Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases – Strengthening Surveillance Systems


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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Peter Daniels, CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Science

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  • How else can the risk of emergence of zoonotic disease threats in intensively farmed animals be managed? What are the lessons from Nipah, SARS, H5N1, pandemic H1N12009,variant H3N2 in pigs, Ebola Reston in pigs in the Philippines etc?
  • Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases – Strengthening Surveillance Systems

    1. 1. Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases – Strengthening Surveillance Systems Peter Daniels Deputy Director, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Science Presentation for Plenary Session V, 2nd GRF One Health Summit 2013, Davos, Switzerland, 17- 20 November, 2013
    2. 2. What should be the Future? A Glimpse of the purpose of this surveillance? Is it too aspirational to suggest that Where animals are farmed to meet the needs of society, an informed society will require that the farming of these animals will not result in a health threat to people Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 2
    3. 3. The Role Call of Emerging Infectious Diseases Problems - and “Near Misses” • • • • • Nipah Virus in Pigs in Malaysia ... 295 (120) Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 ... 630 (375) Ebola-Reston in pigs in the Philippines several (0) Pandemic H1N1 2009 globally .... ongoing Variant H3N2 in North American pigs ... Several hundred infections • Avian influenza A(H7N9) in China ... 134 (43) (Just examples where intensively farmed animals have been a significant factor)
    4. 4. The Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security Project title: Tensions between Human and Animal Health Reviewing current policies and collaboration between the human, animal and trade sectors to identify possible obstacles and solutions Often identification of an infectious agent occurs in humans after human-to-human spread has begun, rather than in the animal from which it comes, and opportunities for control in animals and prevention of human infection are lost Chatham House (2010) Shifting from Emergency Response to Prevention of Pandemic Disease Threats at Source
    5. 5. Infections are transmitted among animals aided by human value chain behaviours Hence a holistic (One health?) understanding is the basis of managing the risks of animal disease But the understanding is needed by each society as whole: Farmers, traders, advisors, industry managers, regulators, consumers And the people at the critical control points have to CARE enough to want to manage the risk– to do it! Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 5
    6. 6. Early recognition of new threats gives better prospects for their eradication “The concept of emerging threats must be integrated into National Animal Health regulations and should be included in the remit of the Veterinary Services” But is it just the veterinary services? Can they be everywhere? Farmers and farming enterprises are the front line of society at the human animal interface! The animal farming operation is the critical control point in the value chain for surveillance Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 6
    7. 7. Delivery on our over-arching proposition, responding to Chatham House type concerns, requires a priori detection! THE SOLUTION? THE VISION? Managers of intensively farmed animals will know the infection status of their enterprise, just as they know the data of any production-related aspect of the business, and communicate findings Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 7
    8. 8. Possible surveillance issues for producers 1. Who carries the cost? • In a world where the public are represented by the supermarkets, how can surveillance costs be recovered? 1. What will be the response to findings? • Regulatory issues affecting business continuity – the first rule of surveillance: Don’t do it unless you know what you are going to do with the findings • Public perception issues relating to profitability – spontaneous market boycotts
    9. 9. A Glimpse of the Future? Consequently there is a need for public-private cooperation to deliver effective surveillance of animal populations for emerging health threats: Managing the Human Animal Interface Monitoring the infection status of farmed animals is a basic approach to disease risk management “Understanding the complex dynamics that define the food animal ecosystem of the 21st century is central to mitigating risks of emerging zoonoses” (Leibler et al, 2009, Ecohealth) Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 9
    10. 10. Prerequisites for a new way of doing business based on real time surveillance 1. The human factor: farm owners and managers have to be committed, the public has to understand the process Foreseeable impediments: • Costs – who pays, and how? • Negative repercussions following detections – threats to business continuity – need informed and predictable regulations Immediate needs: • Advocacy for partnership between public and producers • Social science/behavioural science research along the value chain • Communications strategies - but with what messages? Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 10
    11. 11. Prerequisites for a new way of doing business incorporating real time surveillance 2. The technological challenges and opportunities New detection technologies are becoming available • The challenge is to choose among them • Investigate how best to use them • Validate them Which approach will be most cost effective? Pandemic Threats and Animal Agriculture Page 11
    12. 12. Alignment of the need for surveillance with Global Megatrends - (Megachallenges) 1. Demographics – more people, more elderly (disease susceptible?) 2. Enabling technologies – novel opportunities 3. International interconnectedness – multinational food companies 4. Public debt – The challenge to reduce public debt while finding new ways to deliver public services and outcomes 5. Resources stress (climate change, water, competing land uses) – efficient agricultural resource management to guarantee food 6. Urbanization – 60% of people will live in cities – 37 megacities: (intensification of human production with similar implications for disease transmission), a disconnect between biological understanding and the immediate environment? Future State 2030: The global megatrends shaping governments, Mowat Centre, KPMG, 2013
    13. 13. Response strategies required to address megachallenges What needs to change? • Behaviour among citizens – better informed to be part of the solution to the management of impacts • Value chain behaviours – supported by policies and regulations • Systems for managing the international dimensions How to change? • Re-thinking of current paradigms • Strategy development based on behavioural insights • Adoption of new technologies Future State 2030: The global megatrends shaping governments, Mowat Centre, KPMG, 2013
    14. 14. Over to our panel................. Thank you CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory Peter Daniels, Deputy Director t +61 3 5227 5014 e peter.daniels@csiro.au w www.csiro.au CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Science