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Landmines and the Cold War
Introduction <ul><li>The Nadir (or Zenith of Landmine use occurred during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Landm...
What is a landmine? <ul><li>What distinguishes a Landmine from other weapons systems? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ‘victim’ o...
Why Landmines? <ul><li>Cheap, simple to make in makeshift facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use, little training requir...
Landmines: Historical Military Utility  <ul><li>Concept in war – ambush, surprise, to gain advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Use...
More history….. <ul><li>Development of gunpowder melds technology to concept </li></ul><ul><li>American Civil War </li></u...
Mines into 20 th  Century <ul><li>WW1 Static Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the tank </li></ul>
Lenin: People’s War doctrine <ul><li>“ This means that the toilers and oppressed peoples must always be ready to suppress ...
Into the Cold War <ul><li>Most wars Intra-state or ‘Civil Wars’ </li></ul><ul><li>Decolonisation of European Empires </li>...
Post 1945 <ul><li>Into the Cold War and landmine use changes significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Most sinister features: </li>...
Case Study: Cambodia <ul><li>French Indo-China 1868-1954 </li></ul>
SE Asian Conflict 1954-1975 <ul><li>Cambodia invaded by US </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Ripcord 30 th  April 1970 </li></ul>
Year Zero <ul><li>Pol Pot led Khmer Rouge regime 1975-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Country wide mine laying programme to control...
Impact  <ul><li>Perhaps 10 million mines were deployed in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Human – Physical Injury, trauma, unab...
How did the mines get there? <ul><li>Producer states </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied to Client States and armed groups  </li></...
Therefore….. <ul><li>Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) directly affect the  physical, psychosocial and economic well...
The response to landmine contamination   <ul><li>Humanitarian Mine Action since 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Mine Action in Cam...
Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) <ul><li>100% removal of landmines, UXO and metal content from a contaminated area </li></ul>
HMA saves lives, restores land
HMA methods <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation </li></ul><ul><li>Mine and UXO clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Stockp...
Use of technology <ul><li>Manual Clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>K-9 </li></ul>
Use of Celebrities….! <ul><li>Her ladyship…. </li></ul><ul><li>And Diana…. </li></ul>
Advocacy- Ottawa Treaty 1997 <ul><li>ICBL wins Nobel Peace prize 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa Anti-mines treaty signed 19...
Problems? <ul><li>Cheapness and ease of manufacture or improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid weapons –Cluster bombs </li>...
What is happening now <ul><li>Mine Action continues –  twenty years on since first interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Tools a...
Q an A <ul><li>Can landmines be successfully banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Should landmines be banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Are l...
Thanks for listening
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2009 April Landmines And Cold War For Rhodes

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2009 April Landmines And Cold War For Rhodes

  1. 1. Landmines and the Cold War
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Nadir (or Zenith of Landmine use occurred during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Landmines deployed in the ‘Hot’ Conflicts of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy: Challenges to Post-Conflict reconstruction and attrition of human populations </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a landmine? <ul><li>What distinguishes a Landmine from other weapons systems? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ‘victim’ or ‘target’ operated trap </li></ul><ul><li>It is Concept in War </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Landmines? <ul><li>Cheap, simple to make in makeshift facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use, little training required </li></ul><ul><li>Instill fear in attackers </li></ul><ul><li>Instill confidence in defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Force Multipliers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Landmines: Historical Military Utility <ul><li>Concept in war – ambush, surprise, to gain advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Use in siege warfare: Rochester castle England 1215 (Macbeth) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople 1453 </li></ul>
  6. 6. More history….. <ul><li>Development of gunpowder melds technology to concept </li></ul><ul><li>American Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Russo Japanese War </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mines into 20 th Century <ul><li>WW1 Static Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the tank </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lenin: People’s War doctrine <ul><li>“ This means that the toilers and oppressed peoples must always be ready to suppress their class enemies by military force An exploited class which does not strive to have weapons and which is not capable of using them and mastering the military art would be a servile class” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Into the Cold War <ul><li>Most wars Intra-state or ‘Civil Wars’ </li></ul><ul><li>Decolonisation of European Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War – fought by proxy </li></ul><ul><li>Light man portable weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly trained combatants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Post 1945 <ul><li>Into the Cold War and landmine use changes significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Most sinister features: </li></ul><ul><li>Terror use against civilian populations </li></ul><ul><li>Long term economic warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary - Population displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent - Ethnic cleansing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Case Study: Cambodia <ul><li>French Indo-China 1868-1954 </li></ul>
  12. 12. SE Asian Conflict 1954-1975 <ul><li>Cambodia invaded by US </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Ripcord 30 th April 1970 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Year Zero <ul><li>Pol Pot led Khmer Rouge regime 1975-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Country wide mine laying programme to control and terrorise the population </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese invade in 1979, conflict with NCR until 1991, more mine laying over twelve year period </li></ul>
  14. 14. Impact <ul><li>Perhaps 10 million mines were deployed in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Human – Physical Injury, trauma, unable to work, loss of esteem, refugees (IDPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – livestock destroyed, land unproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Critical infrastructure destroyed or rendered inaccessible to repair or maintain </li></ul>
  15. 15. How did the mines get there? <ul><li>Producer states </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied to Client States and armed groups </li></ul><ul><li>As Trade (and Aid) </li></ul><ul><li>Used as sweeteners in arms deals </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Local production </li></ul><ul><li>All results in - Deployment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Therefore….. <ul><li>Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) directly affect the physical, psychosocial and economic well being of individuals, families and communities living in conflict and former conflict areas </li></ul>
  17. 17. The response to landmine contamination <ul><li>Humanitarian Mine Action since 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Mine Action in Cambodia commences under UNTAC in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 64 countries world wide undertake Mine Action, most resulting from Cold War </li></ul>
  18. 18. Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) <ul><li>100% removal of landmines, UXO and metal content from a contaminated area </li></ul>
  19. 19. HMA saves lives, restores land
  20. 20. HMA methods <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation </li></ul><ul><li>Mine and UXO clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpile demolition </li></ul><ul><li>Mines awareness education </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul>
  21. 21. Use of technology <ul><li>Manual Clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>K-9 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Use of Celebrities….! <ul><li>Her ladyship…. </li></ul><ul><li>And Diana…. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Advocacy- Ottawa Treaty 1997 <ul><li>ICBL wins Nobel Peace prize 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa Anti-mines treaty signed 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Not signed by US, PRC, Russian Federation and others including Israel, Finland and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines used by two signatory countries after ratification –one being Cambodia </li></ul>
  24. 24. Problems? <ul><li>Cheapness and ease of manufacture or improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid weapons –Cluster bombs </li></ul><ul><li>New designations of landmines </li></ul><ul><li>Technology ahead of legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Non-signatory countries as manufacturers, users and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Political will </li></ul>
  25. 25. What is happening now <ul><li>Mine Action continues – twenty years on since first interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and interventions for treatment of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Long term impact of mine contamination </li></ul><ul><li>New Tools to enhance effectiveness of HMA interventions. (PCIA UNDP). </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping of Policy for interventions and HMA </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping the body of knowledge around HMA </li></ul><ul><li>Moving HMA closer to Development action </li></ul>
  26. 26. Q an A <ul><li>Can landmines be successfully banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Should landmines be banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Are landmines effective weapons ? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thanks for listening

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