Mario REINOSO PÉREZ "Agroforestry: A viable alternative for sustainable land management"
OBJETIVETo share with the audience on-farm research findings onAgroforestry as an alternative for Sustainable Land Managementunder Cuban conditions.
In Cuba desertification affects 14% of its total land (1 580 996 ha)
5.8 kWh m-² day-1 S.O.S! Deforestation Land degradation ?
Silvopastoral Systems = Agri-biocenosis activated!
MATERIALS AND METHODS Type and level of Soil type Trees Productive supplementation / Agroecosystems (Fertility density purpose Stocking rate level) (tree ha-1) (LU ha-1) C. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Cambisols 6 350 1 kg (FB) of molasses (1.67) Association (Medium) Native pastures + L. leucocephala Cambisols 1 kg (FB) of concentrate * 3 440Milk production Association (Low) (1.11)(Dairy farms) C. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Ferrasols 2 kg (FB) of concentrate * 5 480 Association (Medium) (1.51) Ferrasols 3 kg (FB) of concentrate * P. maximun in monoculture 0 (High) (1.13) C. nlemfuensis - L. leucocephala Cambisols NoneBeef production 14 298 Association (Medium) (1.03)(Growth-fattening Cambisols Nonefarms) Native pastures in monoculture 0 (Medium) (1.03) *Iso-protein concentrates with 15.3 % Crude Protein
MATERIALS AND METHODS (i) Holstein x Zebu crossbred. (ii) Lactating cows milked twice a day. (iii) Fattening cattle were subjected to a growth-fattening period of 110 and 154 days during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. (i) Botanical composition of grassland. (ii) Quality and yield of biomass.Sustainability (iii) Milk yield.indicators (iv) Reproduction performance. (v) Body weight gain.
MAIN FINDINGS Milk Production Reproductive performance Agroecosystems (kg) (days) 305 days- Daily yield Open Period Calving IntervalMilk Production (First Lactation) lactation ± SE cow-1 ±SE ± SE ± SEC. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Association 2215.3± 107.32 7.1±1.11 172.76±38.01 454.17± 38.11with 6350 trees ha-1 and 1 kg of molassesNative pastures + L. leucocephala Association 1652.1±98.87 5.2±0.87 232.79±23.19 500.20± 23.21with 3440 trees ha-1 and 1 kg of concentrateC. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Association 2501.3± 120.39 8.0±1.03 147.26±24.19 427.29± 25.02with 5480 trees ha-1 and 2 kg of concentrateP. maximum in monoculture and 3 kg of concentrate 1907.5± 101.15 6.2±0.98 229.48±38.81 512.34± 39.03 Daily Weight Gain (gr-1day-1animal-1)Beef Production (Fattening young cattle) Rainy season Dry seasonC. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Association 642 499with 14298 trees ha-1 and without supplementationNative pastures in monoculture and without 305 63supplementation
MAIN FINDINGS Raining season Dry seasonAgroecosystems ME CP ME CP (MJ) (g) (MJ) (g)C. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Association with 6350 trees ha-1 - 2.05 + 470.8 - 6.32 + 208.8and 1 kg of molassesNative pastures + L. leucocephala Association with 3440 trees ha-1 - 13.48 + 259.5 - 17.20 + 57.5and 1 kg of concentrateC. nlemfuensis + L. leucocephala Association with 5480 trees ha-1 + 2.59 + 562.5 - 2.59 + 187.5and 2 kg of concentrateP. maximum in monoculture and 3 kg of concentrate - 4.56 - 112.8 + 6.95 - 296.8C. nlemfuensis+ L. leucocephala Association with 14298 trees ha-1 - 2.9 + 619. 36 - 9.9 + 97.4and without supplementationNative pastures in monoculture and without supplementation - 18.8 - 130.3 - 29.2 - 210.17* Biannual average animal-1 day-1 ME = Metabolisable Energy, C P= Crude Protein
Why Agroforestry is an option to foster SLM? Hydric Biodiversity balance Comfort for animals, plants Wood for living & farmersfences, building, tools Feed forCarbon storage animals& sequestration AGROFORESTRY (Reinoso, 2000; Simón, 2006; Cino et al., 2011)
POLICY ORIENTED RECOMMENDATIONS Livestock development policies, mainly in dry sub-humid and semi-arid areas, should provide economic incentives and regulatory mechanisms to promote (and even force) tree planting in spatiotemporal designs - within the Agroforestry concept -, enhancing , in first instance, the beneficial interactions of trees with other components of the soil-plant- animal complex. National and local stakeholders involved in designing and implementing payment mechanisms for environmental services should consider Agroforestry as a viable practice of SLM which not only stop land degradation and desertification, but also enhance the protection of other natural resources. Then, land users could receive additional revenue.
CONCLUSIONS The implementation of silvopastoral systems - mainly with L. leucocephala - in fragile livestock agroecosystems constitute a viable Agroforestry alternative to achieve a Sustainable Land Management and, consequently, to improve animal´s nutritional status and productive performance. Farms managed under Agroforestry systems, with a tree density between 5000-6500 trees ha-1 and a limited level of supplementation, can achieve a milk yield of 7-8 kg cow-1 day-1 and a daily gain around 500-640 gr day-1, which are higher as compared to deforested agroecosystems. Under conditions of the present study, tree densities below 5000 trees ha-1 have not benefit on the foliage production and soil fertility. While, tree densities higher than 14000 trees ha-1 cause an excess of shadow affecting the botanical composition of the herbaceous strata.