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ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
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ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version

  1. 1. IntFternatioCoundonal SoCertifidationRVerftwareied Tn LevReleasedrsion 201Testingestervel Sy11g Qualifryllabuficationusns Boarrd
  2. 2. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaCopyrighThis docCopyrighISTQB isCopyrighthe ISTQCopyrighKlonk, RCopyrighFriedenbCopyrighKlaus OlAll rightsThe auth(ISTQB)have agr1) AnyauthandafterNatio2) Anyothecopy3) Anyits trfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qht Noticecument mayht Notice © Ins a registeredht © 2011 theQB WG Founht © 2010 theRahul Verma)ht © 2007 theberg and Erikht © 2005, thlsen, Maarets reserved.hors hereby t. The authorreed to the foindividual orors and theprovided thar submissiononal Board.individual orer derivativeyright ownersISTQB-recoranslation) toeryllabusQualifications Boardbe copied innternationald trademarke authors forndation Levee authors for)e authors fork van Veenehe authors (TPyhäjärvi, Gtransfer the crs (as currentollowing condr training comISTQB areat any advern for officialr group of inwritings if ths of the syllaognized Natioo other partieits entirety,Software Teof the Internr the updatel)r the updater the updatendaal)Thomas MülleGeoff Thompcopyright to tt copyright hditions of usempany may uacknowledgertisement ofaccreditationdividuals mahe authors abus.onal Board ms.Page 2 of 7or extracts mesting Qualificnational Softw2011 (Thom2010 (Thom2007 (Thomer (chair), Reson and Erikthe Internatioolders) and Ie:use this syllaed as the sosuch a trainon of the traay use this sand the ISTmay translate78made, if the scations Boarware Testingas Müller (chas Müller (chas Müller (chex Black, Sigk van Veenenonal SoftwarISTQB (as thabus as the bource and coning course maining matersyllabus as tQB are acke this syllabuQsource is ackrd (hereinafteg Qualificatiohair), Debrahair), Armin Bhair), Dorothygrid Eldh, Dondaal).re Testing Quhe future copbasis for a traopyright ownmay mentionrials to an Ithe basis fornowledged aus and licensInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marknowledged.er called ISTns Board,FriedenbergBeer, Martiny Graham, Drothy Grahaualificationspyright holdeaining courseers of the syn the syllabuISTQB recoarticles, booas the sourcse the syllabnalestings Boardr-2011QB®), andDebram,Boardr)e if theyllabusus onlygnizedoks, orce andbus (or
  3. 3. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaRevisVersionISTQB 2ISTQB 2ISTQB 2ISTQB 2ASQF VISEB V2fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qion HistoD2011 E2010 E2007 02005 02.2 J2.0 2eryllabusQualifications BoardoryDateEffective 1-ApEffective 30-M01-May-200701-July-2005July-200325-Feb-1999pr-2011Mar-20107Page 3 of 7RemarksCertifiedMaintenaNotesCertifiedMaintenaNotesCertifiedMaintenaCertifiedASQF Sy“LehrplanISEB Sof25 Febru78sTester Founance ReleaseTester Founance ReleaseTester Founance ReleaseTester Founyllabus Founn Grundlagenftware Testinary 1999Qdation Levele – see Appedation Levele – see Appedation Leveledation Leveldation Leveln des Softwang FoundatioInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marl Syllabusendix E – Rel Syllabusendix E – Rel Syllabusl SyllabusVersion 2.2are-testens“on Syllabus Vnalestings Boardr-2011eleaseeleaseV2.0
  4. 4. 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  5. 5. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa4.3 4.34.34.34.34.34.4 4.44.44.44.5 4.6 5.  Tes5.1 5.15.15.2 5.25.25.25.25.25.25.3 5.35.35.35.4 5.5 5.55.55.6 6.  Too6.1 6.16.16.16.16.16.16.16.16.2 6.26.26.3 7.  ReStandBooks8.  ApHistorObjecObjecNovemEntryfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QSpecificat3.1  Equiva3.2  Bounda3.3  Decisio3.4  State T3.5  Use CaStructure-4.1  Statem4.2  Decisio4.3  Other SExperiencChoosingst ManagemTest Orga.1  Test O.2  Tasks oTest Plan2.1  Test Pl2.2  Test Pl2.3  Entry C2.4  Exit Cr2.5  Test Es2.6  Test StTest Prog3.1  Test Pr3.2  Test Re3.3  Test CoConfiguraRisk and T5.1  Project5.2  ProducIncident Mol Support foTypes of T.1  Tool Su.2  Test To.3  Tool Su.4  Tool Su.5  Tool Su.6  Tool Su.7  Tool Su.8  Tool SuEffective U2.1  Potenti2.2  SpeciaIntroducinferences......dards............s...................pendix A – Sry of this Docctives of the Fctives of the Imber 2001)..RequiremeneryllabusQualifications Boardtion-based orlence Partitioary Value Anon Table 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  6. 6. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaBackg9.  ApLevelLevelLevelLevel10.  AFound10.10.10.10.11.  A12.  AReleaRelea13. fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qground and Hpendix B – L1: Rememb2: Understa3: Apply (K34: Analyze (Appendix C –dation Syllab.1.1  Genera.1.2  Curren.1.3  Learnin.1.4  OverallAppendix D –Appendix E –ase 2010 ......ase 2011 ......Index...........eryllabusQualifications BoardHistory of theLearning Objeer (K1) ........nd (K2) .......3).................(K4) .............– Rules Appbus...............al Rules.......t Content ....ng Objectivesl Structure...– Notice to T– Release N............................................................e Foundationectives/Cogn................................................................................plied to the IS............................................................s ......................................Training Provotes.........................................................................Page 6 of 7n Certificate initive Level o................................................................................STQB...............................................................................................................viders ..........................................................................................78n Software Tof Knowledge............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................QTesting ........e..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mar...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................nalestings Boardr-2011.......... 68 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 73 .......... 74 .......... 74 .......... 74 .......... 76 
  7. 7. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaAcknoInternatioThomasArmin BeSchaefethe curreInternatioThomasreview teTuula PäVeenendInternatioThomasteam thaPetterssInternatioThomasGeoff Thsuggestified Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qowledgeonal SoftwarMüller (chaieer, Rex Blar, Stephanieent version oonal SoftwarMüller (chaieam (Rex Blaääkkönen, Mdaal) and allonal SoftwarMüller (chaianks the revieon, and Wononal SoftwarMüller (chaihompson andons.eryllabusQualifications Boardmentsre Testing Qur), Debra Frick, Julie GarUlrich, Erikof the syllabure Testing Qur), Rahul Veack, Mette BMeile PosthumNational Boare Testing Qur), Dorothy Gew team (Hanil Kwon) andre Testing Qur), Rex Blackd Erik van Veualificationsedenberg. Trdiner, Judyvan Veenens.ualificationsrma, Martin KBruhn-Pedersma, Hans Scards for theirualificationsGraham, Debans Schaeferd all the Natiualificationsk, Sigrid Eldheenendaal anPage 7 of 7Board WorkThe core teamMcKay, Tuuldaal) and allBoard WorkKlonk and Arson, Debra Fchaefer, Stepr suggestionsBoard Workbra Friedenbr, Stephanieonal BoardsBoard Workh, Dorothy Gnd the review78ing Group Fom thanks thela PääkköneNational Boing Group Formin Beer. TFriedenberg,phanie Ulrichs.ing Group Foerg, and ErikUlrich, Meilefor their suging Group FoGraham, Klauw team and aQoundation Lereview teamen, Eric Riouoards for theoundation LeThe core teamKlaus Olsen, Pete Williamoundation Lek van Veenee Posthuma,ggestions.oundation Leus Olsen, Maall National BInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marevel (Editionm (Dan Almogdu Cosquiersuggestionsevel (Editionm thanks then, Judy McKams, Erik vanevel (Editionndaal. The cAndersevel (Editionaaret PyhäjärBoards for thnalestings Boardr-20112011):g,r Hansfor2010):ay,2007):core2005):rvi,eir
