<ul><li>Traffic in the Urban Environment:  </li></ul><ul><li>A “One Health” Challenge?   </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Nino Künz...
Traffic – an essential element of the urban eco-system
<ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><u...
Health toll of road traffic <ul><li>Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Road accidents: 9th- leading cause of death world wide (2.2% ...
Disability Adjusted Life Years (per 100‘000) due to road traffic accidents (2004, WHO) …  driving has become safer than wa...
…  and wrong trends despite knowledge about how to do better… <ul><li>Switzerland   (example for most  Western countries) ...
<ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><u...
Passive transport <ul><li>Time spent in traffic is </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physically inactive time  </li></ul></ul>...
Millions live in urban areas where urban planners assign ZERO SPACE TO PEOPLE = PEDESTRIANS !
 
Environ Int 2011
<ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><u...
Urban traffic – key source of noise <ul><li>High expenditures to cope with noise </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li>...
<ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><u...
Traffic relies on fossil fuel COMBUSTION      a main source of urban air pollution      a strong contributor to climate ...
Cardio-respiratory effects of Air Pollution Künzli & Tager, Swiss Medical Weekly, 2005 (free access online) <ul><li>LUNG <...
[email_address] PDF online at  www.ERSnet.org www.ersnet.org/publications/air-quality-and-health.html PDF is free : Englis...
Paradigm of spatial distribution of local traffic-related pollutants (such as nano-PM) along busy roads 0  100  200  300 m...
Adjusted prevalence [%] Adjusted prevalences (%) of respiratory health as a function of the residential distance from high...
Air pollutants (such as diesel soot) jeopardize defense mechanisms against INFECTIOUS DISEASES <ul><li>Viral and bacterial...
What if Barcelona air quality would comply with WHO guidelines…
The “silent every-day epidemic”  example: BARCELONA IMPACT ASSESSMENT:  Estimated benefit of a 30  μ g/m 3  reduction of P...
<ul><li>800‘000 Excess death due to ambient air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>65% in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial unde...
Switzerland, 1990 - 2010 40‘000 Mio km/yr 60‘000 Mio km/yr 70‘000 tons of NOx / yr 10‘000 tons of NOx / yr GDP: 30‘000 Mio...
Switzerland, 1990 - 2010 70‘000 tons of NOx / yr 10‘000 tons of NOx / yr NOx Emissions from traffic, per year Pollution & ...
NOx Emissions / yr Switzerland, 1990 – 2010 Air Pollution (PM10 concentrations)
SAPALDIA (done in adults; in Davos + 7 other Swiss locations) Primary funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Improveme...
Nevertheless: … wrong trends:  2005/1990-ratio of PM2.5 is >1.0 in the most populated regions of the world! Brauer et al, ...
Wrong trends…  2005/1990-ratio of Ozone (O 3 ) is >1.0 in many regions of the world… Brauer et al, Env Sci Tech 2011
Global crop yield losses in 2000 and 2030 due to ambient ozone  (based on conservative estimates)   Van Dingenen  et al , ...
<ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><u...
The long trail of eco-health hazards… of the fossil fuel based ‚transport economy‘…
…  under very ‚normal conditions‘
Risk of death and pneumonia in young cattle depends on ambient air quality (SO2) during the last 3 months before calving W...
<ul><li>E.g: actions </li></ul><ul><li>Speed limitations; road safety laws </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for pedestrian...
Thank you  [email_address] www.swisstph.ch Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute welcomes you in Basel:  Swiss TPH is...
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Traffic and the Urban Environment: A Health Challenge?

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GRF One Health Summit 2012, Davos: Presentation by Prof. Nino Künzli - Deputy Director - Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)

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Traffic and the Urban Environment: A Health Challenge?

