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Camel sector in the somali regional state of ethiopia


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Camel sector in the somali regional state of ethiopia

  1. 1. General Overview of the Camel Sector in the Somali Regional State of Ethiopia By Grum Gebreyesus & Seid Mohammed Ali Presented on theStakeholder Workshop To Develop A Strategy For The Ethiopian Camel Sector February 22-23/2012 Jigjiga, Ethiopia
  2. 2. Map of Somali Regional State of Ethiopia• Map of SoRSE
  3. 3. Introduction•The Somali Regional State of Ethiopia (SoRSE) is situatedin SE Ethiopia•Total population: 4,439,147 , 85% are pastoralists•SoRSE accounts for about 50% of the total dry areas inEthiopia (FAO, 1998: EARO, 2000)•Prone to rainfall variability, extreme drought and floods•Dry-land areas can best be utilized through extensivepastoral systems
  4. 4. Introduction-------• Unpredictably variable environment -Somali pastoralists’ resilience strategy of heavily depending on the more drought- resistant CAMEL• Camels have efficient behavioural, anatomical and physiological adaption mechanisms• The camel “animal of food security” survive and produce in drought prone areas where other animals hardly survive
  5. 5. Introduction-------• Camels provide milk, meat transport, cash---• Camel plays vital role in food security and socio-cultural functions• However, the sector is underutilized• Holistic interventions are needed to make use of the huge camel resource in the SoRSE
  6. 6. Objectives• To present the current status and constraints of the camel sector in SoRSE• To indicate the status and major gaps within the education component pertaining to camel sector in SoRSE
  7. 7. The Status of Camel Sector in SoRSECamel Population of SoRSEInformation on camel population is scarceAvailable data are contradictory Inconsistency of camel population dataN Camel Population Sourceo1 2.9 million in SoRSE (IOSRS, 2002)2 In Ethiopia, the only species of farm AnGR reported as (IBC, 2004) increasing is the camel3 Camel population of five regions, was 0.44 million; (CSA, 2005/2006) 145,073 in SoRSE4 2.4 million in Ethiopia (FAO, 2010)
  8. 8. Status of Camel Sector------ Significance of Camel to Somali Pastoralists Eyassu (2009)Major Contribution RankMilk Production (staple diet + sale) 1stTransport (Mobility) 2ndMeat Production 3rdIncome from sale of camels 4thIndemnity 5th
  9. 9. Status of Camel Sector----- For the Somali pastoralists, the camel also has social and cultural valuesCamel ownership pattern Babile: pastoralists have 1-150 camels (average-=14) Kebribeyah: 1-112 camels (average=20)Productivity and Production Status: – Reproduction, – Milk – Meat
  10. 10. Reproduction• Mean age at first mating: Mehari et al., (2007) – Male: 5.8 years – Female: 4.9-5.0 years• Gestation Period: 355 -389 days –ILCA (1981)• Average birth weight: 35-40 kilograms• Parturition Intervals: 19 mos (12-22 ) Kebebew (1998)• Total Lifetime Production: 8-10/25-30 yrs (Farah, 204)
  11. 11. Milk ProductionAverage daily Lactation length Lactation yield Source yield (liters) (months) (liters) 3- 5 15 to 18 1,244- 2,009 Tezera (1998) 7.5±0.5 282±10 days 2104±97 Baars & Kebebew (2005) 3- 6 15 - 18 1,500-2,500 Schwartz &Walsh (1992) 3.58-5.73 12 1,500- 2,500 Mehari et al (2007)
  12. 12. Camel Meat Live weights:Mehari et al. (2007): Male: 407-435 kg & Female: 377- 401kgTezera (1998): male: 384 -486 & female: 326- 427 kgDP: 54.03±5.13 (M) and 50.65±3.70 (F) Kurtu (2004)• Meat production potential: – Babilie: 230.02 - 240.28 kg (M) and 187.74 - 195.14 kg (F) – Kebribeyah: 214.77 - 225.03 kg (M) and 199.76 - 207.16 kg (F)• Higher AA and mineral contents and medicinal value for treating fracture, asthmatics, HIV, tuberculosis, and gastritis
  13. 13. Camel Production Constraints Constraints in the milk marketCamel production constraints chain Drought; Feed and water shortage • Very low milk yield Disease • Poor milk quality and hygiene • Poor support Marketing problems • Lack of marketing facilities Absence of genetic interventions • Unreliable milk market Poor social services • Weak linkages between RET users Lack of national/regional camel development strategy • Inadequate extension and training
  14. 14. Major Camel Diseases in SoRSE• Trypanosomiasis• Camel Pox• Mastitis• Internal parasites• External Parasites – Mange mites – Ticks – Flies
  15. 15. Status and Gaps in Camel Education Sector in SoRSE• The history of agricultural higher education in SoRSE dates back to 1999 with the establishment of Gode ATVET• Gode ATVET has diploma level programs in Animal Sciences, Plant Sciences and Natural resources• Agricultural higher education in the SRS was further strengthened by the establishment of Jigjiga University in 2007• JJU has launched degree and DVM programs in Animal and Range Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in 2008/09
  16. 16. Status and Gaps in Camel Education ….• Apart from the regular program, JJU launched Animal and Range Sciences in its CEP program at Jigjiga center and Diploma and Degree programs in in its distance education centers at Jigjiga, Gode and Filtu• The department of Animal and Range Sciences has so far graduated 100 graduates in 2 regular batches and 40 graduates in a CEP batch• The FVM will have its first graduates in 2012
  17. 17. Status and Gaps in Camel Education ….Courses addressing camel topics in JJURelated courses: Rangeland Management Program Courses with Camel Topics Credit hour Animal and Range Camel Production 3 Sciences Rangeland Management 3 Range Ecology 3 Veterinary Medicine Camel Health and Production 3
  18. 18. Status and Gaps in Camel Education ….• Despite the significance of the camel sector to the regional livelihood system, no exclusive program is launched in either Jigjiga University or Gode ATVET College• The number of courses included in the curricula that address camel topics are limited
  19. 19. Other LimitationsRelevance of Course contentVeterinary and animal science trainings in most EthiopianUniversities are modeled on the curricula of the developed worldMost topics covered in the camel production course content areadapted from intensive production systems of the Gulf States withlittle relevance to the extensive pastoral production systemsThe indigenous knowledge of pastoralists in camel production isnot incorporated and mainstreamed in the curricula
  20. 20. Other Limitations---- Human capacity and teaching materials• No MSc and PhD programs in Ethiopian Universities• Most instructors do not have practical exposure to pastoral camel production systems• Reference books in camel production are literally absent in the respective libraries of all Ethiopian public Universities
  21. 21. Other Limitations----• Limited budget for practical aspects of the courses Lack of Institutional linkage with research and development sectors• Courses delivered are not supplemented with on- farm/on-station findings of research or current state of the sector development in Ethiopian/Somali region context
  22. 22. Summary• In SoRSE the camel is a multipurpose animal providing milk, meat and transport power in addition to social and cultural functions• Due to various constraints the sector is not utilized to the potential –drought, disease, market problems, poor social services and lack of camel development strategy are responsible for the underutilization in the sector
  23. 23. Summary-----• Inadequacies exist in the current regional camel topics teaching institutions• Holistic and integrated interventions need to be in place- range development, disease control, market development, enhancing social services, etc• Regional /national camel development strategy should be established• The camel curricula should be revised and improvements made at all levels
  24. 24. THANK YOU!!