  8. 8. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaIntrodPurpoThis syllaLevel. ThBoards flanguagefor accreInformatThe CThe Foupeople inacceptanfor anyomanagerconsultatesting qLearniLearningo K1: ro K2: uo K3: ao K4: aFurther dAll termsexplicitlyThe EThe FouexaminasyllabusThe formExams mexaminarequisiteAccredAn ISTQsyllabusperformsis alloweFurther gfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qductionose of thisabus forms the Internatiofor them to ae. Training peditation. Thion on the hiCertified Tndation Leven roles suchnce testers ane who wantrs, softwareants. Holdersqualification.ing Objecg objectives arememberunderstandapplyanalyzedetails and es listed undey mentionedExaminationdation Leveation question. All sectionsmat of the examay be takenation center oe for the examditationQB National B. Training pros the accredied to have anguidance foreryllabusQualifications Boardn to thiss Documethe basis foronal Softwareccredit the trproviders wille syllabus wstory and baTester Foel qualificatioas testers, teand softwarets a basic undevelopmenof the Founctives/Coare indicatedexamples of lr “Terms” jusin the learninonel Certificatens may requs of the syllabamination isn as part of aor in a publicm.Board may aoviders shoutation. An acn ISTQB exatraining provs Syllabentthe Internatie Testing Quraining providdetermine awill help candackground ofundationon is aimed aest analysts,developers.nderstandingnt managers,dation Certifognitive Ld for each selearning objest below chapng objectivesexaminationire the use obus are exammultiple choan accreditedexam). Comccredit trainiuld obtain accccredited couamination asviders is givePage 8 of 7usonal Softwaralifications Bders and to dappropriate teidates in thef the syllabusLevel inat anyone inv, test engineeThis Foundaof softwarebusiness anficate will beevel of Kction in this sectives are gpter headings.n will be baseof material baminable.oice.d training coumpletion of ang providerscreditation gurse is recogpart of the cen in Append78re Testing QBoard (ISTQBderive examieaching methir preparatios can be founSoftwarevolved in softers, test consation Level qtesting, suchnalysts, IT dirable to go onKnowledgesyllabus andiven in Appegs shall be reed on this syased on moreurse or takenan accrediteds whose couruidelines frognized as conourse.dix D.Qualification aB) provides ination questhods and pron for the exand in Appende Testingtware testingsultants, testqualification ih as project mrectors and mn to a highered classified asendix B.emembered (yllabus. Answe than one sn independend training course material fm the boardnforming to tInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marat the Foundat to the Natiotions in theiroduce courseamination.dix A.g. This includt managers,is also appromanagers, qmanagemenr-level softwas follows:(K1), even ifwers toection of thisntly (e.g., at aurse is not afollows thisor body thathis syllabus,nalestings Boardr-2011ationonallocalewaredesuseropriateualitytarenotsanpre-tand
  9. 9. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaLevelThe leveorder too Geno A lisrequo Learmindo A liso A destanThe syllathe levelHow thThere arlearningexample2. TesThis heashown) achapter.objectivewithin thfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qof Detailel of detail inachieve thiseral instructit of informatiuiredrning objectivdset to be act of terms thaescription of tdardsabus contentof detail to bhis Syllabre six major cobjectives the:sting Thrading showsand K2 (but nWithin eaches and the ame time for theeryllabusQualifications Boardthis syllabusgoal, the syonal objectivion to teach,ves for eachchievedat students mthe key conct is not a desbe covered inbus is Orchapters. Thhat is covereroughoutthat Chapternot K3), andchapter themount of timee section.s allows interllabus consisves describinincluding a dknowledge amust be ablecepts to teacscription of thn Foundationrganizede top-level hed within thet the Sofr 2 has learnit is intendedre are a nume required. SPage 9 of 7rnationally costs of:ng the intentiodescription, aarea, describe to recall andh, including she entire knon Level trainiheading for echapter andftware Liing objectived to take 115mber of sectioSubsections78onsistent teaon of the Fouand referencbing the cognd understandsources suchowledge areaing courses.ach chapterspecifies thefe Cyclees of K1 (ass5 minutes toons. Each sethat do not hQching and exundation Levces to additionitive learnindh as acceptea of softwareshows the he time for the(K2)sumed whenteach the mection also hahave a time gInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marxamination. Ivelonal sourcesg outcome aed literature otesting; it refhighest levele chapter. Fo115 mina higher levaterial in theas the learnigiven are incnalestings Boardr-2011nifandorflectsofornutesel isengluded
  10. 10. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.LearniThe obje1.1 WhLO-1.1.1LO-1.1.2LO-1.1.3LO-1.1.4LO-1.1.51.2 WhLO-1.2.1LO-1.2.2LO-1.2.31.3 SevLO-1.3.11.4 FunLO-1.4.11.5 TheLO-1.5.1LO-1.5.2fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QFundaming Objecectives identihy is Testi1 Describeperson, t2 Distingu3 Give rea4 Describecontribut5 Explain amistakehat is Test1 Recall th2 Providecycle (K23 Differentven Testin1 Explain tndamenta1 Recall th(K1)e Psychol1 Recall th2 ContrasteryllabusQualifications Boardmentalsctives forfy what young Necesse, with examto the enviroish betweenasons why tee why testingtes to higherand compareand bug, usiing? (K2)he common oexamples fo2)tiate testing fng Principthe seven pral Test Prohe five fundaogy of Teshe psychologt the mindsetof Testr Fundamwill be able tsary? (K2ples, the wayonment or tothe root causting is neceg is part of qur quality (K2)e the terms eing examplesobjectives ofr the objectivfrom debuggples (K2)rinciples in teocess (K1)mental test asting (K2)gical factors tt of a tester aPage 10 ofting (K2mentals ofto do followin)y in which aa company (use of a defecessary by givuality assuraerror, defect,s (K2)f testing (K1)ves of testingging (K2)esting (K2))activities and)that influenceand of a deve782)f Testingng the compldefect in sof(K2)ct and its effeving examplence and givefault, failureg in differentd respective te the succeseloper (K2)Q15letion of eachftware can caects (K2)es (K2)e examples oe, and the corphases of thtasks from pss of testing (InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma55 minuh module.ause harm toof how testinrrespondinghe software llanning to cl(K1)nalestings Boardar-2011uteso agtermsifeosure
  11. 11. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.1TermsBug, def1.1.1Softwareproductsexpectedmoney, t1.1.2A humancode, or(or do soresult inDefectscode, coFailureselectronichanging1.1.3OperatRigorousduring ocorrectedSoftwarestandard1.1.4With thefor both fusabilitysee ChaSoftwareTesting cdesigneddefects,Lessonsfound inreoccurrquality aTesting sstandardfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QWhy isfect, error, faSoftwaree systems ars (e.g., cars).d. Software ttime or businCauses on being can min a documeomething it sfailures, butoccur becauomplexity of ican be causic fields, andg the hardwaRole of Ttions (K2)s testing of speration andd before thee testing mayds.Testing ahelp of testifunctional an, efficiency, mapter 2; for me Product Qucan give cond test that pathe quality os should be leother projecing and, as assurance.should be intds, training aeryllabusQualifications BoardTestingailure, fault, me Systemsre an integral. Most peoplethat does notness reputatiof Softwarmake an erroent. If a defechouldn’t), canot all defecse human benfrastructuresed by enviropollution caare conditionTesting insystems andd contribute tosystem is rey also be reqand Qualitng, it is possnd non-functimaintainabiliore informatuality’ (ISO 9nfidence in thasses reduceof the softwarearned fromcts, processea consequentegrated as ond defect ang Necessmistake, quals Context (l part of life, fe have had at work correcon, and coulre Defectsor (mistake),ct in code isausing a failucts do so.eings are fale, changing tonmental conn cause fauls.Softwaredocumentatio the qualityeleased for oquired to meety (K2)sible to measional softwarty and portabtion on softw126).he quality of tes the overalre system incprevious proes can be impnce, improveone of the qunalysis).Page 11 ofsary (K2lity, risk(K1)from businesan experiencctly can leadld even causs (K2)which produexecuted, thre. Defects ilible and bectechnologiesnditions as wts in firmwarDevelopmion can helpof the softwperational uset contractuasure the qualre requiremebility). For mare charactethe softwarel level of riskcreases wheojects. By unproved, whicthe quality ouality assura782)ss applicatioce with softwato many prose injury or deuces a defeche system man software, scause there i, and/or manwell. For exare or influencment, Mainto reduce thare system,se.al or legal reqlity of softwaents and charore informateristics see ‘Sif it finds fewk in a systemen those defederstandingch in turn shoof future systnce activitiesQns (e.g., banare that did noblems, inclueath.t (fault, bug)ay fail to do wsystems or ds time pressny system intmple, radiatice the executntenance ahe risk of proif the defectsquirements, ore in terms oracteristics (eion on non-fuSoftware Engw or no defecm. When testiects are fixedthe root cauould preventtems. This iss (i.e., alongsInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma20 minutnking) to consnot work asding loss ofin the prograwhat it shouldocuments msure, complexteractions.ion, magnetistion of softwaandblems occurs found areor industry-sof defects foue.g., reliabilitunctional tesgineering –cts. A properng does findd.ses of defecthose defectan aspect oside developnalestings Boardar-2011tessumeramld domayxsm,are byringpecificund,ty,stingrlydctsts fromofpment