  1. 1. <ul><li>Traffic in the Urban Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>A “One Health” Challenge? </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Nino Künzli, MD, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy-Director Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute Basel </li></ul><ul><li>Head Departement of Epidemiology and Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinarius / Chair of Social and Preventive Medicine / Public Health, University Basel, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared for </li></ul><ul><li>Plenary VII: Urban Health – One Health: Intersectoral and Interdisciplinary Challenges, Wed 22.2.2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Global Risk Forum (GRF) Davos – One Health Summit 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>19.-22.2. 2012 </li></ul>Präsentationstitel Department of Epidemiology & Public Health Swiss TPH is an associated Institute of University of Basel
  2. 2. Traffic – an essential element of the urban eco-system
  3. 3. <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle view… </li></ul>Thesis: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation, collaboration, and policy
  4. 4. Health toll of road traffic <ul><li>Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Road accidents: 9th- leading cause of death world wide (2.2% of all). Many young people </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG TRENDS: By 2030: 5 th leading cause of death (3.6% of all death) (larger toll than Diabetes, HIV/AIDS…) Globally: 10-30 deaths / 100‘000 inhabitants per year </li></ul><ul><li>Accident related injuries: 8-30 x larger rates; 10-20% resulting in disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. estimates for the U.S.A., per yr (in millions) : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>41 squirrils ; 26 cats; 22 rats; 19 oppossum; 15 racoons, 6 dogs, 0.35 deers ( Merritt Clifton, editorial in Animal People Newspaper) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. Europe: millions of birds (Erritzoe et al, Acta Ornithol, 2003) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Disability Adjusted Life Years (per 100‘000) due to road traffic accidents (2004, WHO) … driving has become safer than walking and biking..!
  6. 6. … and wrong trends despite knowledge about how to do better… <ul><li>Switzerland (example for most Western countries) </li></ul>Indonesia, China, India (and many emerging economies)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle view… </li></ul>Traffic – A “One Health” Challenge: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation, collaboration, and policy
  8. 8. Passive transport <ul><li>Time spent in traffic is </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physically inactive time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time at higher risk to suffer heart attacks (infarction) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Traffic hinders and competes with active transport (walking, biking), thus physical activity </li></ul> Promotes obesity epidemic with its enormous impact on Cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, Diabetes, Many other chronic diseases
  9. 9. Millions live in urban areas where urban planners assign ZERO SPACE TO PEOPLE = PEDESTRIANS !
  10. 11. Environ Int 2011
  11. 12. <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle view… </li></ul>Traffic – A “One Health” Challenge: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation, collaboration, and policy
  12. 13. Urban traffic – key source of noise <ul><li>High expenditures to cope with noise </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular health (blood pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive function </li></ul><ul><li>Other chronic ailments related to psycho stress and sleep disorders </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle view… </li></ul>Traffic – A “One Health” Challenge: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation, collaboration, and policy
  14. 15. Traffic relies on fossil fuel COMBUSTION  a main source of urban air pollution  a strong contributor to climate change
  15. 16. Cardio-respiratory effects of Air Pollution Künzli & Tager, Swiss Medical Weekly, 2005 (free access online) <ul><li>LUNG </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologic & structural changes </li></ul><ul><li>Lung function </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Acute clinical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Respir. Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbations (asthma,COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative effects </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce lung growth </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic bronchitis, Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>HEART </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate, blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Coagulation, inflammation etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction, Arrythmia </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombosis, Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis? </li></ul>Evidence based on „HUMANS and OTHER ANIMALS“ (Bron Taylor)
  16. 17. [email_address] PDF online at www.ERSnet.org www.ersnet.org/publications/air-quality-and-health.html PDF is free : English French German Italian Turkish Catalan Portugues (2012)
  17. 18. Paradigm of spatial distribution of local traffic-related pollutants (such as nano-PM) along busy roads 0 100 200 300 meter
  18. 19. Adjusted prevalence [%] Adjusted prevalences (%) of respiratory health as a function of the residential distance from highway [m] ( Switzerland) Distribution of chronic cough in the Swiss population living along the North-South Transit highway (~1’800 adults, age 15-70) Hazenkamp et al, Env Health 2011 – online open access Wheezing with breathing problems Wheezing w/o colds Chronic cough Chronic cough or phlegm
