Mohamed Imam BAKARR "Sustainable land management in the Global Environment Facility – enhanching ecosystem services in production landscapes"
The GEF Land Degradation Focal Area– Enhancing Ecosystem Services in Production Landscapes Mohamed I Bakarr GEF Secretariat, Washington DCPresented at the GEF/STAP Session on “Carbon – A valuable global benefit of SLM” UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, Bonn, Germany; April 9-12, 2013
Land Degradation Focal AreaMandate – Finance efforts to arrest and reverseland degradation, specifically desertification anddeforestationFocus – Sustainable Land Management (SLM)in production landscapesImpacts:• Ecosystem service flows increased or maintained• Sustained crop, livestock, and forest production• Sustainable livelihoods (development benefit)
Drylands of the World Arid Semi-arid Dry Sub-humid GEF Projects focusing on SLMSource: UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library (http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8236)
Sustainable Land Management• “….a knowledge-based procedure that integrates land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining livelihoods and the environment ” (World Bank 2006).
Multiple Benefits through SLMEcosystem Services in Production Systems – Soil health improvement – Land and water conservation – Biodiversity conservation - above and below ground – Reduced GHG emissions and carbon sequestrationDevelopment – Climate-resilient production systems – Options for household food security and income
Multi-focal Area Projects• LAND DEGRADATION: Maintain/improve flow of ecosystem services in production systems; Integrated approaches to reduce pressure from competing usesDeliver multiple environmental and social benefits, seeking synergy with –• BIODIVERSITY: Protected areas, Mainstreaming, and Sustainable use of biodiversity• CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION: Land use, Land use change, and Forestry component for reducing GHG emissions and carbon sequestration• CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION (LDCF/SCCF): Adaptation and resilience in the agriculture, livestock, and food security sectors
SFM/REDD-plus ProgramGoal: Achieve multiple environmental benefitsfrom improved management of all types offorests Funding derives from three GEF Focal Areas - Biodiversity, Climate Change and Land Degradation Separate funding envelope created to provide incentive funding for interested countries
Typology of LDFA investments LD-stand alone Multifocal area SFM/REDD+Focus: Agriculture and Focus: Integrated Focus: Carbon benefits inRangeland Management Landscape Management forests LandscapesChina: Sustainable and Ecuador: Promotion of Azerbaijan: SustainableClimate-Resilient Land Climate-Smart Livestock Land and ForestManagement in Western Management Management in the GreaterPRC Caucasus LandscapePakistan: Sustainable Land Kazakhstan: Improving Kenya: Development of SFMManagement Program to Sustainability of PA System and Support to REDD forCombat Desertification in Desert Ecosystems Drylands ForestsUzbekistan: Reducing Turkey: Sustainable Land Mongolia: Securing ForestPressures on Natural Management and Climate Ecosystems throughResources from Friendly Agriculture Participatory ManagementCompeting Land Use and Benefit Sharing
Profit per ton of carbon dioxide sequestered (US$) 1000 No-tillage SLM Options Inorganic fertilizer Intercropping 100 Alley farming Manure Cover crops Soil amendments Include trees Afforestation Crop residues Terracing 10 Tree crop farming Rotation diversification Rotation Improved intensification Rainwater fallow harvesting Cross slope barriers 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Carbon dioxide sequestered (ton per hectare per year) Source: World Bank, 2012
Scenarios for Soil Organic Carbon SLM+SFM+LULUCF for CC-M “Normal” or sustainable level of SOCSOC SLM for food security BAU GEF Project with GEF Project with LDFA Resources LD + MFA Resources
Looking Ahead - Emerging Global Priorities• Food Security – improving and increasing food crop production in vulnerable regions• Climate-Smart Agriculture – enhancing resilience and climate change mitigation in crop and livestock systems• Forest Landscape Management and Restoration – increasing forest and tree cover
Conclusions and Implication• LD financing -> leverage investments in SLM to manage soils for food security• Investments contribute multiple benefits and create opportunities for cross-focal area synergy• Soil management options -> presents challenges for managing tradeoffs• Demonstrating environment benefits requires tools for monitoring and measuring -> carbon benefits