Risk reduction index - methodology and preliminary findings
Risk Reduction IndexMethodology andPreliminary Findings-Phase II (West Africa)28 August 2012, IDRC Davos
Risk Reduction IndexRisk Reduction Index - Analysis of theCapacities and Conditions for Disaster RiskReduction (RRI)What is it? Action-oriented research programme that aims to shed light on howto improve risk management within most vulnerable countries acrossdifferent regions of the world.Why the RRI?Support evidence to strengthen focus on underlying risk factors –HFA Priority for Action #4. In line with findings from GAR 2009 & 2011Findings from DARA’s evaluations underline this needWhat we provide?Gathers, analyses and discusses field evidence – enabling actors toidentify ways to address underlying risk factors
DARA and DRRPrincipal DRR evaluations in recent years: Tsunami Evaluation Coalition (TEC, 2005) DIPECHO in Central America (2007) IASC RTE humanitarian response to floods in Mozambique(2007) Lessons Learnt from UN response to floods in Mexico (2008) IASC RTE international response to typhoons and floods inPhilippines (2009) and floods in Pakistan (2010) Humanitarian Response Index (HRI) project, with missionsrelated to the earthquakes in Pakistan (2007), China (2009), andHaiti (2010), and cyclones in Bangladesh and Myanmar (2009)Global Evaluation on FAO’s Role in Disaster Risk Reduction(2012)
Methodology SummaryMixed methodPerceptions-basedData sampling: ratings (scale 1-5) and qualitative judgementsAnalytical Dimension - Risk drivers:1. Environment and natural resources;2. Socioeconomic conditions;3. Land use and the built environment; and4. Governance.Representative Territorial Units (RTU): geographically defined area -subject to certain hazards and patterns of vulnerability - representativeof other areas. RTUs can exceed political divisions - boundaries aredefined in terms of risk type.Participatory and Multi-sector- National and local governmental institutions, civil society, NGOs andprivate sector- At least 48 informants per RTU
Risk Reduction IndexThe RRI:• in-depth local level analysis - bottom-up/participatory;• focus on stakeholders’ perceptions of ‘underlying risk drivers’• enabling conditions and capacities for effective risk management• connects local and central level risk management processes;• multi-stakeholder validation workshops;• define actions that address the key challenges identitied;• enhances more integrated risk management;• promotes more resilience through multi-sector focus;
RRI- Global Project - Three Phases PHASE III: ASIA • Countries TBDPHASE I:CENTRALAMERICA (2009-10)•Costa Rica PHASE II: WEST•El Salvador AFRICA (2011-•Guatemala 12)•Honduras •Cape Verde•Nicaragua • The Gambia•Panama •Ghana•Dominican Republic •Guinea •Niger •Senegal
Partnerships and Regional ScopeWest Africa under the FOREWARN initiative:Facilitating Enhanced Organisational Responsivenessfor Effective West African Risk ReductionFOREWARN ‘s purpose: generate knowledge in the regionthat helps sub-national administrations, nationalgovernments, and ECOWAS (regional body) to improveregional risk managementFOREWARN partners: Humanitarian Futures Programme (HFP) – King’s College African Leadership Centre – King’s College ECOWAS (Abuja) UNISDR Funded by AusAid and AECID
Accra- Water ContaminationIn which way is water contamination affecting Accra? HEALTH HAZARDS (EPIDEMICS, CHOLERA, WATER BORNE DISEASES…) DESTROYS MICRO-ORGANISMS WHICH ASSIST FLORA AND FAUNA IN THE RIVERS. FLOODING POLLUTION WATER SCARCITY FOR DRINKING/HOUSEHOLDS What types of interventions are being developed to address the issue? AWARENESS CREATION & EDUCATION & SENSIBILIZATION ACTION AGAINST SURFACE MINING AND RELEASE OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER PROJECTS ENACTING OF BY-LAWS MINISTRY OF FISHERIES ESTABLISHED AND OF WATER RESOURCES IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANNING CONTROLS WATER MONITORING By whom? And how effective are the interventions? COMMUNITY ORGS (3.00) INTERNATIONAL ORGS (3.50) LOCAL/REG GOVT (2.73) NATIONAL GOVT (2.95)
Bolgatanga- Deforestation CAUSES DESERTIFICATION, DROUGHT, SOIL EROSION and INCIDENCE OF WILDFIRES BARE LAND AIDS WINDSTORMS AND FLOODS THAT ALSO AFFECTS ROOFS OF BUILDINGS BROUGHT ABOUT RAINFALL PATTERNs WHICH CAUSED DESTRUCTION TO THE FOREST IT REDUCES RAINFALL PATTERN WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO FOOD INSECURITY INCREASES DISEASES, REDUCES MEDICINAL PLANTS In which way is deforestation affecting Bolgatanga? AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION EDUCATION ENACTMENT OF BY-LAWS SANCTIONS AND ARRESTS PLANTING SENSIBILIZATION What types of interventions are being developed to address the issue? NATIONAL GOVT (3.45) COMMUNITY ORGS (3.17) LOCAL/REG GOVT (3.03) INTERNATIONAL ORGS (2.83)By whom? And how effective are the interventions?
East Coast- Soil Erosion ALLOWS FLOODS, WAVES, SEA LEVEL RISE CAUSES LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD ENHANCING MATERIALS AND DESTROYS BUILDINGS COASTAL DWELLERS COSTS LIVES TAKES THE LAND In which way is coastal erosion affecting East Coast? CONSTRUCTION OF SEA DEFENSE WALL AND THE CREATION OF SANDBAR CLIFFS EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS PREPARATION OF RELOCATION PLAN TREE PLANTING What types of interventions are being developed to address the issue? INTERNATIONAL ORGS (3.50) LOCAL/REG GOVT (4.00) NATIONAL GOVT (3.79)By whom? And how effective are the interventions?
Example Findings Driver 1: Environmental and Natural Resources ACCRA BOLGATANGA EAST COASTDRIVER 1 5. Soil erosion 6. Water Contamination 2. Coastal Erosion 2. Coastal Erosion 3. Deforestation 7. Water Scarcity 4. Desertification
Ghana - Preliminary FindingsMain challenge in three RTUs:• Environment and natural resource management main challenge• Governance least challenging area• Soil erosion and water contamination main challenge across RTUs• Accra generally rated higher than other areas• Coastal Erosion issue in both coastal RTUs• Some local organisations rated lower than governmental institutions• Relevance of focusing on underlying risk factors – not only addressingthe ‘traditional’ natural hazards
Risk Reduction IndexNext Steps:West Africa: Finalise data analysis in Cape Verde, Ghana and Senegal Conduct workshops and define RTU action plans (with local stakeholders) Fit findings into existing national plans (partner importance) Start data collection in Niger, The Gambia and Guinea Publication and Dissemination of Findings (RTU and national workshops; regional level – ECOWAS and Global Platform 2013)RRI in Asia - third phase Advance on partner identification Selection of countries FundraisingContribute to the 2013 Global Assessment Report