  19. 20. Air pollutants (such as diesel soot) jeopardize defense mechanisms against INFECTIOUS DISEASES <ul><li>Viral and bacterial load increases  </li></ul><ul><li> increase in </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morbidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for health care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work and school absence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors‘ visits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital admissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul>Colin Butler: „ The milieu and the emergence of influenza…“
  20. 21. What if Barcelona air quality would comply with WHO guidelines…
  21. 22. The “silent every-day epidemic” example: BARCELONA IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Estimated benefit of a 30 μ g/m 3 reduction of PM10 Perez et al, Gaz Sanit 2009 <ul><li>DEATH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term effects (age ≥ 30) 3,500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant mortality (<1 yrs) 15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in life expectancy (months) 14 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOSPITALIZATIONS 1,770 </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC BRONCHITIS in adults ( ≥ 25) 5,100 </li></ul><ul><li>BRONCHITIS episodes, children (<15) 31,100 </li></ul><ul><li>ASTHMA attacks; adults ( ≥ 25) 41,500 </li></ul><ul><li> children (<15) 12,400 </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC impact : 3,000-6,400 Million € per yr. </li></ul><ul><li> 1’600 € per person per year </li></ul>10 PREMATURE DEATH PER DAY
  22. 23. <ul><li>800‘000 Excess death due to ambient air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>65% in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial underestimation due to lack of data! … see update 2012. </li></ul>Death toll due to air pollution is larger than due to traffic accidents ! (in most countries except some low income countries)
  23. 24. Switzerland, 1990 - 2010 40‘000 Mio km/yr 60‘000 Mio km/yr 70‘000 tons of NOx / yr 10‘000 tons of NOx / yr GDP: 30‘000 Mio (in $) GDP: 70‘000 Mio (in $) Gross Domestic Product - GDP Vehicle Kilometers driven / year NOx Emissions from traffic, per year
  24. 25. Switzerland, 1990 - 2010 70‘000 tons of NOx / yr 10‘000 tons of NOx / yr NOx Emissions from traffic, per year Pollution & accidents, are NOT the „inevitable price to pay“ for economic growth and wealth! Vehicle Kilometers driven / year Accidents
  25. 26. NOx Emissions / yr Switzerland, 1990 – 2010 Air Pollution (PM10 concentrations)
  26. 27. SAPALDIA (done in adults; in Davos + 7 other Swiss locations) Primary funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Improvement of air quality DOES result in better health – also shown in two Swiss land-mark studies SCARPOL (in children) Less bronchitis Less bronchitis Slower aging of lung function Fewer new cases of asthma
  27. 28. Nevertheless: … wrong trends: 2005/1990-ratio of PM2.5 is >1.0 in the most populated regions of the world! Brauer et al, Env Sci Tech 2011
  28. 29. Wrong trends… 2005/1990-ratio of Ozone (O 3 ) is >1.0 in many regions of the world… Brauer et al, Env Sci Tech 2011
  29. 30. Global crop yield losses in 2000 and 2030 due to ambient ozone (based on conservative estimates) Van Dingenen et al , Atmos Environ 2009 <ul><li>2000 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>under current legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat 7% - 12% additional 2-6% </li></ul><ul><li>Soy bean 6% - 16% additional 1-2% </li></ul><ul><li>Rice 3% - 4% + </li></ul><ul><li>Maize 3% - 5% + </li></ul><ul><li>Economic loss: 14-26 billion USD </li></ul><ul><li> offsets significant portion of GDP growth </li></ul>Air pollution is a FOOD SECURITY issue !
  30. 31. <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle (holistic) view… </li></ul>Traffic – A “One Health” Challenge: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the urban ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation and policy
  31. 32. The long trail of eco-health hazards… of the fossil fuel based ‚transport economy‘…
  32. 33. … under very ‚normal conditions‘
  33. 34. Risk of death and pneumonia in young cattle depends on ambient air quality (SO2) during the last 3 months before calving Waldner et al, Arch Env Occup Health 2010 And remember London Smog December 1952: not only >4‘000 death in humans – but thousands of cattle asphyxiated
  34. 35. <ul><li>E.g: actions </li></ul><ul><li>Speed limitations; road safety laws </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for pedestrians, bikes, public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Urban planning to reduce traffic, separate traffic from living spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-emission vehicles; strict air quality standards for traffic-related pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Technology development to base traffic on renewable energy, no fossil fuel combustion </li></ul>Traffic – A “One Health” Challenge: To respect health and integrity of humans, animals, and the urban ecology, TRAFFIC must be put on a transdisciplinary agenda of research, intersectorial innovation and policy <ul><li>E.g. actors </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies / Departments : Health, Environment, Transport, Police, Urban Planning, Finances, Trade, Energy, Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Industry,traffic organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance companies </li></ul><ul><li>Urban planners & architects </li></ul><ul><li>Universities / Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>UN / WHO / WB etc: bring Nations together to learn from and apply „good examples“… </li></ul>
  35. 36. Thank you [email_address] www.swisstph.ch Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute welcomes you in Basel: Swiss TPH is an associate Institute of the University of Basel PDF online at www.ERSnet.org www.ersnet.org/publications/air-quality-and-health.html

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