Objectives • At the end of this module, you will be able to: o Discuss HR as a profession o List the skills required for an HR professional o Describe different HR jobs existing today o Explain what job description is o List some important terms similar to job description
Topics• In this module, we will focus on the following topics: o HR as a Profession o Jobs in HR o Job Description o Terminologies Similar to Job Description o Summary
HR as Profession In this topic, we will discuss the features of HR role. We will also go through the skills required for an HR professional.
Features of the HR Role • Features of HR Role: o Skills Required o Involvement of Human Dynamics o Vagaries of Human Nature o Creates Unique Flavour o Continuous Improvement o Collaborative Efforts
Features of the HR Role(Contd.) • Skills Required: • All HR jobs require the following skills: • People skills • People management • Strategic planning ability • Conceptual and implementing abilities • Knowledge about current trends and best practices • Know-how about the related legislations • Industry knowledge • Involvement of Human Dynamics: o It is a complex as well as a mature mechanism as it involves human dynamics at a micro-level and all the way to the macro level.
Features of the HR Role(Contd.)• Vagaries of Human Nature: o The vagaries of human nature all come out and are especially conspicuous during the racing pace of the day-to-day working life.• Creates Unique Flavour: o The mixing of different languages, cultures, skills and origins contribute to people’s character, ethics, creativity and social connections, and thus alter the characterization of a workplace. o They thus impact the corporate culture and make its unique flavours at the organisational level.
Features of the HR Role(Contd.) • Continuous Improvement: o To be successful in this fast paced and competitive environment, it has become necessary for the HR management to: o Continuously and rigorously improve quality and quantity. • Eliminate the redundancies and wastages. • Drive for nothing less than excellence in every area. • Collaborative Efforts: o The collective, collaborative efforts of employees and employers are both required.
Word of Caution! • HR is a rewarding experience. • It is a sensitive and strategic role. • A HR professional should be familiar with the business strategy. • HR is tailored according to the business vision and goals. • HR professionals should never think of HR in isolation.
Skills of the HR Professional• Skills of HR Professionals: o Organising Ability o Multitasking o Business Ethics and Professional Discretion o Employee Trust o Fairness o Team Orientation• Organising Ability: o Organising skill is one of the key abilities required to be a successful HR professional. o Organised files, strong time management skills and personal efficiency are mandatory to the HR function.
Skills of the HR Professional(Contd.)• Multitasking: o As an HR professional you must be capable of accomplishing multiple tasks with ease. o You may have to deal with multiple responsibilities at the same time. o Priorities and business needs change fast and you need to keep up with it. o You need to be able to juggle it all, and very well.• Business Ethics and Professional Discretion: o HR professionals are the conscience of the company. o They maintain records of all employee related confidential information. o They monitor employee approaches to ensure proper ethics are observed.
Skills of the HR Professional(Contd.) • Employee Trust: o Employees expect their human resources representatives to advocate for their concerns and bring pertinent and necessary issues to the management’s notice. o This is a delicate balancing act as the HR representative is the eyes and ears of the management and is working in the interests of the company and its goals. • Fairness: o HR professionals must have a fair temperament. o This means: • Communication should be clear • Employees’ voices should be heard • Their suggestions should be upheld • Laws and policies are followed • Privacy and respect is well maintained
Skills of the HR Professional(Contd.) • Team Orientation: o HR professionals must: o Be team players o Understand team dynamics o Find ways to bring disparate personalities together o Make the team work
Jobs in HR In this topic, we will discuss various job functions in HRD.
Introduction • Following are the different HR jobs existing today: o HR Specialist o HR Assistant o HR Executive o HR Generalist o Human Resources Manager o HR Director/VP- HR o HR Consultant (Recruitments)
HR Specialist • This job is usually for specific HR functions like: o Benefit Analysts o Recruitment Executive • For an entry level position for the HR aspirant, the duties of this job mostly consist coordinating and executing the processes that are formulated. • Some job roles would be: o Taking preliminary interviews o Calculating salaries o Analysing jobs o Analysing compensation o Coordinating various training programmes • In case of large companies, there will be promotions, within the specialised function, if handled well till then.
HR Assistant• An HR assistants job is supportive in nature and involves general HR duties such as: o File and database maintenance o Generating various reports regarding employees’ performances o Other HR-related functions• As an HR assistant, one would be expected to interact daily with employees to: o Answer their questions and requests o Assist in the recruiting process by verifying employment histories o Schedule meetings and interviews o In addition, an HR assistant would also be expected to provide clerical support to the HR department.