  12. 12. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.1.5Decidingsafety, afurther inTesting srelease ocustomefied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QHow Mucg how much tand businessn Chapter 5.should providof the softwaers.eryllabusQualifications Boardch Testingtesting is enos risks, and pde sufficientare or systemg is Enougough shouldproject constrinformation tm being testePage 12 ofgh? (K2)take accounraints such ato stakeholded, for the ne78nt of the leveas time and bers to makext developmQel of risk, inclubudget. Riskinformed deent step or hInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mauding technick is discussedcisions abouhandover tonalestings Boardar-2011cal,dut the
  13. 13. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.2TermsDebuggiBackgrA commThis is pTest actichoosingcriteria, ractivities(includinBoth dynand willdevelopmTesting co Findo Gaino Provo PrevThe thoutest basidocumendefects aDifferenttesting (emany faiacceptangain conbe to assstakeholtesting thoperatioavailabilDebuggiDebuggiSubsequresponsiThe procfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QWhat isng, requiremroundon perceptiopart of testingivities exist bg test conditireporting ons after a testg source codnamic testingprovide informent and tescan have theing defectsning confidenviding informventing defecught processs via test dents (e.g., reqappearing int viewpointse.g., componilures as posnce testing, tnfidence thatsess the quaders of the rhat no new dnal testing, tity.ng and testinng is the devuent re-testinibility for thescess of testineryllabusQualifications Boards Testinment, review,on of testing ig, but not all obefore and afons, designithe testing pphase has bde) and condg and static termation that csting processe following obnce about theation for decctss and activitiesign) can hequirements) athe code.in testing taknent, integratssible so thatthe main objeit has met thality of the sorisk of releasdefects havehe main objeng are differevelopment acng by a testese activities ing and the teg? (K2)test case, teis that it onlyof the testingfter test execng and execprocess andbeen completducting staticesting can bcan be usedses.bjectives:e level of quacision-makinges involved inelp to preventand the identke different otion and systt defects in thective may bhe requiremeoftware (withing the systebeen introduective may bent. Dynamicctivity that finr ensures thais usually tesesting activitiePage 13 ofesting, test oy consists ofg activities.cution. Thescuting test casystem undeted. Testingc analysis.e used as ato improve balitygn designing tt defects fromtification andobjectives intotem testing),he software abe to confirments. In someno intentionem at a givenuced during de to assess sc testing cannds, analyzeat the fix doesters test andes are expla78objectiverunning testsse activities inses, checkiner test, and fialso includesmeans for acboth the systtests early inm being introd resolution oo account. Fthe main obare identifiedthat the syse cases the mof fixing defen time. Maintdevelopmensystem charashow failures and removes indeed resd developersined in SectiQs, i.e., execunclude plannng results, evinalizing or cs reviewing dchieving simtem being testhe life cycleoduced into cof issues alsoFor example,bjective mayd and can betem works amain objectivects), to givetenance testit of the chanacteristics sues that are caves the causesolve the fails debug.on 1.4.InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma30 minututing the softwning and contvaluating exitcompleting cldocumentsmilar objectivested and thee (verifying tcode. Reviewo help to previn developmbe to causee fixed. Ins expected,ve of testinge informationing often inclnges. Duringuch as reliabaused by defe of the failurure. Thenalestings Boardar-2011tesware.trol,tosurees,ehews ofventmentastomayn toludesbility orfects.re.
  14. 14. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.3TermsExhaustPrincipA numbeguidelinePrinciplTesting creducesfound, itPrinciplTesting ecases. Inefforts.PrinciplTo find ddevelopmPrinciplTesting emodulesrelease tPrinciplIf the samlonger finreviewedthe softwPrinciplTesting idifferentlPrinciplFinding aneeds anfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QSevenive testingpleser of testing pes common fe 1 – Testincan show thathe probabilis not a prooe 2 – Exhaueverything (anstead of exhe 3 – Early tdefects earlyment life cyce 4 – Defecteffort shall bes. A small nutesting, or ise 5 – Pesticme tests arend any new dd and revisedware or systee 6 – Testinis done differly from an e-e 7 – Absenand fixing dend expectatioeryllabusQualifications BoardTestingprinciples hafor all testingg shows preat defects arity of undiscoof of correctnustive testinall combinatiohaustive testtesting, testing activle, and shallt clusteringe focused prmber of modresponsiblecide paradoxrepeated ovdefects. To od, and new aem to find pog is contextrently in diffe-commerce snce-of-errorsefects does nons.Principave been sugg.esence of de present, buovered defecness.g is impossons of inputsting, risk anavities shall bbe focusedroportionallydules usuallyfor most of txver and overovercome thiand differenttentially mort dependenterent contextsite.s fallacynot help if thePage 14 ofles (K2)ggested overdefectsut cannot procts remainingsibles and preconalysis and prie started ason defined oto the expecy contains mothe operationagain, eventis “pesticidetests need tore defects.tts. For exame system bui78)r the past 40ove that thereg in the softwnditions) is noorities shouldearly as posobjectives.cted and lateost of the defnal failures.tually the samparadox”, teo be written tple, safety-clt is unusableQyears and oe are no defeware but, eveot feasible exd be used tossible in the sr observed dfects discoveme set of tesst cases neeto exercise dritical softwae and does nInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma35 minutffer generalects. Testingen if no defecxcept for trivio focus testinsoftware or sdefect densityered during pst cases willed to be regudifferent partsare is testednot fulfill thenalestings Boardar-2011tesgcts areialgsystemy ofpre-noularlys ofusers’
  15. 15. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.4TermsConfirmatest covesummaryBackgrThe mosalso incluand evalThe fundo Testo Testo Testo Evalo TestAlthoughTailoring1.4.1Test planin orderTest constatus, inand objethroughoactivitiesTest plan1.4.2Test anatangibleThe testo Revianalo Evalo Idenbehao Desio Ideno Desio Crea1The degrsystem chareliability, ofied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QFundamation testing,erage, test day report, testroundst visible partude time to bluating resultdamental test planning ant analysis ant implementauating exit ct closure actih logically seg these mainTest Plannning is the ato meet the ontrol is the onncluding devectives of theout the projecs.nning and coTest Anaalysis and detest conditioanalysis andiewing the teysis reports,uating testabtifying and pavior and struigning and ptifying necesigning the tesating bi-direcree to which sofaracteristics (e.gor cost) which aeryllabusQualifications Boardmental T, re-testing, eata, test exetwaret of testing isbe spent on pts.st process cond controld designation and execriteria and revitiesequential, theactivities witnning andactivity of deobjectives anngoing activitiations frome project. In oct. Test planontrol tasks aalysis andesign is the aons and test cd design actiest basis (sucarchitecturebility of the teprioritizing tesucture of therioritizing higssary test dast environmectional traceaftware compliesg., software comare defined to reTest Proexit criteria, icution, test ls test executiplanning theonsists of theecutioneportinge activities inthin the contd Control (efining the obnd mission.ty of comparthe plan. It inorder to contrning takes inare defined inDesign (Kactivity duringcases.ivity has thech as requiree, design, inteest basis andst conditionse softwaregh level test cta to supportent setup andability betwees or must complymplexity, risk aseflect the importaPage 15 ofocess (Kncident, regrog, test planion. But to betests, desigfollowing mathe processext of the sy(K1)bjectives of teing actual prnvolves takinrol testing, thnto account tn Chapter 5 oK1)g which genefollowing maements, softwerface specifd test objectsbased on ancasest the test cond identifyingen test basisy with a set of sssessment, safeance of the soft78K1)ression testin, test procede effective anning test casain activitiesmay overlapstem and theesting and throgress againng actions nehe testing ache feedbackof this syllaberal testing oajor tasks:ware integrityfications)snalysis of tesnditions andany requiredand test casstakeholder-seleety level, securittware to its stakQng, test basisdure, test polnd efficient, tses, preparin:p or take place project is uhe specificationst the plan,ecessary to mtivities shoulk from monitobus.bjectives arey level1(riskst items, thetest casesd infrastructusesected software aty level, desiredkeholders.InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma35 minuts, test conditicy, test suitetest plans shng for executce concurrenusually requiron of test acand reportinmeet the misld be monitororing and cone transformedlevel), riskspecificationure and toolsand/or software-performance,nalestings Boardar-2011testion,e, testhouldionntly.red.ctivitiesng thessionredntrold inton,-based
