For example, residents in urban areas often don’t have to deal with problems typically associated with living near wildlife and are often more supportive of them as “recreational opportunities” to enjoy when in nature. Meanwhile, rural locations where ranching and farming constitute people’s livelihoods are typically less accepting of wolves due to a concern for predation of their livestock. The WVO information presented earlier also may help explain some of these differences (Mutualists, for example, may be more supportive of wolves and less accepting of lethal control).With 50% of Washington’s population living in Seattle and surrounding areas, this is a prime example of how geographic distribution of social data can help in understanding landscape-level issues. High support for wolves does not necessarily mean widespread support.
Trending Toward a Systems View of the Social Aspects of Zoonosis
Trending Toward A Systems View of The SocialAspects of ZoonosisMichael J. ManfredoHuman Dimensions of Natural ResourcesColorado State University
Zoonotic Pathogens From Wildlife 54% of All EID Fastest Growing Need to understand “factors that increase contact between wildlife and humans…”Jones et al. 2008, Nature
Disease Prevalence Economic, Demographic, Material Structure Ecological StructureInstitutional & Governance Psychological Attributes Structure & Agency Heritability Rates of Change and Social Structure Conversion
Shifting Thought AffectsExposure, Transmission, Zoonotic Disease Spread
Conditions of Changing in Changing ValuesModernization Social Life & Behavior
UtilitarianIdeal World PrinciplesWildlife exists Managefor human use wildlife so& enjoyment that humans benefitAbundance ofwildlife for Needs ofhunting & humans takefishing priority over wildlife Ideology: Human Mastery“Animals and plants are pieces of energy out thereto provide humans with food and inspiration.”
Ideal World Mutualism PrinciplesHumans and Animals shouldwildlife live side by have rights likeside without fear humansAll living things Take care ofpart of one big wildlifefamily Prevent crueltyEmotional to animalsbonding and Ideology: EgalitarianismcompanionshipNo animalsuffering “All of us need to protect all creatures on Mother Earth. We must speak for the ones who can’t.”
Percent Mutualist by Income 50Percent Mutualist 40 Hawaii California Washington Oregon Nevada Colorado New Mexico Arizona 30 Texas Kansas Nebraska Oklahoma Utah 20 Montana North Dakota Idaho Wyoming South Dakota Alaska 10 40 50 60 70 Percent Above the Modal Response ($30,000-$49,999) r = .75 (“large” effect)
Ratio Map: for every one Mutualist, there are X number of Utilitarians (WA)
Percent accepting of moving wolves to establish new populations
Risk from the rapid emergence of zoonotic disease borne by wildlife is rooted in a dynamic, complex, changing social-ecological system. Prediction of disease outbreak and disease spread and overall societal resilience will occur through interdisciplinary teams that attempt to understand these systems and can inform development of fully integrated response strategies.
Tight More Severe Ecological Conditions Regions Army rule systems, less tolerant toward Disease prevalence, less farmland alcohol, sex, less tolerant of outsiders, water, forests. greater naturalSoutheast Asia more ethnocentric, less accepting of disasters deviance from norms, etcConfucian NationsCatholic Europe TT TTProtestant EuropeEnglish Speaking NationsLatin AmericaEx-Communist CulturalZone Loose LessGelfand et al., Science 2011