GUDC HONG KONGSTANFORD CAMPUS IN HONG KONG PROJECT (CHKP) STANFORD UNIVERSITY LJUBLJANA UNIVERSITYTEAM MEMBERSSam WrightAndy LiTheo LimJakob LozejDominik KošakMENTORSDerek OuyangSinan Mihelčič
HONG KONG TEAM UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANASTANFORDUNIVERSITY GUDC HONG KONG
INTRODUCTIONWHAT?Stanford technological campus proposalWHERE?Search for the most suitable site in Hong KongHOW?Via internet resources, online interaction, university professors andmentorsWHY?To learn designing and making decisions for urban development,To use strategic thinking as a key for successful process in theproject,To understand the decision-impact process based on gatheredinformation
MISSION STATEMENTThe Stanford Center in Hong Kong is a not-for-profit subsidiary of Stanford Universityheadquartered in Hong Kong SAR, China, established in 2005 as an overseas office tofacilitate Stanford University’s presence in the rapidly growing East Asia Region. Alongwith Stanford Centers in Beijing, China, and Kyoto, Japan, The Stanford Center in HongKong is concerned with supporting and cultivating academic and political relations withmajor East Asian institutions. In addition, the Stanford Center in Hong Kong has aparticular focus on networking with local businesses and corporations, especially in theareas of engineering and technology.As part of its overall mission, The Stanford Center in Hong Kong is developing a newproject, the Campus Hong Kong Project (CHKP), which has three main goals:TO ESTABLISH a physical campus in the city of Hong Kong which introducesundergraduate and graduate-level education in the technology sector, namely insciences, engineering, and business;TO ENCOURAGE closer academic, social, business, and cultural ties between theUniversity and the rapidly growing East Asia Region;TO ENGENDER a mutually beneficial interaction space for the people of Hong Kongand Stanford affliates around the world.
ORDER OF PRESENTATION 1. Introduction 2. Context & Background 3. Site Selection 4. Site Analysis 5. Concepts 6. Financing 7. Public Relations & Outreach 8. Future Directions
INTRODUCTION MAINLAND CHINA NEW TERRITORIESLANTAU KOWLOON HONG KONG ISLAND OUTLYING ISLANDS
GENERAL INFORMATIONOfficial name: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PeoplesRepublic of ChinaOfficial languages: Chinese, EnglishArea: land - 1,104 km² (426 sq mi), water - 50 km² (19 sq mi)Population: 7,061,200 (2010), 6,480 km² / 16,576/sq miTime zone: HKT (UTC+8)Currency: Hong Kong dollarHuman development index (HDI): 0.898 (very high)
BRIEF HISTORY Current Hong Kong was first incorporated into China during the Qin Dynastyand largely remained under Chinese rule until 1841 during the Qing Dynasty. HongKong became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42).Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colonys boundaries were extended instages to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories in 1898. Itwas occupied by Japan during the Pacific War, after which the British resumedcontrol until 1997, when China resumed sovereignty. Hong Kong in 1843 (English colonial area) seen from Kowloon peninsula.
DISTRICTSHONG KONG ISLAND (Central, East Coast, South Coast)Hong Kong Island is the site of the original British settlement. Most of Hong Kongs highestskyscrapers and the financial centre can be found here, including its famous skyline along thenorthern coastline. Hong Kongs financial centre, shopping. Overall, Hong Kong Island is moremodern and wealthy than the other areas of Hong Kong.KOWLOONThis peninsula jutting south towards Hong Kong Island from the Asian continent is the mostpopulous area in Hong Kong and at one time it was the most densely populated place in theworld. Today, it offers a chaotic mix of malls, street markets and residential tenements.NEW TERRITORIESNamed by British officials when leased from the Chinese government in 1898, the NewTerritories contain a curious mix of small farms, villages, industrial installations, mountainouscountry parks and towns that have populations the size of some cities.LANTAUThe largest of the Outlying Islands, twice the size of Hong Kong Island and famous for its highpeaks, wild landscapes, great beaches and the airport, which has a significant role in HongKongs economy.OUTLYING ISLANDSWell-known weekend destinations for the locals, the Outlying Islands are most of the islandssurrounding Hong Kong Island. They range from significant population centers to rocks pokingout of the sea.