  16. 16. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.4.3Test impcombininexecutioTest impo Finao Deveharno Creao Verifo Verifo Execplano Loggundeo Como Repoa dewaso Repeexecof aintrodefe1.4.4EvaluatinobjectiveEvaluatino Checo Asseo Writi1.4.5Test clostestwaresoftwareachievedfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTest Impplementationng the test caon, the enviroplementationalizing, implemeloping andnesses and wating test suitfying that thefying and upcuting test prned sequencging the outcer test, test tomparing actuaorting discreefect in the coexecuted)eating test acution of a tecorrected tesoduced in uncects (regressiEvaluatinng exit criteres. This shoung exit critercking test logessing if moring a test sumTest Clossure activitiee, facts and ne system is red, or a mainteeryllabusQualifications Boardplementatiand executioases in a paronment is setand executiomenting andprioritizing tewriting automtes from thee test environdating bi-direrocedures eicecome of testools and testal results withpancies as inode, in specictivities as aest that previost and/or exechanged areion testing)ng Exit Cria is the activuld be done fia has the fogs against thre tests are nmmary reporsure Activs collect datanumbers. Teseleased, a teenance releaon and Exon is the actrticular ordert up and theon has the foprioritizing test proceduremated test scrtest procedunment has beectional tracether manuallexecution antwareh expected rncidents andfied test dataa result of actously failed iecution of tesas of the sofriteria andvity where tefor each testllowing majohe exit criterianeeded or if trt for stakehovities (K1)a from compst closure acest project isase has beenPage 16 ofxecution (ivity where ter and includintests are runollowing majotest cases (ines, creating triptsures for efficieen set up coeability betwly or by usingnd recordingresultsd analyzing tha, in the testtion taken fon order to costs in order tftware or thaReportingest executionlevel (see Sor tasks:a specified inthe exit criterolderspleted test acctivities occurcompleted (on completed78K1)est procedurng any othern.or tasks:ncluding thetest data andent test execorrectlyeen the testg test executthe identitieshem in orderdocument, or each discreonfirm a fix (cto ensure that defect fixing (K1)is assessedSection 2.2).n test planninria specifiedctivities to cor at project mor cancelled.Qres or scriptsinformationidentificationd, optionally,cutionbasis and tetion tools, acs and versior to establishor a mistakeepancy, for econfirmationat defects hag did not uncd against thengshould be chnsolidate expmilestones su), a milestonInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mas are specifieneeded for tn of test datapreparing teest casesccording to thns of the sofh their causein the way thexample, re-testing), exeve not beencover otherdefinedhangedperience,uch as whene has beennalestings Boardar-2011ed bytesta)estheftware(e.g.,he testecutiona
  17. 17. CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaTest closo Checo Closo Docuo Finao Hando Analo Usinfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qsure activitiecking whichsing incidentumenting thealizing and arding over thelyzing lessonng the informeryllabusQualifications Boards include theplanned delireports or rae acceptancerchiving testwe testware tons learned toation gatheree following mverables havaising changee of the systeware, the teso the mainteno determine ced to improvPage 17 ofmajor tasks:ve been delive records foremst environmennance organichanges neeve test matur78veredr any that remnt and the teizationeded for futurityQmain openest infrastructre releases aInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mature for laterand projectsnalestings Boardar-2011reuse
  18. 18. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.5TermsError gueBackgrThe mindsoftwareresponsian indepcarried oA certainat findingdevelopebe defineo Testo Testo Testteamo TestcertiPeople aby manameets itsIdentifyinauthor. Ain the mapessimisexperienIf errors,testers aduring reThe testedefects,defect insave timCommununwanterelationsfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QThe Psessing, indeprounddset to be use. With the rigibility to a tespendent viewout at any levn degree of ing defects anders can efficied as shownts designed bts designed bts designed bm) or test spets designed bfication by aand projectsagement ands objectives.ng failures duAs a result, teanagement osm, a criticalnce on whichdefects or faand the analyeviews as weer and test leprogress annformation cae and moneynication probed news abouships betweeeryllabusQualifications Boardsychologpendencesed while tesght mindset dster is typicaw by trained avel of testingndependencd failures. Indently find man here from loby the persoby another pby a person(ecialists (e.g.by a person(n external boare driven byother stakehTherefore, ituring testingesting is ofteof product riseye, attentioto base erroailures are coysts, designeell as in testineader need gd risks in a can help themy later, and rblems may ocut defects. Hen testers andgy of Tessting and revdevelopers ally done to hand professio.ce (avoiding tdependenceany defects iow to high:n(s) who wroerson(s) (e.gs) from a diff., usability ors) from a diffody)y objectives.holders, for et is importanmay be percen seen as asks. Lookingon to detail, gor guessing.ommunicateers and deveng.good interperconstructive wm improve thereduce risks.ccur, particuowever, therd others:Page 18 ofsting (Kviewing is diffare able to teelp focus effonal testing rthe author bie is not, howen their own cote the softwg., from the dferent organir performancferent organi. People tendexample, to ft to clearly sceived as cridestructive afor failures igood commud in a constrlopers can brsonal skillsway. For theeir skills. Defe.larly if testerre are severa782)ferent from thest their ownfort and provresources. Inas) often maever, a replaccode. Severaware under tedevelopmentizational grouce test speciaization or comd to align thefind defects otate the objeticism againsactivity, evenn a system runication withructive way,be avoided. Tto communicauthor of thects found as are seen oal ways to imQhat used whicode, but seide additionandependent takes the testecement for faal levels of inst (low levelt team)up (e.g., an ialists)mpany (i.e.,eir plans withor to confirmectives of tesst the producn though it isrequires curioh developmebad feelingsThis applies tcate factual ie software ond fixed durionly as messmprove commInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma25 minutile developineparation of tal benefits, sutesting may ber more effecamiliarity, anndependenceof independindependentoutsourcingthe objectivm that softwarting.ct and againss very construosity, professent peers, anbetween theto defects founformation aor document,ing testing wengers ofmunication annalestings Boardar-2011tesgthisuch asbectivende canence)t testores setrest theuctivesionaldeundaboutwillnd
  19. 19. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationao Startqualo Compersfindio Try to Conffied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qt with collaboity systemsmmunicate finson who creangsto understanfirm that theeryllabusQualifications Boardoration rathendings on theated it, for exd how the otother personr than battlese product in aample, writether person fn has undersPage 19 ofs – remind ea neutral, facobjective anfeels and whstood what yo78everyone of thct-focused wnd factual incy they reactou have saidQhe commonway without crcident reportsas they dod and vice veInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Magoal of betteriticizing thes and reviewersanalestings Boardar-2011erw
  20. 20. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.6Involvemcode of einappropfollowingPUBLICCLIENTof their cPRODUCand systJUDGMEjudgmenMANAGethical aPROFESconsisteCOLLEApromoteSELF - CprofessioRefere1.1.5 Bl1.2 Beiz1.3 Beiz1.4 Hetz1.4.5 Bl1.5 Blacfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QCode oment in softwethics is necpriate use. Reg code of eth- Certified soAND EMPLOclient and emCT - Certifiedtems they tesENT- CertifientEMENT - Ceapproach to tSSION - Cernt with the pAGUES - CercooperationCertified softwon and shallencesack, 2001, Kzer, 1990, Blazer, 1990, Hezel, 1988ack, 2001, Cck, 2001, HeteryllabusQualifications Boardof Ethicsare testing eessary, amoecognizing thics:oftware testeOYER - Certmployer, consd software test) meet theed software tertified softwahe managemrtified softwarublic interestrtified softwan with softwaware testerspromote anKaner, 2002ack, 2001, Metzel, 1988, MCraig, 2002tzel, 1988senables indivong other reahe ACM anders shall acttified softwarsistent with thesters shall ehighest profetesters shallare test manment of softwre testers shtare testers shre developershall participethical approMyers, 1979Myers, 1979Page 20 ofviduals to leaasons to ensud IEEE codeconsistentlyre testers shahe public inteensure that thessional stanmaintain intenagers and leware testingall advancehall be fair torspate in lifelonoach to the p78rn confidentiure that the iof ethics forwith the puball act in a meresthe deliverabndards possiegrity and indeaders shallthe integrityand supportng learning rpractice of thQal and privilenformation isengineers, thblic interestmanner that isles they provbledependencesubscribe toand reputatiotive of their cregarding thee professionInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma10 minuteged informas not put tohe ISTQB sts in the bestvide (on the pin their profeand promoton of the procolleagues, ae practice ofnnalestings Boardar-2011tesation. Aates theinterestsproductsessionale anofessionandtheir
