Using a One Health Approach to Control Zoonotic Diseases: Tuberculosis as an Example

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by KANEENE, John B., Michigan State University

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Using a One Health Approach to Control Zoonotic Diseases: Tuberculosis as an Example

  1. 1. Using a One Health Approach to Control Zoonotic Diseases: Tuberculosis as an Example John B. Kaneene DVM, MPH, PhD, FAES Center for Comparative Epidemiology College of Veterinary Medicine Michigan State University
  2. 2. Overview  Zoonotic tuberculosis - the disease  The epidemiology of zoonotic tuberculosis  The One Health approach for the control of zoonotic Tuberculosis  Added value to the One Health approach  Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Zoonotic tuberculosis - The Disease  Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex bacteria •  Slow-growing, long incubation period  Acid-fast, obligate intracellular pathogens Zoonotic mycobacteria  M. tuberculosis  M. bovis  M. caprae  M. africanum 3
  4. 4. Zoonotic tuberculosis - The Disease  Hosts for mycobacteria • M. tuberculosis  Humans, primates, elephants, cattle,.. • M. bovis  Cattle, cervids, badgers, possums, human s, . . . 4
  5. 5. The Epidemiology of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Transmission of zoonotic TB • Modes of transmission  Inhalation of aerosols  Ingestion of food/water contaminated with mycobacteria  Direct Contact with broken skin or mucous membranes 5
  6. 6. The Epidemiology of Zoonotic Tuberculosis Cycle of Transmission Direct Contact Raw Milk Dairy Products Direct Contact Direct Contact Contaminated Feed Contaminated Water 6
  7. 7. The Epidemiology of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Control of Zoonotic TB • Reduce levels of disease • in reservoirs Break cycle of transmission  Vaccination  Biosecurity  Food and feed safety 7
  8. 8. The Epidemiology of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Developing Control Programs • Collect Data • Conduct Risk Assessment  Identify targets for control  Provides framework for assessing impact of control programs 8
  9. 9. Using the One Health approach for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Why One Health? • Complex epidemiology of zoonotic TB  Multiple hosts, routes of transmission • Role of environment and ecosystems  Increased interaction  Host susceptibility lewavet.wildlifedirect.org/files/2008/05/2-tn.jpg 9
  10. 10. Using One Health for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Why One Health? • Scope of disease control programs  Interdisciplinary & Interagency involvement  Geographic: Community, National, Regional • Transboundary movement • Wildlife & Ecosystems 10
  11. 11. Using One Health for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Why One Health? • Sharing Resources  Disease Surveillance & Control Programs  Research  Training & Education http://www.meridianmedcons.com/Tuberculi n2.asp 11
  12. 12. Using One Health for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Sharing Resources under One Health • Disease Surveillance & Control  Multiple Hosts  Improved Efficiency • Combined effort • Shared facilities and resources • Rapid communication between disciplines 12
  13. 13. Using One Health for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Sharing Resources under One Health • Interdisciplinary Research for New Control Strategies  Vaccine Development  Novel Diagnostic Tests  Epidemiology and Assessment  Socio-economic Analyses Risk 13
  14. 14. Using One Health for the control of Zoonotic Tuberculosis  Sharing Resources under One Health • • Interdisciplinary Training & Education  Raise Awareness  Control/prevention strategies Audiences  Academia  Stakeholders  Policy-makers 14
  15. 15. Added Value to the One Health Approach  Zoonotic TB illustrates how the One Health Approach can be used to improve the efficiency of disease control programs 15
  16. 16. Added Value to the One Health Approach  Zoonotic TB Control and One Health • Risk assessment for complex cycles of • • transmission Shared resources between human, animal, & ecosystem health Integrated human-animal-ecosystem surveillance & control programs 16
  17. 17. Conclusions  The value of the One Health approach for zoonotic TB • Integrated Approach  Humans  Animals  Ecosystems 17
  18. 18. Conclusions  The value of the One Health approach for zoonotic TB • Shared Resources  Data & Information  Facilities and Personnel • Increased Efficiency and Effectiveness of control programs 18
  19. 19. Acknowledgements  Global Risk Forum  Michigan State University 19
  20. 20. http://plaidalynanddeeside.blogspot.com/2011/04/bad ger-cull-order.html http://health.com.au/breast-milk-versus-formula/ http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/.a/6a00d8341c630a5 3ef01156f94ad26970c-800wi http://www.wildlifeextra.com/resources/listimg/ world/samburu_herder@body.jpg THANK YOU 20

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