“One Health”: Theoretical Underpinnings to Understand its Potential

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“One Health”: Theoretical Underpinnings to Understand its Potential

  1. 1. “One Health”: theoretical underpinnings to understand its potentialJakob Zinsstag, jakob.zinsstag@unibas.ch
  2. 2. Who we are..... Multidisciplinary research unit within the Department of Epidemiology and Public health at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (www.swisstph.ch) with partnerships in eight countries in Africa and Central Asia. Focus: Health systems for mobile pastoralists Control of zoonoses (diseases transmissible between animals and humans in developing countries) Bovine tuberculosis, Rabies, Brucellosis, Anthrax, Avian Influenza20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 2
  3. 3. National Centres for Competence of Research North-South www.nccr-north-south.unibe.ch 7 Swiss Institutions: NRM, Conflict, Governance, Sanitation, Livelihood, Health, Urban planning together with their South partners Funded by Swiss National Science Foundation and Swiss Development CooperationEU FP7 Integrated control of neglected zoonoseswww.iconzafrica.org www.AfriqueOne.net 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 3
  4. 4. Overview1. Calvin Schwabe‘s „One medicine“2. Biological closeness of humans and animals3. Reflection on the human-animal relationship4. Intercultural perspective / Role of self reflexiveness5. „One health“ economic framework with examples from dog rabies and brucellosis6. „One Health“ necessary and sufficient componentsThis afternoon in the session 3.2.1. An extension to social-ecological systems2. Health in social-ecological systems necessary and sufficient components3. Outlook to challenges and ways forward 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 4
  5. 5. The „one medicine“ by Calvin Schwabe‘s has istorigins in his work with Dinka pastoralists inSudan in the 1960s „There is no difference of paradigm between human and veterinary medicine. Both sciences share a common body of knowledge in anatomy, physiology, pathology, on the origines of diseases in all species.“ Schwabe C. (1964, 1984 3rd Edition): Veterinary Medicine and Human Health. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 5
  6. 6. „One medicine“ als General MedicineSchwabe C. (1964, 1984 3rd Edition): Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 6
  7. 7. Biological closeness of humans and animalsHuman genome is 99% similar with great apes and 95% withpigs.There is no biological reason why humans should not considertheir surrounding domesticated animals and wildlife as closerelatives and treat them with utmost care.Modern scientific argument has limited outreach:What are cultural and religious determinants of the human-animal relationship?20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 7
  8. 8. Some examples of cultural and religious determinants of human and animal relationshipPapyrus of Kahun, 1800 BC, humans and animals as the “flock of God”India: metempsychosis (transmigration) and reincarnation.Co-creational perspective in the Thora / Old Testament- Creation of land animals on the same day as humans- Animals to rest during Shabbat- Isaiah 11, 1-9 Messianic view of peace between animals and between humans and animalsModern animal welfare has roots in Southern German PietismAlbert Schweitzer: „Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben“ 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 8
  9. 9. 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 9
  10. 10. “Dans une société pastorale comme celle des Peuls, la Femme et la Vache, on ne les sépare point; on les aime ensemble puisque, selon la légende, “Dieu créa la Vache, Il créa la Femme, Il créa le Peul. Il mit la Femme derrière la Vache et le Peul derrière la Femme”, formant ainsi l’inséparable trilogie”. (Sow ed.)20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 10
  11. 11. „Imagine-toi, les blancs ont même des docteurs pourchiens“20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 11
  12. 12. Relative Growth of Various Meats, Globally, from 1980 to 2004 (1980 = 100%) % 300 Bovine 250 meat Pigmeat 200 Poultry meat 150 Sheep and goat meat 100 1980------------1992------------2004Source: FAO, 2005 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 12
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  15. 15. Dog trade and small holder pig rearing in Eastern Mali 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 15
  16. 16. Reality of the animal-human relationship and itsconsequences Highly diverse and polarized human-animal relationship: – economically maximized exploitation in indutrialized production – way out of the poverty trap for 700 million poor livestock keepers – humanizing of pets – naturalist movement to give person rights to primates and whales. Consequence: Intercultural work requires a clarification of our own perspective -Self reflexiveness: What is my personal cultural/religious background driving my animal-human relationship (also agnostic or athesim is a cultural background) -Can we meet between different cultural attitudes? -Is this the beginning of a new subjectivism in Science? -Influences the way we do our work  „One health“ economic framework 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 16
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  19. 19. Comparative cost of rabies control in N‘Djaména(Zinsstag et al. PNAS 2009, 106(35) 14996–15001 Dog and human vaccination Human vaccination alone 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 19
  20. 20. 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 20 Courtesy: Dr. Jan Kolar, Prague
  21. 21. Synopsis of cost and benefits oflivestock brucellosis mass vaccination in Mongolia (Roth et al. BWHO, 2003) Distribution of Benefits 30000000 25000000 20000000 US$ 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 Intervention Public Private Household Total Health Agricultural Total cost health health income Benefits Benefits Societal benefits benefits loss Benefits Sector
  22. 22. „One Health“ requirementsNecessary (but not sufficient) requirements:– Recognition of intextricable linkage of human, livestock,companion animals and wildlifeSufficient requirements:– Added value of health and wellbeing of humans and animalsand/or financial savings from closer cooperation of human andanimal health.20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 22
  23. 23. A teaser for this afternoon: “One health” as part of Ecosystem approaches to healthcontemporary complex health problems cannot be solved by “reductionist” approaches and require ecological and social systems thinking. Join the Kunming Conference in October, 15-18 2012 Become a member of the EcoHealth www.ecohealth.net 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 23
  24. 24. Thank you:- Walter Ammann, Madeleine Colbert and GRF team- Swiss TPH and international collaborators 20. Februar 2012 Präsentationstitel 24

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