While Section 1, assesses the existing problems of agriculture in Tajikistan and how these problems might increase with climate change, Section 2 presents land management practices that have proven sustainable, or are promising in being resilient against climate change. Over the last 5 months, we have worked on an inventory of SLM in Tajikistan. Together with 14 governmental and non-governmental organisations 46 land management technologies and 24 approaches to improve land management, have been documented using the WOCAT tools (questionnaires and online database). The collection of case studies is presented here today in the form of a folder. You can find all the case studies also on the CD-Rom, which was distributed. All the organisations which have contributed with a documentation will receive a colour copy for free. We are also happy to sell the folder to interested organisations, please place your orders with Zarina, for example in the coffee break.
Hanspeter LINIGER "Adapting to climate change through sustainable land management: experiences of a pilot project in Tajikistan"
Adapting to climate change and disaster risk reduction through SLMExperience from pilot project in Tajikistan Hanspeter Liniger, Bettina Wolfgramm WOCAT PPCR: Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (WB) CAMP Kuhiston
Not enough rainfall …… but increased floods followed by droughts tragedy of drylands SLM practices need to be tolerant to climate extremes Adaptation to climate change!!! Photo: H.P. Liniger
Watershed Management, DRR, CC adaptationDecision support for the selection of best/ good practicesUpper zone: Grazing land and forestsMiddle zone: cropland, and mixed areasLower zone: settlements, cropland, grazing land Promote productive and protective practices in 3zones 3
Part I: IdentificationStakeholder Workshop 1(2-3 days 1 day + field visit)Methodology based on the ‚learning for sustainability‘approach (LforS)
Technologies Productive protection in extreme event 5
SLM & climate change adaptation (PPCR Tajikistan) > 70 SLM documentations: 46 Technologies and 24 Approaches > Conducted through participation of 14 organisations: Tajik Soil Institute, CAMP Kuhiston, Pamir Biology Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, World Bank, ADB, CARITAS Switzerland, MSDSP, CDE, Welthungerhilfe, GIZ, UNDP, Youth Ecological Centre, CESVI WB project English Russian6
SLM knowledge SLM technology documented and presented in standardized WOCAT format SLM approach 7
Part III: Selection and decisionStakeholder Workshop 2 (2 days 1 day)Working through a series of steps to select good practices
Methodology: Part III• Selection of options is based on WOCAT&TajikCAT/CACAT) database• Scoring and decision process is supported by a software for multi- objective decision support (MODSS)• Both tools are embedded into a stakeholder workshop, continuing the ‘learning for sustainability’ approach
Workshops and using documented SLM • Part I – Identification: Problems and possible solutions • Part II – Assessment: Document and evaluate existing solutions (WOCAT database) • Part III – Selection: Select the most promising SLM technologies and approaches Approach: Involvement of all stakeholders
Major results from DRR-DS tool: – Key: the water cycle on- and off- site impacts – High water losses in drylands causing disasters: flood and drought – Discussion about investments in upper to protect lower zones – Productive Protection in all zones!!! – Prevention rather than cure or rehab – Valuable / crucial contribution by all stakeholders!!! – Local solutions often available but need up-scaling 15
In-/near-/off-village concept I. In-village – targeting the most vulnerable rural families II. Near-village – growing a productive belt around villages III. Off-village – intensify land use in the major production areas16
WOCAT publication 10 Technology Groups No CC impact being addressed Improved grazing land 4 Vegetation degradationIrrigation infrastructure management 7 Water shortage Water harvesting 3 Less frequent rainfalls Soil productivity enhancement 7 Soil fertility decline Cross-slope measures: 5 Heavy rainfall onsite protection Cross-slope measures: 4 Land slides due to extreme rainfalls offsite protection Agroforestry 10 Crop failure in monoculture systems Planted and natural forest 3 Riverbank erosion Tree belts 4 Wind erosion, change in microclimate Indirect SLM measures 2 Desertification Total number of WOCAT case 46 17 studies
Water harvesting: roof top rainwater harvesting storedin polythene lined earth retention tank In-Village+ increased water availability improved production and diversification in kitchen gardens+ low-cost technology+ less money spent to buy water- only works if there is no extreme drought Welthungerhilfe
Irrigation infrastructure management:Cascading rock irrigation channelChannelling water-runoff from mountain top to village Near- Off- Villageand slope stabilisation with poplar trees:+ improved water harvesting crop diversification downstream, crop yield, clean drinking water+ windbreak decreased wind erosion+ wood production source of secondary incomeCAMP
The flood April 2012Comparing: LD/SLMSaving cow 20
Conclusion• Key role SLM in DRR and CC-Adaptation• Land and water nexus• Linking productive (local with protective (watershed)• Building up on existing local experiences combine with external knowledge strengthen the decision capacities• Enhance land users knowledge and participation• Key role of land scape approach and the village concept• KM DS to be build into project right from the start• Many disasters are human made!!!