  21. 21. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2. TCycleLearniThe obje2.1 SofLO-2.1.1LO-2.1.2LO-2.1.32.2 TesLO-2.2.12.3 TesLO-2.3.1LO-2.3.2LO-2.3.3LO-2.3.4LO-2.3.52.4 MaLO-2.4.1LO-2.4.2LO-2.4.3fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTestinge (K2)ing Objecectives identiftware Dev1 Explain tdevelopm2 Recogniof projec3 Recall chst Levels (1 Comparetypical tawho testst Types (1 Comparerelated)2 Recogni3 Identify a(K2)4 Identify aor archite5 Describeintenance1 Comparewith resp2 Recogni(K1)3. DescribeeryllabusQualifications Boardg Througctives forfy what youvelopmenthe relationsment life cycze the fact thct and producharacteristics(K2)e the differenargets of testt, types of deK2)e four softwaby exampleze that functand describeand describeecture (K2)e the purposee Testing (e maintenanpect to test tyze indicatorse the role of rghout thr Testingwill be able tnt Models (hip betweencle, by givinghat softwarect characteriss of good tesnt levels of teting (e.g., funefects and faare test types(K2)tional and stre non-functioe test types be of confirma(K2)ce testing (teypes, triggers for maintenregression tePage 21 ofhe SoftwThroughoto do followin(K2)developmenexamples usdevelopmenstics (K1)sting that areesting: majornctional or stilures to be ids (functional,ructural testsonal test typebased on theation testingesting an exis for testingnance testingesting and im78ware Lifout the Sng the complnt, test activitsing project ant models mue applicable tr objectives,tructural) anddentified (K2, non-functios occur at anes based on ne analysis of aand regresssting systemand amountg (modificatiompact analysQfe 1Software Lletion of eachties and worand productust be adapteto any life cytypical objecd related wor2)nal, structuray test level (non-functiona software syion testing (Km) to testing aof testing (Kon, migrationis in maintenInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma115 minLife Cycleh module.k products intypes (K2)ed to the conycle model (Kcts of testing,rk products,al and changK1)al requiremeystem’s strucK2)a new applicK2)and retiremnance (K2)nalestings Boardar-2011utesen thentextK1),peoplege-entsctureationent)
  22. 22. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.1TermsCommerverificatiBackgrTesting dDifferent2.1.1AlthoughcorrespoThe fouro Como Intego Systo AcceIn practicdependinintegratioSoftwaredesign dmore tes(CMMI) otest desi2.1.2Iterative-and testiApplicatisystem titeration.which shfirst one.2.1.3In any lifo For eo Eacho Thedeveo TestdeveTest levearchitectproductfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QSoftwarcial Off-The-on, V-modelrounddoes not exist developmenV-modelh variants ofonding to ther levels usedmponent (unitgration testintem testingeptance testice, a V-modeng on the proon testing afte work produdocuments anst levels. Refor ‘Softwaregn) can be cIterative--incrementaling a systemion Developmthat is produc. An incremehould also be. VerificationTesting wfe cycle modevery develoh test level hanalysis andelopment actters should belopment lifeels can be coture. For exainto a systemeryllabusQualifications Boardare Deve-Shelf (COTSst in isolationnt life cycle m(Sequentthe V-modele four developin this syllabt) testingngingel may haveoject and theter componeucts (such asnd code) proferences for glife cycle procarried out du-incremendevelopmenm in a series oment (RAD),ced using theent, added toe tested. Regand validatiowithin a Lel, there areopment activihas test objecd design of tetivitybe involved incycleombined or rample, for them, the purchaelopmenS), iterative-in; test activitimodels needial Develol exist, a compment levelsbus are:more, fewere software prent testing, ans business scoduced duringeneric workocesses’ (IEEuring the devntal Develont is the procof short deveRational Unese models mothers devegression teston can be caife Cycle Mseveral chaity there is actives specifiests for a givn reviewing dreorganized de integrationaser may perPage 22 ofnt Modelincrementalies are related different apopment Mommon type ofs.r or differentroduct. For end system incenarios or ug developmek products inEE/IEC 1220velopment ofopment Mcess of estabelopment cycnified Processmay be testeeloped previoing is increasarried out onModel (K2racteristics ocorrespondiic to that leveven test leveldocuments adepending oof a Commerform integra78s (K2)developmened to softwarproaches toodel) (K2)f V-model uslevels of devxample, therntegration tesuse cases, reent are oftenclude Capab07). Verificatf the softwareodels (K2blishing requicles. Exampls (RUP) anded at severalously, forms asingly importeach increm2)of good testinng testing acelshould begias soon as drn the natureercial Off-Theation testing aQt model, valire developmetesting.ses four testvelopment anre may be costing after syequirements sthe basis ofbility Maturityion and valide work produ)irements, dees are: protoagile develotest levels da growing patant on all itement.ng:ctivityin during therafts are avaof the projece-Shelf (COTat the systemInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma20 minutdation,ent activitieslevels,nd testing,omponentystem testingspecificationf testing in ony Model Integdation (and eucts.signing, buildotyping, Rapopment modeduring eachartial systemerations aftercorrespondiilable in thect or the systTS) softwarem level (e.g.,nalestings Boardar-2011tes.g.ns,ne orgrationearlydingidels. A,r theingtem
  23. 23. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationaintegratio(functionfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qon to the infrnal and/or noeryllabusQualifications Boardrastructure aon-functional,nd other sys, and user anPage 23 oftems, or sysnd/or operati78stem deploymonal testing)Qment) and ac).InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Macceptance tesnalestings Boardar-2011sting
  24. 24. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.2TermsAlpha teintegratiotest enviBackgrFor eachproduct(being tesand specTesting a2.2.1Test baso Como Detao CodeTypical to Como Progo Datao DataComponverifies ttestable.developmComponsuch asstructuraspecificaTypicallydevelopmtesting uthey areOne appcalled abased onexecutinfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTest Lesting, beta teon, integratioronment, tesroundh of the test ls) being refested), typicalcific approaca system’s cComponsis:mponent requailed designetest objects:mponentsgramsa conversionabase modulnent testing (athe functionin. It may be doment life cycnent testing mresource-beal testing (e.gation of the cy, componenment environusually involvfound, withoproach to comtest-first appn cycles of dg the compoeryllabusQualifications Boardevels (Kesting, compon testing, nost level, test-devels, the foerenced for dl defects andches and resonfigurationent Testinuirements/ migration pesalso known ang of, softwaone in isolatile and the symay include thavior (e.g.,g., decision component, tht testing occnment, suchves the progrout formally mmponent testproach or teseveloping teonent tests coK2)ponent testingon-functionaldriven develollowing can bderiving test cd failures to bponsibilities.data shall beng (K2)programsas unit, moduare modules,ion from theystem. Stubstesting of funsearching focoverage). Tehe softwarecurs with acceas a unit tesrammer whomanaging theting is to prest-driven deveest cases, theorrecting anyPage 24 ofg, driver, fieldl requiremenopment, usebe identifiedcases (i.e., thbe found, tese consideredule or prograprograms, orest of the sys, drivers andnctionality anor memory leest cases aredesign or theess to the cot frameworkwrote the coese defects.pare and autelopment. Then building ay issues and78d testing, funnt, robustnesser acceptance: the generiche test basisst harness red during testam testing) sobjects, classystem, deped simulatorsnd specific noeaks) or robue derived froe data modeode being tesor debugginode. Defectstomate test chis approachnd integratiniterating untQnctional requs testing, stue testingc objectives, ts), the test obquirements aplanning,earches for dses, etc., thanding on themay be usedon-functionalustness testinom work prodl.sted and withg tool. In prare typicallycases beforeh is highly iteng small piectil they pass.InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma40 minutuirement,ub, system tethe workbject (i.e., whand tool suppdefects in, ant are separate context of td.l characteristng, as well asducts such ash the supportactice, compy fixed as sooe coding. Thisrative and isces of code, analestings Boardar-2011tesesting,hat isport,ndtelyhetics,ss at of aponenton ass issand