HR Assistant (Contd.)• HR assistant jobs also involve the management and maintenance of employee personnel files and all requests pertaining to employment verification and reporting.• An HR admin officer is responsible for: o Overall administration of HR policies o Employee benefits o Employee training programmes• Some responsibilities include: o Responding to employee and management inquiries regarding HR policies framework o Ensuring proper benefits administration o Screening and interviewing applicants o Conducting orientations during hiring or recruitment o Taking care of human resources communications and employee relations
HR Executive• The HR executive oversees the lower to middle management issues related to human resources.• An HR executive has to: o Ensure proper training for managers and supervisors o Oversee the payroll functions and transactions o Ensure timely entry of data in the appropriate system, including employee information pertaining to joining date, leave transfers, salary structure, additional benefits, and allowances• Details of position classification, recruitment, and employee selections are also accomplished by the HR executives.• The HR executive provides and disseminates employer information, counsels, informs and advises employees in benefit selection with the help of statistics.
HR Generalist• An HR generalist manages all human resources activities required for a company’s staff.• This position requires experience in managing HR processes for an organisation of similar size and dynamics.• For example, if it is a large IT company like Infosys or Wipro, recruitment drives for them mean recruiting large numbers and with targets that can be anywhere between 50 to 100 new hires per month.• So the HR generalist has to have experience in: o Screening candidates o Coordinating interviews with hiring managers HR Generalist o Managing post-interview correspondence in large numbers with expertise and with a great emphasis on speedy delivery
HR Generalist (Contd.) • The other responsibilities of a generalist profile would be: o Process improvement within the organisation. • For example, title normalization, performance improvement initiatives or making training plans for defining career paths for the chosen ones on the basis of their performances. • Direct support to the management and employees. • For example, support is in the form of: o Managing the employee database and maintaining skill inventories o Handling employee relationship issues o Payroll administration o Confidential compensation and benefits information HR o Terminations Generalist o Employee performance evaluations o Process improvements
HR Manager • A human resources manager is responsible for managing the human resources of a company. • He or she would have a team of executives or specialists who would be involved in specific tasks. • The HR manager would be responsible for: o Supervising the posting of job advertisements o Screening resumes and applications o Setting up interviews • The HR manager determines the vendors like: o Recruiters o Trainers o Bankers o Facilitators o Clients
HR Manager(Contd.) • He / she would be in charge of confidential records of employees. • He/she would personally oversee the employee issues and complaints across the region, branch or organisation depending on the scope required. • The HR manager is responsible for implementing various HR strategies and new initiatives. • He / She would intermediate between departments and their respective heads. Departments Respective Heads
HR Director/VP- HR• An HR director is a member of the executive management team. He/she assumes overall responsibility for the management of HR-related functions.• An HR directors job may involve orchestrating the following to support and implement the needs of the: o Business o People o Teams o Structures o Processes o Resources• In general, an HR director: o Works with high-level managers to develop strategic HR initiatives that fit with business strategies o Anticipates business challenges and opportunities o Leads and manages change o Achieves business and organisational objectives
HR Director/VP- HR (Contd.) The HR director may: o Conduct gap analyses and collaborate with research and development o Introduce, lead, and influence change management initiatives with organisational leaders in order to address issues that will enhance overall performance o Provide strategic direction to ensure alignment between business unit objectives and rewards programmes o Partner with senior business unit leadership in developing strategic workforce plans, which may include the reallocation or reduction of staff
HR Consultant (Recruitments) • The position of the HR consultant involves all aspects of recruitment, including advertising, interviewing, and reference checking. • The job of an HR consultant is a basic HR role and usually involves a variety of general HR activities, such as: o Recruitment o Performance management o Employee relations • Sometimes HR consultant positions require assessment of overall company requirements with respect to: o Training needs o Sourcing of appropriate training programmes o Assessment of individual development needs
HR Consultant (Recruitments) (Contd.) • HR consultants are usually associated with private HR firms or work under contract for companies that outsource their HR and recruitment work to them. • To obtain an HR consultant job, one should be a college graduate with adequate experience as an HR assistant and/or a management degree.
Job Description In this topic we will discuss about job description.
