Armed aggression on the part of states Natural disasters Civil defence Civil protection"Homeland security" "Civil contingencies" (civil defence) (resilience) Armed aggression "Generic" disasters on the part of groups of dissidents
Military CivilianArmed Civil administrationforces Volunteers (civil society) Emergency services(army) [residual role]Civil defence Civil protectionCommand and control Co-ordination and co-operationChain of command Autonomy
Emergency management: an evolutionary approachCivil defence...............Civil protection Proxy ParticipatoryCommand and control CollaborationVertical chain Task forcesof command Population consultedPopulation excluded and includedLaw and order Problem solvingSecrecy Openness
Command Locus of function control principleTension of Spectrum of opposites alternatives Locus of Support collaboration function (support) principle
organisation E E Command te me te c me r function c hn r ge hn ge c a nc iica nc y ll s y a s e r a nd e r v nd viic cees P P ub ub lliic c a a an ad nd dm d p mn p o iin s olliit iis t t c t ra Policies/Ethics iiciia ra t a ns t ors ns ors Operations Strategies GGen en pu er pu b er a b a lliic ll Tactics Results c O T S R E P
The command function (PESTOR) The command function (PESTOR)•• based on command and control based on command and control•• a clear division of responsibilities a clear division of responsibilities•• a residual component of authoritarianism a residual component of authoritarianism•• hierarchical decision-making processes hierarchical decision-making processes•• possibly not compatible possibly not compatible with collaborative models.. with collaborative models
The support function principle The support function principle•• non hierarchical and based on networks non hierarchical and based on networks•• encourages fllows and encourages fllows and cascades of information cascades of information•• it is easy to identify the manager of a it is easy to identify the manager of a particular function in a different unit particular function in a different unit•• difficult to apply the principle of difficult to apply the principle of command, which is poorly articulated command, which is poorly articulated•• difficult or impossible to integrate difficult or impossible to integrate with command function-based systems.. with command function-based systems
Communications Logistics Support Medical function Search & rescueorganisation Media liaison ...etc.
Command function principle: command and control modelInformation Management technology decisions Support function principle: collaborative and cooperation model
Hierarchical divisions: Geographical national, divisions: regional, catchments, local, etc. jurisdictions, areas, etc. Division and integrationFunctionaldivisions: Organisationalgovernment, divisions:healthcare, police, fire,commerce, etc. ambulance, etc.