  25. 25. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.2.2Test baso Softwo Archo Woro UseTypical to Subso Datao Infrao Intero SystIntegratiosystem,There mvarying s1. Comafter2. SysthardorgaBusiissueThe greacomponeSystemabottom-uor compobe incremTesting otesting aAt eachare integthe modutesting. BIdeally, ttests areorder reqfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QIntegratiosis:ware and syshitecturekflowscasestest objects:systemsabase implemastructurerfacestem configuraon testing tesuch as theay be more tsize as followmponent integr componenttem integratiodware and soanization mayness proceses may be siater the scopent or systematic integratioup), functionaonents. In ormental ratheof specific noas well as funstage of integrating moduules, not theBoth functiontesters shoule planned bequired for moeryllabusQualifications Boardon Testingstem designmentationation and costs interfaceoperating sythan one levws:gration testintestingon testing teoftware and my control onlysses implemeignificant.pe of integratm, which mayon strategiesal tasks, tranrder to easeer than “big bon-functionalnctional testinegration, testeule A with mofunctionalitynal and strucd understandfore componost efficient tg (K2)nfiguration ds between cystem, file syvel of integratng tests the insts the interamay be doney one side ofented as wortion, the mory lead to incrmay be basnsaction procfault isolationang”.l characteristng.ers concentrodule B theyy of the indivictural approad the architenents or systetesting.Page 25 ofdataomponents,ystem and hation testing anteractions bactions betwee after systemf the interfacrkflows maye difficult it breased risk ased on the sycessing sequn and detecttics (e.g., perate solely onare interesteidual moduleches may beecture and infems are buil78interactionsardware, andand it may bebetween softween differentm testing. Ine. This mighinvolve a serbecomes to isand additionaystem architeuences, or sot defects earlrformance) mn the integrated in testinge as that wase used.fluence integt, those comQwith differeninterfaces be carried outware compot systems orthis case, thht be consideries of systemsolate defectal time for troecture (suchome other asly, integrationmay be includtion itself. Fothe communs done duringgration plannmponents canInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mant parts of abetween syston test objeconents and isbetweene developingered as a riskms. Cross-plts to a specifoubleshootingas top-downspect of the sn should norded in integror example, ifnication betwg componentning. If integran be built in thnalestings Boardar-2011tems.cts ofs donegk.atformficg.n andsystemrmallyrationf theyweentationhe
  26. 26. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.2.3Test baso Systo Useo Funco RiskTypical to Systo SystSystem tbe clearlIn systemenvironmbeing fouSystem tprocesseinteractioSystem tdata quarequiremspecificadecisionbased terespect tAn indep2.2.4Test baso Usero Systo Useo Busio RiskTypical to Busio Opeo Usero Formo Repoo ConfAcceptastakeholThe goaspecificacceptanfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QSystem Tsis:tem and softwcasesctional specifk analysis reptest objects:tem, user antem configuratesting is conly addressedm testing, thement as mucund in testingtesting mayes, use caseons with thetesting shouality charactements. Systemation-based (table may bechniques (wto a structurapendent testAcceptansis:r requirementem requiremcasesness procesk analysis reptest objects:ness procesrational andr proceduresmsortsfiguration dance testing isders may bel in acceptannon-functionnce testing. AeryllabusQualifications BoardTesting (Kware requireficationportsd operation mation and concerned withd in the Maste test environh as possibleg.include testses, or other hoperating syld investigateeristics. Testem testing of f(black-box) tebe created fowhite-box) maal element, steam often cnce Testinntsmentsssesportssses on fullymaintenancesatas often the ree involved asnce testing isal characteriAcceptance tK2)ement specifimanualsnfiguration dh the behavioer and/or Levnment shoule in order tos based on riigh level textystem, and sye functional aers also needfunctional reechniques for combinatioay then be ussuch as menucarries out syng (K2)integrated sye processesesponsibilitys well.s to establishistics of the stesting mayPage 26 ofcationdataor of a wholevel Test Pland correspondminimize thesks and/or ot descriptionsystem resouand non-funcd to deal withquirements sor the aspectns of effectssed to assesu structure oystem testingystemof the custoh confidencesystem. Findassess the s78system/prodn for that tesd to the finale risk of envion requiremes or modelsrces.ctional requirh incompletestarts by usint of the systes described inss the thorouor web page ng.mers or userin the systemding defects isystem’s readQduct. The test level.target or proronment-spents specificaof system berements of the or undocumng the most aem to be testen business rughness of thnavigation (srs of a systemm, parts of ths not the madiness for deInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Masting scope soductionecific failuresations, busineehavior,he system, amentedappropriateed. For examules. Structuhe testing witsee Chapterm; otherhe system orain focus ineployment annalestings Boardar-2011shalls notessndmple, are-h4).rnd
  27. 27. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationause, althintegratioAcceptao A COo Acceo AcceTypical fUser accTypicallyOperatioThe acceo Testo Disao Usero Maino Datao PerioContracContractcustom-dcontract.to, suchAlpha aDevelopcustomeis perforfield-testOrganizatesting fofied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qhough it is noon test may cnce testing mOTS softwareptance testieptance testiforms of acceceptance tey verifies theonal (accepteptance of thting of backuaster recoverr managementenance tasa load and modic checksct and regulat acceptancedeveloped so. Regulationas governmend beta (orers of markeers in their mamed at the dting, is perforations may uor systems theryllabusQualifications Boardot necessarilycome after thmay occur ate product maing of the usaing of a neweptance testiestingfitness for utance) testinhe system byup/restoreryentsksmigration taskof security vation accepte testing is peoftware. Accacceptanceent, legal orfield) testinget, or COTS,arket beforedeveloping orrmed by custuse other termhat are testey the final levhe acceptanct various timeay be acceptability of a cofunctional ening include thse of the sysngy the systemksulnerabilitiestance testinerformed agaceptance critetesting is pesafety regulagsoftware oftethe softwarerganization’stomers or poms as well, sd before andPage 27 ofvel of testingce test for aes in the lifetance testedomponent mnhancementhe following:stem by busiadministratosngainst a contraeria should berformed agaations.en want to ge product is ps site but nototential custosuch as factod after being78. For exampsystem.cycle, for exawhen it is inay be done dt may come bness users.ors, includingact’s acceptabe defined whainst any reguet feedbackput up for saby the deveomers at theiory acceptancmoved to aQle, a large-scample:nstalled or intduring compbefore systemg:ance criteriahen the partiulations thatfrom potentiale commercialoping team.r own locatioce testing ancustomer’s sInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Macale systemtegratedonent testingm testingfor producinies agree to tmust be adhal or existingally. Alpha teBeta testingons.nd site accepsite.nalestings Boardar-2011ggtheheredgestingg, orptance
