Threats to Food Security and FoodChain Livelihoods from Weeds, Pests            and Diseases             Dr Mike Bushell  ...
Demand growth from population growth and diet changes    Global population    bn    10     8                   Developed  ...
Food Price risks    Stocks-to-use ratio*                            Crop price index**    %                               ...
How have we met the increased food demand since 1950’s?                                     Mechanisation including irriga...
The role of crop protection                            40% of the world’s                            food would not exist ...
CP contribution to crop yields and remaining potential                         100                         90             ...
Disease, Insect, Weed Control Research Targets                                  Non-selective                             ...
Crop diseases can be devastating    Effects of Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) exemplifies    why agricultural...
Drivers for innovation : New disease issues• New disease pandemics can occur• Example : Soybean rust (Phakopsora  pachyrhi...
Drivers for innovation: Resistance• Resistance drives need for  product refreshment      – Can develop faster than R&D can...
GM Plants with insect resistanceCorn borer resistant (Bt) maize   Corn root worm resistant maize      Classification: PUBLIC
Key Pests of US Corn                                                     Vip3A      Cry1AbPest                       Commo...
Fungal mycotoxins: a growing problem• Secondary metabolites, e.g. aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins,    deoxynivalenol (...
Insect control reduces mycotoxin levels in corn             25000                                                      30 ...
Weeds are more than a nuisance!                                 • Weeds are the number 1                                  ...
Hainan China November 2008Classification: PUBLIC
10 t/ha yield integrated solution:                Chennai March 2011Classification: PUBLIC
Safety all around                                             Food                 People           Protection of   Operat...
Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture……a key concept from UK Foresight reportAg Systems that deliver better outcomes ...
Development of integrated solutions                                      Increasing level of integration and risk mitigati...
ICM in Vegetables• Andalucia (Almeria) Spain   – 2008- 100% of peppers, cucumbers and egg plant treated     with ICM   – C...
Biological control of insects                                 Predatory mites                                 Amblyseius c...
Summary• Pests, Weeds and Diseases are a major cause of yield and crop quality loss,  and farm income reduction• Systems a...
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Mike Bushell - Threats to Food Security and Food Chain Livelihoods from Weeds, Pests and Diseases

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Mike Bushell - Threats to Food Security and Food Chain Livelihoods from Weeds, Pests and Diseases