What is a Job? • The description of a job is called as job description. • A Job Description (JD) is an important document for HR as it assesses the worth of a job/task for any position. Therefore let us discuss this further. • A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. • Jobs have titles. E.g. Accounting, tele-calling etc. • A task is typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g. writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. • Complex positions in the organisation may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions.
What is Job Description? • Job description is a written outline of the main tasks of a job. • Principal components of a Job Description: o Purpose o Scope o Accountabilities o Tasks • Thus, a Job description is a list of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. • Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc.
Why Do You Need Job Description?• Writing job descriptions is an important step in planning a company’s staffing programmes.• Job descriptions form the foundation of many important processes such as: o Job postings o Recruitment o Selection o Setting expectations o Compensation o Training and performance management• Job descriptions give a brief overview of: o The job role o How it relates to your mission or vision o A list of key responsibilities, requirements and qualifications
Why Do You Need Job Description? (Contd.) • Job descriptions are important for: o Alignment of Staff Duties with Business Vision o Informed Hiring Decisions o Development of Interview Questions o Development of compensation Plans o A Basis for Performance Management Job Training and Postings Recruitment Selection Setting Compensation Performance Expectations Management
Why Do You Need Job Description? (Contd.) • Alignment of Staff Duties with Business Vision: o Job descriptions assist in making sure your staff duties align with your mission and vision. • Informed Hiring Decisions: o Job descriptions allow for making informed hiring decisions by developing recruiting strategies that clearly outline to applicants their role and responsibilities. • Development of Interview Questions: o When conducting interviews, job descriptions should form the foundation for the development of interview questions.
Why Do You Need Job Description? (Contd.)• Development of Compensation Plans: o Having clear job descriptions also allows for a basis on which to develop compensation plans that ensure jobs are being compensated in ways that reflect their levels of responsibility and qualification in the organisation.• A Basis for Performance Management: o When used as a means to communicate expectations, job descriptions can also be used as a basis for performance management. o For example, the employees then have a clear understanding of the responsibilities and duties that are required and expected of them.
Components of a Job Description• After discussing the importance of job descriptions, let us now see how to prepare a job description.• There are 5 components required to prepare a JD. They are: o Purpose: • The statement of strategic role o Dimensions Pertaining to the Post: • Control of resources and oversight of outcomes o Principal Accountabilities: • Six to eight main thrusts of activity o Nature and Scope: • Influencing capability of the post o Chart: • Showing where this post sits in the structure
Components of a Job Description (Contd.) • Job descriptions typically have the following sections: o Identification of the values that should be demonstrated by all staff o A list of the tasks or functions that need to be done o A description of the experience, knowledge, and skills required o A list of any special working conditions or minimum physical requirements • Each task, function or responsibility should start with an action verb that describes the activity in a way that clearly indicates what is expected.
Terminologies Similar to Job Description In this topic we will discuss some frequently used terminologies.
Some Terms • Following are the terminologies similar to job description: o Job evaluation o Job analysis o Job design o Job specification
Job evaluation • Job evaluation is a practical technique, designed to enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of one job relative to others. • It does not directly determine pay levels, but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs. • Job evaluation is essentially one part of a tripartite 1 analysis, which is collectively referred to as Job Study. Job Job Analysis Evaluation • The three parts are: o Job Analysis o Job Evaluation o Merit Rating • Any method ranking the relative worth of jobs which Merit can then be used as a basis for a remuneration Rating system.
Job evaluation(Contd.) • Job evaluation evaluates selected job factors, which are regarded as important for the effective performance of the job, according to definite methodology. • The resulting numerical grading can form the basis of an equitable structure of job grading. • The job grades may or may not be used for status or payment purposes. • Job evaluation can aid organisational problem solving as it highlights duplication of tasks and gaps between jobs and functions.
Some Principles of Job Evaluation • Following are the important principles of job evaluation: – Clearly defined and identifiable jobs must exist. These jobs will be accurately described in an agreed job description. – All jobs in an organisation will be evaluated using an agreed job evaluation method. – Job evaluators will need to gain a thorough understanding of the job. – Job evaluation is concerned with jobs, not people. – Job evaluation is based on judgment and is not scientific. – The real test of the evaluation results is their acceptability to all.