SOCIAL REPORT Population 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ by Age Percentage of 13.5% 13.1% 15.3% 18.1% 17.5% 10% 12.5% Population Total Male 482,500 445,400 462,000 547,000 594,200 353,500 339,500 Population Total Female 452,100 459,300 592,000 698,400 613,400 337,400 464,800 PopulationAverage age is 41.7 years and life expectancy is 82.9 years.EthnicityThe majority of Hong Kongers of Chinese descent trace their ancestry to variousparts of Southern China: the Guangzhou area, Sze Yap, Chaoshan, Fujian andShanghai. Population by Ethnicity Chinese 95% Filipino 2.1% Indonesian 0.8% Westerners 0.7% Indian 0.3% Other 1.1%
SOCIAL REPORTEducation Attainment 2005 2010 Occupation Distribution 2005No Schooling / Pre-Primary 6.4% 5.4% Managers and Administrators 9.7%Primary 19.3% 17% Professionals 6.5%Secondary 51.5% 52.3% Associate Professionals 19.3%Post-Secondary 22.8% 25.4% Clerks 16.1% Service Workers and Shop 16%Labour Force Participation Rate Sales WorkersThe size of the total labor force in Hong Kong Craft and Related Workers 7.1%for 2010 was 3.65 million. This represented59.7 per cent of the total population aged 15 Plant and Machine Operators 5.8%and over. The distribution of the employed and Assemblerspopulation in Hong Kong by occupation for Elementary Occupations 19.4%2010 was as follows:Higher EducationMain higher education institutions in HongKong are The University of Hong Kong(21,500 students), The Hong Kong Universityof Science and Technology (8,000 students),Chinese University of Hong Kong (14,300students), Hong Kong Polytechnic University(28,300 students).
CONSTRUCTION REPORT● 7,650 Skyscrapers● Lack of buildable area has created very dense construction● Many developed areas are on top of Reclaimed Land● Land Reclamation dates back to Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 9CE)● Many projects are in development on Hong Kong Island and West Kowloon● The closure of Kai Tak Airport has lifted height restrictions, allowing morehigh rises to be built in West Kowloon Reclaimed land in Hong Kong (yellow).
ZONING AND PARKS A spread-out American-style campus is possible in the NewSalient Facts and Figures: Territories cf. China University of HK near Fo Tan, below● Hong Kong has just over 1100 sq km of land controlled by adedicated council● 40% of usable land is dedicated to conservation● 67% of land is still undeveloped● Permits to build are easier to obtain in the New Territories; harderto obtain in Kowloon; nearly impossible to obtain for HK island.● Most development is happening on new lands in the NewTerritories or reclaimed land in Kowloon.● Most new industries and universities are located in the NewTerritories. A spread-out American-style campus is possible in theNew Territories.
PROPOSED SITES MAP 1) KAI TAK AIRPORT, KOWLOON 4) FO TAN, NEW TERRITORIES 2) WEST KOWLOON, KOWLOON 5) TUEN MUN, NEW TERRITORIES 3) AUSTIN, KOWLOON
1) DECISION MATRIX CRITERIA Decision Matrix Explanation: - Each criteria and sub-criteria is evaluated in 1-5 tier system (1 - worst, 5 - best) - Each sub-criteria is differently weighted, based on the importance of the subject - All provided data is objective and was found on the Internet or other authentic sources - Decision matrix also includes subjective data, provided by the locals Economic - 20% Transportation - 20% Construction - 15% Parks and Zoning - 10% Sustainability and Environment - 15% Political and Neighborhood Feasibility - 20%
ECONOMIC DECISION MATRIX Construction Land Financial Weighted Site / Subject Costs prices feasibility total Kai Tak Airport 3 2 5 3.3 Austin 3 2 5 3.3 West Kowloon 3 2 5 3.3 Fo Tan 4 4 4 4 Tuen Mun 4 4 4 4 Economic - 20 % 1. Construction Cost - 33.3% 2. Land Prices - 33.3% 3. Financial Feasibility - 33.3%
TRANSPORTATION DECISION MATRIX Travel Travel Time Distance to Frequenc Number of Rounded Travel Time Weighted Time to to Mainland Closest MTR y of MTR MTR Lines Weighted to Downtown Total Airport China Station Transit near the Site TotalKai TakAirport 1 3 4 2 5 3 2.95 3 WestKowloon 3 5 5 5 3 5 4.6 4.6Austin 2 3 5 4 3 5 4.1 4.1Fo Tan 1 2 3 5 5 3 3.65 3.7 Tuen Mun 1 1 1 2 4 2 2.05 2Transportation - 20% 1. Travel Time to Airport - 5% 2. Travel Time to Downtown HK - 15% 3. Travel Time to China Mainland Travel Hub - 5% 4. Distance to Closest MTR station - 30% 5. Frequency of MTR Trains - 15% 6. Number of MTR Lines near the Site - 30%