  1. 1. Threats to Food Security and FoodChain Livelihoods from Weeds, Pests and Diseases Dr Mike Bushell Syngenta Global R&D
  2. 2. Demand growth from population growth and diet changes Global population bn 10 8 Developed • 9bn people by 2050 6 – Rapid increase in 4 Emerging emerging countries 2 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 2030 2040 2050 World demand for major crops* • 2050 grain demand: bn tonnes4 +50% +50%3 Food – food grain +25%21 Feed – meat consumption0 +70% 1970 2000 2010 2030 2050 * Includes cereals, rice, corn and soybean Source: FAO, Syngenta analysis Classification: PUBLIC
  3. 3. Food Price risks Stocks-to-use ratio* Crop price index** % Jan 2002 = 100 • Crop price volatility 30% 400 • Government intervention 25% 300 • Ongoing demand growth: emerging markets 20% 200 • Challenging supply/demand balance 15% 100 • Energy costs remain high and volatile 10% - 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12E* Ratio for combined corn, soybean, wheat and riceSource: WASDE October 2011 for STU, Bloomberg for prices, Syngenta analysis Classification: PUBLIC
  4. 4. How have we met the increased food demand since 1950’s? Mechanisation including irrigation Modern fertilizers Better seed varieties Crop protection chemicalsClassification: PUBLIC
  5. 5. The role of crop protection 40% of the world’s food would not exist without crop protection products •Delivering genetic potential •Protecting Yield •Increasing Yield QualityClassification: PUBLIC
  6. 6. CP contribution to crop yields and remaining potential 100 90 28.2 31.2 26.3 28.8 % theoretical maximum 80 37.4 40.3 70 60 21.6 33.7 50 37.3 39.6 53.2 34.6 40 30 50.2 20 40 31.5 10 23 25.1 18 0 Rice Wheat Maize Soybean Cotton Potato Yield with no CP Extra yield from CP Remaining potential1 Classification: PUBLIC Source: Crop Losses to Pests; E-C Oerke, Journal of Agricultural Science (2006), 144, 31-43
  7. 7. Disease, Insect, Weed Control Research Targets Non-selective Corn selective Cereals selective Soya Bean selective Cereals Rice selective Fruit &Veg Field crops Horticulture Sucking pests Nematodes Soil pests LepidopteraClassification: PUBLIC
  8. 8. Crop diseases can be devastating Effects of Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) exemplifies why agricultural fungal control is so important to global agriculture!Classification: PUBLIC
  9. 9. Drivers for innovation : New disease issues• New disease pandemics can occur• Example : Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) – a billion $ opportunity in N & S America that didn’t exist 10 years ago. – a virulent strain from the Far East first identified in 1902 – rapid defoliation and dramatic yield losses (up to 80%).• Rapid spread from Zimbabwe in 1998 to S. Africa, S. America and USA by 2004. Fungicide treated vs. untreated soya in Brazil Classification: PUBLIC
  10. 10. Drivers for innovation: Resistance• Resistance drives need for product refreshment – Can develop faster than R&D can deliver new technologies• Resistance management is a major issue• Different types of resistance development and impact – so monitoring is important – Azoles – “creeping” tolerance – Strobilurins – sudden and total failure• Example : Septoria tritici resistance to Strobilurin fungicides in Europe…. Septoria tritici Classification: PUBLIC
  11. 11. GM Plants with insect resistanceCorn borer resistant (Bt) maize Corn root worm resistant maize Classification: PUBLIC
  12. 12. Key Pests of US Corn Vip3A Cry1AbPest Common Name (Viptera) (CB)Helicoverpa zea Corn Earworm . .Spodoptera frugiperda Fall Armyworm . .Agrotis ipsilon Black cutworm .Striacosta albicosta Western bean cutworm .Papaipema nebris Common stalk borer . .Ostrinia nubilalis European corn borer .Diatraea grandiosella Southwestern corn borer . . Stacks offer outstanding control of all these pests Classification: PUBLIC
  13. 13. Fungal mycotoxins: a growing problem• Secondary metabolites, e.g. aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), patulin and zearalenone produced by Aspergillus, Fusarium & Penicillium spp• Aflatoxins are greatest risk to human and animal health – Up to 25% of the world’s food crops significantly contaminated* – Acute exposure can be fatal; chronic exposure causes serious health problems• Dietary exposure managed in developed countries – Food Chain and Food Safety Agency monitoring and action – Significant economic losses• Kenya 2011** – 30-60% maize samples tested had aflatoxin levels above the action level – Up to 163x safe concentration * Source: WHO 1999 ** Source: IFPRIClassification: PUBLIC
  14. 14. Insect control reduces mycotoxin levels in corn 25000 30 20000 19 800 25 • Insecticide control of corn borer infestation reduces 20 fumonisin levelsFUMO (ppb) 15000 15 • Bt corn (GM) also reduces crop 10000 10 losses through mycotoxin contamination* 5000 3 880 5 240 0 0 Check KARATE KARATE G1 G1 and G2 % of ears attacked by corn borer *Source: G Brookes, PG Economics June 2009 Classification: PUBLIC
  15. 15. Weeds are more than a nuisance! • Weeds are the number 1 cause of yield loss • With a good fertiliser regime you can grow 12t/ha maize – or 6t maize and a lot of weeds • Compete with the crop for light, water and nutrients • Costly to control manually • Herbicide programmes need to be safe to the crop while controlling the key weeds • Weedy rice is a particular problem that can’t be solved by chemicals Classification: PUBLIC
  16. 16. Hainan China November 2008Classification: PUBLIC
  17. 17. 10 t/ha yield integrated solution: Chennai March 2011Classification: PUBLIC
  18. 18. Safety all around Food People Protection of Operator safety employees Environment Classification: PUBLIC
  19. 19. Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture……a key concept from UK Foresight reportAg Systems that deliver better outcomes Food Safety• more crop yield from the same area of land• reduced negative environmental impacts Food Security Issues• using all inputs more efficiently – land, water, Sustainable Consumption Issues nutrients Both agricultural Microbial contaminationproductivity AND better environmental outcomesare pre-eminent under sustainable intensification Choking Hazard Mycotoxin contaminationGrowing More from Less Chemical Hazards Syngenta technology contributes to solutions Classification: PUBLIC
  20. 20. Development of integrated solutions Increasing level of integration and risk mitigationPest (IPM) Crop (ICM) Field / Farm LandscapeThreshold ConceptsBeneficials Management ProgramsTraps, Pheromones Altenative SolutionsResistance Management Residue Minimization Field Margins Seed Care Pollinator Habitat Product Stewardship Application Technology Refuge Management Forecast Models Farm Stewardship Biodiversity Concepts Alert Systems C / N Footprint Water Protection Land Use ConceptsClassification: PUBLIC
  21. 21. ICM in Vegetables• Andalucia (Almeria) Spain – 2008- 100% of peppers, cucumbers and egg plant treated with ICM – Combination of cultural, chemical and biological control methodsClassification: PUBLIC
  22. 22. Biological control of insects Predatory mites Amblyseius cucumeris – thrips A swirskii – whitefly A.andersoni – spider and russet mites Phytoseuilus persimilis - spidermites Hypoaspis miles - sciarids Parasitoids Encarsia and eretmocerus – whitefly Aphidius – aphids Diglyphus - leafminer Bugs Orius sp – thrips Macrolophus - whiteflyClassification: PUBLIC
  23. 23. Summary• Pests, Weeds and Diseases are a major cause of yield and crop quality loss, and farm income reduction• Systems approaches are vital• Insect pest damage leaves the plant open to secondary attack from damaging fungal, viral and bacterial diseases• Without effective pest control 40-50% of the food we have today would not exist – Poor control of pests and diseases in the field will result in additional losses in storage – Animal Health is also affected by Pests and Diseases• Chemical crop protection agents are essential to meet our food security challenge• Advances in plant science offer an opportunity for better geneticsClassification: PUBLIC

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