  28. 28. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.3TermsBlack-bomaintainstress teBackgrA groupon a speA test typo A funo A noo Theo Chafor uA modelmodel orsecurityor a plain2.3.1The funcproductsbe undocFunctiontesters) atests forSpecificafunctionabehaviorA type ofdetectioninteroperspecified2.3.2TestingNon-functesting, utesting oNon-functhe testsvarying squality mfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTest Tyox testing, conability testingesting, structuroundof test activiecific reasonpe is focusednction to beon-functionalstructure ornge related,unintended chof the softwr menu structhreat moden language sTesting octions that as such as a recumented. Tnal tests areand their intecomponentsation-based tality of the sor of the softwf functional tn of threats,rability testind componentTesting og) (K2)ctional testinusability testof “how” the sctional testins required toscale, such amodel such aeryllabusQualifications Boardypes (K2ode coverageg, performanural testing, uties can be aor target ford on a particperformed byquality chararchitecturei.e., confirmihanges (regrare may be dcture model),ling), and funspecification)of Functiosystem, subsequirementsThe functionsbased on funeroperabilitys may be bastechniques moftware or syware (black-besting, secusuch as virusng, evaluatests or systemsof Non-fung includes, bing, maintainsystem worksg may be pemeasure chaas responseas the one de2)e, functionalnce testing, pusability testaimed at veritesting.cular test objey the softwaacteristic, suof the softwaing that deferession testindeveloped anon-functionnctional testi).on (Functiosystem or cos specifications are “what” tnctions and fwith specificsed on a commay be usedystem (see Cbox testing).rity testing, inses, from mas the capabilis.nctional Sbut is not limnability testins.erformed at aaracteristicstimes for perefined in ‘SofPage 28 oftesting, interportability testing, white-boifying the sofective, whichreuch as reliabiare or systemects have beeng)nd/or used innal testing (eng (e.g., a ponal Testiomponent aren, use casesthe system dfeatures (desc systems, anmponent speto derive tesChapter 4). Funvestigates talicious outsity of the softSoftware Cited to, perfong, reliability tall test levelsof systems arformance teftware Engine78roperability testing, reliabiliox testingftware systemh could be anility or usabilmen fixed (conn structural tee.g., performarocess flow ming) (K2)e to performs, or a functiodoes.scribed in dond may be pecification).st conditionsunctional testhe functionsiders. Anothetware producCharacterisormance testtesting and p. The term nand softwareesting. Theseeering – SoftQesting, load tity testing, sem (or a part ony of the folloitynfirmation tesesting (e.g.,ance model,model, a statmay be desonal specificaocuments or uerformed at as and test cassting consides (e.g., a firewer type of funct to interactstics (Noning, load tesportability teson-functionae that can bee tests can btware ProduInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma40 minuttesting,ecurity testinof a system)owing:sting) and looa control flowusability mote transitioncribed in woation, or theyunderstood ball test levelsses from theers the externwall) relatingnctional testiwith one orn-functionting, stresssting. It is theal testing desquantified oe referencedct Quality’ (ISnalestings Boardar-2011tesg,basedokingwodelmodelrky mayby thes (e.g.,nalg tong,morealescribeson ad to aSO
  29. 29. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa9126). Nuses bla2.3.3Structuraused aftethroughCoveragpercentato test thChapterAt all tesbe usedtesting mStructuratesting le2.3.4After a ddefect hadefect) isRegressdiscovereither inperformebased onTests shtesting.Regressstructuraregressiofied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QNon-functionaack-box test dTesting oal (white-boxer specificatiassessmentge is the exteage of the itehose items th4.st levels, butto measuremay be basedal testing appevels (e.g., toTesting Rdefect is deteas been succs a developmsion testing isr any defectsthe softwareed when then the risk ofhould be repesion testing mal testing. Reon testing iseryllabusQualifications Boardal testing condesign technof Softwarx) testing mayon-based teof coverageent that a struems being cohat were missespecially inthe code covd on the archproaches cano business mRelated toected and fixecessfully remment activity,s the repeates introduced oe being testesoftware, ornot finding deatable if themay be perfoegression tesa strong cannsiders the eniques to accre Structuy be performchniques, ine of a type ofucture has beovered. If covsed to increan componentverage of elehitecture of thn also be apmodels or meo Changesed, the softwmoved. This inot a testinged testing ofor uncoveredd, or in anothits environmefects in softey are to be urmed at all test suites are rndidate for auPage 29 ofxternal behacomplish thature/Architemed at all testorder to helpstructure.een exerciseverage is notase coveraget testing andements, suchhe system, splied at systeenu structures: Re-testiware should bis called cong activity.an already ted as a resulther related oment, is chanftware that wused for confest levels, anrun many timutomation.78avior of the sot.ecture (Strt levels. Strup measure thed by a test s100%, thene. Coveragecomponenth as statemesuch as a calem, system ies).ng and Rebe re-tested tfirmation. Deested prograof the changor unrelated sged. The extas working pfirmation testnd includes fmes and geneQoftware andructural Tctural technihe thoroughnsuite, expresmore tests mtechniques aintegration teents or decisilling hierarchintegration oegressionto confirm thebugging (locam, after modge(s). Thesesoftware comtent of regrespreviously.ting and to aunctional, noerally evolveInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Main most caseesting) (Kiques are beness of testinsed as amay be desigare coveredesting, toolsons. Structuhy.r acceptanceTesting (hat the originacating and fixdification, todefects maymponent. It isssion testingssist regresson-functionale slowly, sonalestings Boardar-2011esK2)stnggnedincanraleK2)alxing ay besg issionand
  30. 30. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.4TermsImpact aBackgrOnce desystem,planningmade beoperatiosystem.ModificaemergenupgradeexposedMaintenatests of ttesting) imaintainMaintenaarchivingIn additioparts of trisk of thchangesDeterminused to hdeterminMaintenadomain kRefere2.1.3 CM2.2 Hetz2.2.4 Co2.3.1 Be2.3.2 Bl2.3.3 Be2.3.4 He2.4 Blacfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QMainteanalysis, mairoundeployed, a soits configurag of releasesetween plannnal system, aations includency changess, planned ud or discovereance testingthe new enviis also needened.ance testingg if long dataon to testingthe system the change, ths, maintenancning how thehelp decide hne the regresance testingknowledge aencesMMI, Craig, 2zel, 1988opeland, 200eizer, 1990, Back, 2001, ISeizer, 1990, Cetzel, 1988, Ick, 2001, CraeryllabusQualifications Boardnance Tntenance tesoftware systeation data, orin advance ined releasesand is triggee planned en, and changepgrade of Coed vulnerabifor migrationronment as wed when datafor the retirea-retention pewhat has behat have nothe size of thece testing me existing syshow much ression test suican be difficare not availa2002, Hetzel04, Myers, 19Black, 2001,SO 9126Copeland, 20IEEE STD 82aig, 2002, HeTesting (stingem is often inits environmis crucial forand hot fixered by modifnhancement ces of environommercial-Olities of the on (e.g., fromwell as of thea from anothement of a syeriods are reeen changedt been change existing sysay be done astem may beegression tesite.cult if specificable.l, 1988, IEEE979Copeland, 2004, Hetzel,29-1998etzel, 1988, IPage 30 of(K2)n service for yment are oftensuccessful mes. Maintenanfications, migchanges (e.gnment, such aOff-The-Shelfoperating sysone platforme changed soher applicatioystem may inquired., maintenancged. The scostem and to tat any or all taffected bysting to do. Tcations are oE 1220720041988IEEE STD 8278years or decn corrected,maintenancence testing isgration, or reg., release-baas planned of software, orstem.m to another)oftware. Migon will be mignclude the tece testing incope of maintethe size of thtest levels anchanges is cThe impact aout of date or29-1998Qades. Duringchanged ore testing. A ds done on antirement of thased), correcoperating sysr patches toshould incluration testinggrated into thesting of datacludes regreenance testinhe change. Dnd for any orcalled impactnalysis mayr missing, orInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma15 minutg this time thextended. Thistinction hasn existinghe softwarective andstem or datacorrect newlude operationg (conversionhe system bea migration ossion testingng is related tDepending onr all test typet analysis, anbe used totesters withnalestings Boardar-2011tesehes to beorbaseynalneingrg toto then thes.nd is
  31. 31. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa3. SLearniThe obje3.1 StaLO-3.1.1LO-3.1.2LO-3.1.33.2 RevLO-3.2.1LO-3.2.2LO-3.2.33.3 StaLO-3.3.1LO-3.3.2LO-3.3.3fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QStatic Ting Objecectives identiatic Techn1 Recognitechniqu2 Describeof softwa3 Explain ttypes ofcycle (K2view Proc1 Recall th2 Explain treview, w3 Explain tatic Analys1 Recall tyreviews2 Describe3 List typiceryllabusQualifications BoardTechniqctives forfy what youiques andze softwareues (K1)e the importaare work prothe differencdefects to be2)cess (K2)he activities,the differencwalkthroughthe factors fosis by Tooypical defectsand dynamice, using examcal code andues (K2r Static Tewill be able td the Testwork producance and valuducts (K2)ce between se identified, aroles and reces betweenand inspectior successfuols (K2)s and errorsc testing (K1mples, the tydesign defePage 31 of2)echniqueto do followinProcess (cts that can bue of considestatic and dynand the rolesponsibilitiesdifferent typeon (K2)l performancidentified by)ypical benefitects that may78sng the compl(K2)be examinedering static tenamic techniof these techs of a typicales of reviewsce of reviewsy static analyss of static any be identifiedQ6letion of eachby the differechniques foques, considhniques withformal revies: informal res (K2)sis and compnalysis (K2)d by static anInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma60 minuth module.rent staticor the assessdering objecthin the softwaew (K1)eview, technipare them tonalysis toolsnalestings Boardar-2011tessmenttives,are lifeicalo(K1)