PARKS AND ZONING MATRIX Distance to Site / subject % Park Space % Park Space Official Land Distance to Edge of City measurement 1 mile radius 5 mile radius Utilization shore (m) Kai Tak airport 0 2.1 Residential 2500 m 0m West Kowloon 4.8 5.1 Commercial 6500 m 200 m Austin 4.9 4.8 Vacant 7000 m 250 m Fo Tan 18.2% 16.0% Open Space 500 m 8500 m Tuen Mun 15.3% 14.9% Commercial 500 m 6700 m % of Total 20% 30% N/A 30% 20% Parks and Zoning - 10%
SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENT MATRIX Site / subject H2O2/HNO3 O3 Concentration measurement (Ave. 2007) (Ave. 2007) 330 micrograms/cubic Kai Tak Airport 22.4 meter West Kowloon 19.5 290 Austin 27.4 320 Fo Tan 8.8 200 Tuen Mun 16.2 250 % of Total 60% 40% Sustainability and Environment - 15%
POLITICAL AND NEIGHBORHOOD FEASIBILITY MATRIX Political and Neighborhood Feasibility - 20%
FINAL DECISION MATRIX Political & Parks & Environment & Economic Transportation Construction Neighborhood Total Zoning Sustainability FeasibilityKai TakAirport 3.3 3 4.3 2 2.5 3.3 3.1 WestKowloon 3.3 4.6 3.7 2.3 2 3.8 3.4Austin 3.3 4.1 3.1 2.2 1 4.1 3.1Fo Tan 4 3.7 3 3 5 2.3 3.5 Tuen Mun 4 2.1 3 4 4.1 2.3 3.1 Current Weighting: Economic 20% Transportation 20% Construction 15% Parks & Zoning 10% Environment & Sustainability 15% Politics & Neighborhood Feasibility 20%
SITE ANALYSIS – geometry and characteristics of space
SITE ANALYSIS – construction- coastal land reclamation consists of two layers: highly permeablelayer consisting of crushed rock fragments underneath a less permeablelayer (sand)- land reclamation increases water level- deep foundations have a profound impact on underground water flow● building on reclaimed land demands ground improvement and constant maintenance (drainages) – Source: Preliminary assessment of the impacts of deep foundations and land reclamation on groundwater flow in a coastal area in Hong Kong, ChinaASCERTAINMENTS:● LESS CONTACT AREA WITH GROUND = LOWER COSTS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTAINING● BUILDING ON RECLAIMED LAND DEMANDS AT LEAST 20 % MORE INVESTMENT THAN BUILDING ON ORDINARY LAND
CAMPUS PROGRAMMATIC SCHEME Student Housing Common Facilities 168,000 ft2 Technical Facilities 30,000 ft2 Laboratories Building12,500 ft2 Technical Incubator Building 12,500 ft2 20,000 ft2 Business School Building 15,000 ft2 Engineering School Building 10,000 ft2
CAMPUS VOLUMETRIC PROGRAM 50F Student Housing Common Facilities Technical Facilities Laboratories Building Technical Incubator Building Business School Building 13F Engineering School Building 10F 9F 11F 9F 7F
CAMPUS PROGRAMMATIC SCHEMEENGINEERING SCHOOL + LABORATORY BUILDING – specialized inconstruction techniques and innovative approaches to construction andmaterials which will contribute to local developementTECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATOR – making collaborative environmentwith local companies and young enterprises which will boostapproaching to the marketBUSINESS SCHOOL – exploring new ways of fostering anentrepreneurship communitySTUDENT HOUSING – providing residential space for 800 studentsCOMMON FACILITIES – providing comfortable and healthyenvironment for staff, students and localsOPEN SPACES – use of existing green space on the western side(peninsula)
CONCEPT DECISION FACTORS Concept 1 Concept 2Construction BetterViews BetterAccess BetterBuilding Heights BetterPotential for Growth BetterDistance to Green Spaces BetterPlot Size-Cost BetterFeng Shui BetterOverall Better
FINANCEMinimize Risks Mitigate Costs1. Buy the land2. Partner with a local developer3. Make a pre-emption agreement with the city of Hong KongPrincipal sources of data used in the cost estimation model :- Hong Kongs Rating and Valuation Department- Hong Kongs land sales in 2009-2011- Hong Kong Census and Statistics
FINANCE Laboratories building 15,000 sq ft $17.5 mil. Engineering building 30,000 sq ft $26 mil.