Job Analysis• Job analysis is the process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job.• Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.• An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. Recruitment & Determining Selection Training• While Job Analysis data may be collected from Needs various sources the product of the analysis is a Procedures description and specifications of the job, not a Purpose of description of the person. Job Analysis• Methods of Job Analysis may be used individually or in combination. Performance Review Compensation
Job Analysis (Contd.) • The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the job relatedness of employment procedures such as: o Recruitment & Selection Procedures o Determining Training Needs o Compensation o Performance Review • Recruitment & Selection Procedures: o Job Analysis can be used to identify or develop: o Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions o Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate o Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants o Interview questions o Selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests, oral tests, job simulations) o Applicant appraisal/evaluation forms o Orientation materials for applicants/new hires
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Determining Training Needs: • Job Analysis can be used in training/needs assessment to identify or develop: o Training content o Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training o Equipment to be used in delivering the training o Methods of training • Compensation: • Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: o Skill levels o Compensable job factors o Work environment o Responsibilities o Required level of education
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Performance Review: • Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: o Goals and objectives o Performance standards o Evaluation criteria o Length of probationary periods o Duties to be evaluated
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Now let us discuss the aspects of job that are analysed. • Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas: o Duties and Tasks o Environment o Tools and Equipment o Relationships Supervision o Requirements
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Duties and Tasks: • The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. • Information to be collected about these items may include: o Frequency o Duration o Effort o Skill o Complexity o Equipment o Standards
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Environment: • This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. • The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odours and temperature extremes. • There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as: o Noxious fumes o Radioactive substances o Hostile and aggressive people o Dangerous explosives • Tools and Equipment: • Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. • Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
Job Analysis (Contd.) • Relationships: • This includes: o Supervision given and received o Relationships with internal or external people • Requirements: • This includes the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to perform the job. • Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
Job Design • Job Design is defined as a work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. • Through job design, organisations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as: o Greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge o Responsibility of ones work • Following are the various techniques used in job design: o Job enlargement o Job enrichment o Job rotation • Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized.
Job Design(Contd.)• Job design helps to determine: o What tasks are done o How the tasks are done o How many tasks are done o In what order the tasks are done• Job design principles can address problems such as: o Work overload o Work under-load o Repetitiveness o Limited control over work o Isolation o Shift work o Delays in filling vacant positions o Excessive working hours o Limited understanding of the whole job process• Job design is sometimes considered as a way to help deal with stress in the workplace.
Job Design(Contd.)• Although there are many ways to carry out job design, the following stages are essential: o Assessment of Current Work Practices o Task Analysis o Design the Job• Assessment of Current Work Practices: o Is job design needed or feasible? o Discuss with the employees and supervisors involved to be clear about the process, or any changes or training that will be involved.• Task Analysis: o Examine the job and determine exactly what the tasks are. o Consider what equipment and workstation features are important for completing the tasks. o Identify problem areas.
Job Design(Contd.) • Design the Job: o Identify the methods for doing the work, work/rest schedules, training requirements, equipment needed and workplace changes. o Coordinate the different tasks so each one varies mental activities and body position. o Be careful not to under or overload the job. Design the Job Task AnalysisAssessment of CurrentWork Practices
Job Specification • A job specification describes the requirements a job holder needs to be able to perform the job satisfactorily. • These include: o Education and qualifications o Training and experience o Personal attributes/qualities • A job description describes the job, whereas a job specification describes the person needed to do the job. • A job specification can, therefore, form the basis for the selection of the most suitable person to fill the job. • The most common approach now used by recruiters is to use what are known as "competencies" to design the job specification.
Job Specification(Contd.)• Competencies might include some or all of the following: o Physical attributes • E.g. health, age, language skills o Attainments • E.g. education, relevant market experience, total industry experience, and ability to supervise/manage• Aptitudes Competencies o E.g. verbal reasoning, numerical aptitude• Interests o E.g. social activities, sporting activities• Personal circumstances Essential Desired o E.g. ability to work shifts, full or part time• Job specifications have to be prepared and used with great care. In particular, it is important to ensure that the list of essential or desired competencies does not lead to unlawful discrimination against potential employees.
Summary• In this topic, we learnt:• Some of the important features of HR role are: o Skills Required o Involvement of Human Dynamics o Vagaries of Human Nature o Unique Work Environment o Consistent Improvement o Collective Efforts• The role of HR is sensitive and strategic, so the HR professional should never consider themselves in isolation.• The skills required for HR professional are: o Organising Ability o Multitasking o Business Ethics and Professional Discretion o Employee Trust o Fairness o Team Orientation•
Congratulations! You have successfullycompleted the session ‘HR and You.’