  32. 32. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa3.1(K2)TermsDynamicBackgrUnlike dythe manuproject dReviewsbefore dfound inthe execA reviewmanual aproduct cplans, teBenefitsimprovemreductionin requireReviewsare comefficientlthan theTypical dstandardspecificafied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QStatic Tc testing, statroundynamic testinual examinatdocumentatios are a way oynamic test erequirementcuting code.w could be doactivity is to ecan be revieest specificatof reviews inments, reducns, fewer defements, whics, static analyplementary;y. Comparedfailures themdefects that ads, requiremeations.eryllabusQualifications BoardTechniqtic testingng, which reqtion (reviewson without thof testing softexecution. Dts) are oftenone entirely aexamine a wwed, includinions, test casnclude earlyced developmfects and imch are unlikeysis and dynathe differentd to dynamicmselves.are easier toent defects, dues andquires the exs) and autome executiontware work pDefects detecmuch cheapas a manualwork productng requiremeses, test scridefect detecment timescaproved commely to be founamic testingtechniquesc testing, statfind in reviedesign defecPage 32 ofd the Tesxecution of somated analysiof the code.products (inccted during reper to removeactivity, butand make coents specificaipts, user guction and corales, reducedmunication. Rnd in dynamihave the sacan find diffetic techniquews than in dcts, insufficie78st Proceoftware, statis (static analuding code)eviews earlye than thosethere is alsoomments abations, desigides or webrrection, deved testing cosReviews canc testing.me objectiveerent types oes find causeynamic testinent maintainaQessic testing tecalysis) of the) and can bein the life cydetected bytool supportout it. Any sogn specificatipages.elopment prost and time, lin find omissioe – identifyingof defects effes of failuresng include: dability and incInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma15 minutchniques relycode or otheperformed wycle (e.g., defy running testt. The mainoftware workons, code, teoductivityifetime costons, for examg defects. Thectively and(defects) ratdeviations frocorrect interfanalestings Boardar-2011tesy onerwellfectsts onkestmple,heyheromace
  33. 33. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa3.2TermsEntry criscribe, teBackgrThe differeviewerdocumenfactors sneed forThe waygain undconsens3.2.1A typical1. Plan• D• S• A• D• S• C2. Kick• D• E3. Indiv• P• N4. Exam• D• Na• Eg5. Rew• F• R6. Follo• C• G• C3.2.2A typicalo Mandetefied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QReviewteria, formalechnical revirounderent types ors, to systemnted procedusuch as the mr an audit traiy a review isderstanding,sus).Activitiesl formal revienningDefining theSelecting theAllocating roDefining theSelecting whChecking enk-offDistributing dExplaining thvidual preparPreparing foNoting potenmination/evaDiscussing oNoting defecabout the deExamining/egroup electroworkFixing defectRecording uow-upChecking thaGathering mChecking onRoles anl formal revieager: decideermines if theeryllabusQualifications Boardw Procesreview, inforew, walkthroof reviews vaatic, charactures for condmaturity of thil.carried out deducate tests of a Formew has the foreview critere personnelolesentry and exhich parts ofntry criteria (fdocumentshe objectivesrationr the reviewntial defects,aluation/recoror logging, wcts, making reefectsevaluating anonic communts found (typpdated statuat defects haetricsn exit criteriand Responew will includes on the exee review objess (K2)rmal review,oughry from informterized by teaducting the ree developmedepends on tters and newmal Revieollowing mainriaxit criteria fordocuments tfor more forms, process anmeeting by rquestions anrding of resuith documenecommendad recordingnicationspically done bs of defectsave been add(for more fornsibilitiesde the roles becution of revectives havePage 33 ofinspection, mmal, charactam participateview. The foent process,the agreed ow team membew (K1)n activities:r more formato reviewmal review tynd documentreviewing thend commentults (review mted results oations regardissues duringby the author(in formal redressedrmal review t(K1)below:views, allocabeen met.78metric, modeerized by notion, documeormality of aany legal orbjectives of tbers, or discual review typepes)ts to the parte document(tsmeeting)or minutes (foing handlingg any physicr)views)types)ates time in pQerator, peer ro written instrented resultsreview proceregulatory rethe review (eussion and des (e.g., inspicipantss)or more formthe defects,cal meetingsproject schedInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma25 minutreview, reviewructions fors of the reviewess is relatedequirementse.g., find defedecision bypections)mal review typmaking decor tracking adules andnalestings Boardar-2011teswer,w, andd tos or theects,pes)cisionsany
  34. 34. CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationao Modplanmodthe so Autho Reviinspethe proleso ScribdurinLookingchecklistperspectproblems3.2.3A singlemore thacarried ospecificaof commInformao No foo Mayo Resuo Varieo MainWalkthro Meeo Mayo Ope• O• Oo Optioo Mayo MainTechnico Docuoptioo Mayo Ideao Pre-o Optioo Prepsoftwfindio Mayo Maintechstanfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qerator: the pning the revierator may msuccess of thhor: the writeiewers: indivectors) who,product undes in the reviebe (or recordng the meetinat software pts can maketives such ass may help toTypes ofsoftware proan one type oout before a tation before amon review tyl Reviewormal procestake the formults may be des in usefulnn purpose: inrougheting led by atake the formn-ended sesOptional preOptional preonal scribe (vary in pracn purposes:cal Reviewumented, deonal managebe performeally led by trameeting preponal use of cparation of aware productngsvary in pracn purposes:nical problemdardseryllabusQualifications Boardperson who leiew, runningmediate betwhe review resr or person wviduals with aafter the neer review. Reew process, ader): documeng.products or rreviews mors user, mainto uncover prf Reviewsoduct or relatof review is utechnical reva walkthrougypes are:ssm of pair prodocumentedness dependinexpensive wauthorm of scenarissions-meeting preparation of awho is not thctice from quilearning, gaefined defect-ement participed as a peerined moderaparation by rchecklistsreview report meets its rectice from quidiscussing,ms and checeads the revthe meetingween the varsts.with chief resa specific teccessary prepeviewers shoand should taents all the isrelated workre effective atainer, testerreviously und(K2)ted work proused, the ordview, or an ingh with custoogramming oing on the reway to get soos, dry runs,eparation of ra review repohe author)ite informal tining unders-detection prpationreview withoator (not the areviewersrt which incluequirementsite informal tmaking deciscking conformPage 34 ofiew of the do, and followinious points osponsibility fohnical or busparation, idenould be choseake part in assues, probleproducts froand efficient.r or operationdetected issuoduct may beder may varynspection mamers. The mor a technicaleviewersome benefit, peer groupreviewersort includingo very formastanding, findrocess that inout managemauthor)udes the listand, where ao very formasions, evaluamance to spe78ocument or sng-up after thof view and isor the documsiness backgntify and desen to represeny review meems and opeom different pFor examplens, or a checues.e the subjecty. For exampay be carriedmain charactelead reviewparticipationlist of findingalding defectsncludes peerment participof findings, tappropriate,alating alternatecifications, pQset of documehe meeting.s often the pement(s) to beground (alsoscribe findingent differenteetings.n points thatperspectivese, a checklistcklist of typicaof more thanle, an informout on a reqeristics, optiowing designsngsrs and techniationthe verdict wrecommendtives, findingplans, regulaInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Maents, includinIf necessaryerson upon wreviewed.called checkgs (e.g., defeperspectivest were identifand usingt based on val requiremen one reviewmal review maquirementsons and purpand codeical experts whether theations relateg defects, solations, andnalestings Boardar-2011ngy, thewhomkers orects) ins andfiedvariousntsw. Ifay beposeswithed tolving

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