FINANCE Student Housing 170,000 sq ft $115.5 mil. Common Facilities 12,500 sq ft $8.25 mil.
FINANCEPhase 1 scenarios: Predicted scenarios in year 2021 Best-case scenarioBusiness as Usual Continue the project to phase 2 as-Signed pre-emption agreement planned.-Differences in cultures won‘trepresent a bigger obstacle-Equivalent sponsor funding toStanford CA-Popularity among students Rent the facilities until it is possible to buy aditional land.Predicted risks-Unavailability of land for growth-Local disapproval-Cultural barrier Selling all the facilities with profit.-Lack of sponsor funding-Unpopularity among students Worst-case scenario
FINANCE Technological incubator 10,000 sq ft $9 mil. Business school building 20,000 sq ft $17.25 mil.
FINANCE Technical Facilities 15,000 sq ft $10 mil. Land Purchase 32,300 sq ft $9.5 mil.
FINANCEPhase 2 scenarios: Predicted scenarios in year 2028 Best-case scenarioBusiness as Usual The project is a enormous success.-Stanford University is a key element Revenues and donations are higher thanof HK‘s education system predicted.- Differences in cultures won‘trapresent a bigger obstacle-Equivalent sponsor funding toStanford CA School activities will pursue normally.-Popularity among students Stanford will need to foster relationship with surrounding companies.Predicted risks- Non-acceptance from localcompanies In case of unpredictable events facilities-Local disapproval will be sold with loss.-Cultural barrier Worst-case scenario-Lack of sponsor funding
FINANCE All Facilities and Invested Capital (IC) Engineering building 30,000 sq ft $26 mil. Laboratories building 15,000 sq ft $17.5 mil. Student housing 170,000 sq ft $115.5 mil. Common facilities 12,500 sq ft $8.25 mil. Business school 20,000 sq ft $17.25 mil. Tech incubator 10,000 sq ft $9 mil. Technical facilities 15,000 sq ft $10 mil. Surrounding land 32,300 sq ft $9.5 mil. Total IC $213 mil.
FINANCEHow to justify the higher investment compared to othersites in Hong Kong? Is it justifiable at all?Justification:- proximity of corporations and companies- prestigious location- closeness to all needed infrastructure- facilitation of the exit strategy
DEVELOPER LIAISONTerms of Agreement:1. Stanford is the owner of the land, SHKP isthe main developer. Sun Hung Kai Properties (SHKP)2. SHKP develops campus and otherproperties together with Stanford as a mainstakeholder.3. SHKP will take full profit from any nonuniversity-related residential, retail, and officetower units.4. SHKP and Stanford will jointly managearchitectural design and character of theentire development. The two areas of theproject should be integrated to a certainextent, but the Stanford area should havemore of the feel of a campus.5. SHKP will profit from proximity and prestigeto leverage higher profits on theirdevelopment units.6. Stanford and SHKP will agree upon furtherterms regarding compensation throughannuities or other means.
PUBLIC OUTREACH AND INVOLVEMENT Inform and Engage the Public Public Information Meetings -Union Square -Docks and Harbor Development -HKU, other universities -West Kowloon Local contribution to project -Public art -Architecture Competition -Information Booths in Local Malls, MTR Stations Information Media Channels -Twitter (@StanfordinHK) -Facebook (StanfordinHK) -Newspaper and TV ads
POLITICS, PERMITTING AND PROCESSWe will consult with SHKP to guide us through thepermitting process. We will need to gain permits from thefollowing authorities:HK Planning and Development BoardHK Department of EducationHK Buildings DepartmentHK Environmental Protection DepartmentWest Kowloon District CouncilUnion City District CouncilIn addition, we will collaborate with the following groups toensure social and cultural integration of our project:Society for Community Organization (SoCO)HK Heritage Studies and PromotionOrganizationMonte Jade Science Technology AssociationHong Kong Electronics and TechnologyAssociation (HKETA)and others
FUTURE DIRECTIONS1. Develop Institutional and Developer Relations2. Obtain Stanford-side Approvals and Final Program Requirements3. Detailed Architectural and Schematic Design4. Carry Out PR and Outreach Plan5. Environmental Review Process