal collectors) Geothermal energy Agricultural University of Athens
  18. 18. Desalination and renewables Source: Mathioulakis et al. 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  19. 19. Desalination and renewables Source: Mathioulakis et al. 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  20. 20. Solar-driven RO desalination systems: geographicaldistribution and type in Mediterranean and MENA countries, and worldwideSource: Ghermandi & Messalem, DWT 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  21. 21. Desalination and renewablesWind energy Electricity production to power reverse osmosis Problems with the variation of the wind power production – need for storage and power regulation Agricultural University of Athens
  22. 22. Desalination and wind energy Example of a commercial technology Source: ENERCON Agricultural University of Athens
  23. 23. Desalination and wind energyPressure exchangerSource: ENERCON Agricultural University of Athens
  24. 24. Solar Energy and RO Electricity Mechanical work PV Membranes Solar Rankine Product (fresh Energy engine water) Collectors Evaporation HeatSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  25. 25. PV and ROSource: Mokhlisse 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  26. 26. PV & wind driven ROSource: Mohamed 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  27. 27. The ADIRA HANDBOOKThe ADIRA HANDBOOK: A guide to AutonomousDesalination ConceptsA guide to decision makers, project developers andinterested end users for the implementation ofrenewable energy driven desalination systemsDesigned for the non-specialist / non-engineerProvides instructions for planning, installing andmaintaining of ADS and ready made material fortraining local users Agricultural University of Athens
  28. 28. AUDESSY Decision Support Tool AUDESSY is a comprehensive DST for sizing and cost analysis of ADS Data base & handbook for operators & installers AUDESSY was developed by AUA, within the ADIRA project, www.adira.gr Agricultural University of Athens
  29. 29. Autonomous PV-RO (Msaim Morocco) System type: BWRO PV power: 3 kWp Water production Capacity: 1 m3/d Source: ADIRA project Agricultural University of Athens
  30. 30. ADIRA project (MEDA)Country System type UseCyprus Humidification/Dehumidification Eco-tourismTurkey PV-RO SchoolTurkey PV-RO TourismJordan PV-RO SchoolMorocco 6 PV-RO systems Rural villages Agricultural University of Athens
  31. 31. Solar Energy and RO Electricity Mechanical work PV Membranes Solar Rankine Product (fresh Energy engine water) Collectors Evaporation HeatSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  32. 32. Solar organic Rankine ROSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  33. 33. Two stage solar organic Rankine RO Agricultural University of Athens
  34. 34. Desalinated water as energy storage in mini-gridsRO desalination is an attractive technology ofstoring energy in the form of waterIt offers possibilities of increasing renewablepower penetration in weak autonomous grids(mini-grids) such as those of the GreekislandsExcess electricity produced from renewablescan be used to desalinate water Agricultural University of Athens
  35. 35. Hybrid system (PV+wind+FC) and microgrid with RO Source: Mohamed 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  36. 36. A microgrid system in EgyptSource: HYRESS project 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  37. 37. Storage: Batteries and waterSource: HYRESS project 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  38. 38. What about the costs ?Wind powered RO desalination can becompetitive at good wind potentialEven PV driven RO desalination is competitiveto transported water in the Greek islandsGeothermal energy fits well to thermaldesalination methods Agricultural University of Athens
  39. 39. Are there any environmental effects ?Yes Energy use Brine disposal Agricultural University of Athens
  40. 40. ConclusionsDesalination increases at dramatic rates due to freshwater demand and decreasing production costCarbon foot print of desalination will increase. Needfor measures to be introduced for RE applicationCommercialization of renewable energy drivendesalination has just startedEnvironmental problems can become significantespecially in closed seas – research is necessaryResearch is necessary for developing further thecombination of renewable energy technologies withdesalination technologies and reduce costs Agricultural University of Athens
  41. 41. Thank you for your interest George Papadakis: gpap@aua.gr www.renewables.aua.gr, Agricultural University of Athens

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