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How to Get Publishedin a Research JournalKatherine EvePublisher, Geochemistry & Geophysics Journals, Elsevier LimitedIDRC ...
Outline•    Publishing History•    Publishing Landscape and Cycle•    Publishing Cycle•    Your Expertise•    Initial Cons...
•    How to write a good manuscript    • Preparations before starting    • Constructing your article    • Language    • Su...
Publishing History
The Publisher’s Role TodayRegistration   Certification   Dissemination   Preservation   Use                        Innovat...
Change in Scholarly Communication,...           From “print science” to “electronic science”• Research output nowadays is ...
...Dramatic Growth in Output...                                 25000                                                     ...
...and increasing importance of data...       Publishing Research Consortium, 2010       Researchers, N = 3824            ...
...means changes in the way we publish• Content: Need to enhance the online article so that it allows researchers  to opti...
The Article of the Future?                                                     Feedback                                   ...
Interactive Maps                             e.g. GoogleMapsHow does it work?1.   Authors store geospatial data     as a ....
Data-Linking Applications    e.g. PANGAEA                     How does it work?                     1.   Authors (or data ...
Publishing Landscape and Cycle
• 2,000 publishers• 20,000 journals• 3M articles submitted from 5.5 M researchers• 1.5M articles published• 30M readers• 2...
The Journal Publishing Cycle• Organise editorial boards       Solicit and• Launch new specialist                          ...
Submission and Assessment• Organise editorial boards       Solicit and• Launch new specialist                             ...
Online Peer Review Systems
Editing, Preparation and Production• Organise editorial boards       Solicit and• Launch new specialist                   ...
Editing, Preparation and Production                                          Copy editing,                 Logo, paginatio...
Publication and Dissemination• Organise editorial boards       Solicit and• Launch new specialist                         ...
From Print to Electronic                     Traditional Print                        Journals   Electronic JournalPlatfor...
Universal Access      Open Access Journals                      Open Access Articles               Author pays            ...
Global Reach –      Information Philanthropy              Free or very low cost access          to 1000s of peer-reviewed ...
Archiving and Promoting Article Use• Organise editorial boards       Solicit and• Launch new specialist                   ...
3rd Party Archiving In addition to traditional print archives, publishers    are partnering to create multiple distributed...
Promoting Use by New Audiences•   Abstract & Index Databases•   Workflow & Research Tools•   Scientific Search Engines•   ...
Your Expertise
Switzerland
Initial Considerations
Are you ready to publish?You should consider publishing if you have informationthat advances understanding in a specific r...
What is a strong manuscript?• Has a clear, useful, and exciting message• Presented and constructed in a logical manner• Re...
Paper types1. Conference papers2. Full articles / Original articles3. Letters / Rapid Communications/ Short   communicatio...
1. Conference Papers• Excellent for disseminating early or in-progress  research findings• Typically 5-10 pages, 3 figures...
2. Full articles• Standard for disseminating completed research  findings• Typically 8-10 pages, 5 figures, 25 references•...
3. Letters• Quick and early communications of  significant, original advances• Much shorter than full articles• Usually fo...
4. Review papers/perspectives•   Critical synthesis of a specific research topic•   Typically 10+ pages, 5+ figures, 80 re...
Citations impact varies by publication type
Which paper type?Self-evaluate your work. Is it sufficient for a full  article? Would a short communication/letter be  bet...
Choosing the right journal• Discuss with your co-author, supervisor and  collaborators.• Look at your references to narrow...
How to write a good manuscript
Preparations before you start– Read the Guide for Authors  •   You can find the Guide for Authors on the journal homepage ...
Constructing your article- General structure of a research article                                          Make them easy...
- Title• Attract the reader‟s attention• Be specific• Keep it informative and concise• Avoid jargon and abbreviations
- Title – some examplesOriginal Title          Revised                 RemarksPreliminary             Effect of Zn on     ...
- Abstract        A clear abstract will strongly influence whether          or not your work is further considered...     ...
- KeywordsUsed by indexing and abstracting services• Labels/tags• Use only established abbreviations (e.g. DNA)• Check the...
The same things?•   Title•   Abstract•   Keywords•   Main text (IMRAD)     – Introduction     – Methods     – Results     ...
- Introduction  Provide context to convince readers that you       clearly know why your work is usefulSample 1st paragrap...
- Methods        st paragraph of an ExperimentalSample 1Describe how the problem Set-Up section                           ...
- Results – what have you found?• Tell a clear and easy-to-understand story.• Include:   – Main findings   – Unexpected fi...
- Results – graphs, figures and tables• Captions and legends must be detailed enough  to make figures and tables self-expl...
- Discussion   Sample 1st paragraph of an Discussion sectionWhat the results mean• Most important section• Make the Discus...
Not the same things•   Title•   Abstract•   Keywords – Introduction (background, literature survey)•                – Meth...
- Conclusion How the work advances the field from theSample Conclusion  present state of knowledge • Should be clear • Jus...
- References Cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based• Do not use too many references• Always ens...
- AcknowledgementsEnsures those who helped in the research are recognisedInclude individuals who have assisted with your s...
Language - Why is language important?   Save your editor and reviewers the    trouble of guessing what you meanComplaint f...
- Do publishers correct language?• No. It is the author‟s responsibility to make sure his  paper is in its best possible f...
Submission- Final checks• Revise before submission• Vet the manuscript as thoroughly as possible  before submission• Ask c...
- Covering letter Your chance to speak to the editor directly from all                                      Final approval...
The review process
Demystifying the ‘black hole’                  Author                            Editor                           Reviewer...
Desk Rejection   (rejection without external review)The Editor-in-chief evaluates all submissions, and determines whether ...
Review ProcessRegular articles are initially reviewed by at least two reviewersA third reviewer may be used in case of dis...
Review PolicyReviewers do not communicate directly                                   As author with authors               ...
What is the reviewer looking for?                                                                                         ...
What is the reviewer looking for?                                                                                         ...
Decision possibilities• Accept without change (very rare!)• Minor revision (means you will have to change a few  things)• ...
Revision:               a great opportunity• Value the opportunity to discuss your work directly with other  scientists in...
Rejection:           not the end of the world•You are not alone – everyone has papers rejectedso do not take it personally...
Types of review                                       SUBMIT TO A JOURNAL       REVIEW ON A JOURNAL                       ...
Ethical Issues
What is unethical behaviour?Unethical behaviour can earn rejection and even a ban frompublishing in some journals. Unethic...
Scientific misconduct- an example             Rotated 180o               Rotated            Zoomed out               180o ...
- Fabrication and falsification • Fabrication is making up data or results, and recording   or reporting them • Falsificat...
Publishing misconduct- Plagiarism“Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s  ideas, processes, results, or words...
- Multiple/Duplicate submission• Two or more papers, without full cross reference, share the same  hypotheses, data, discu...
- Authorship General principles for who is listed first • First Author        Conducts and/or supervises the data generat...
- Conflicts of interest•   Conflicts of interest can take many forms:     – Direct financial         e.g. employment, stoc...
ConsequencesThe article of which the authors committed plagiarism: it won’t be removed from ScienceDirect.Everybody who do...
Thank you for listening...   ...and Good Luck!
Elsevier Listens…Every journal, platform and product at Elsevier is co-developed with ongoing community input.            ...
Elsevier Author Workshop – How to write a scientific paper… and get it published
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Elsevier Author Workshop – How to write a scientific paper… and get it published

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Katherine EVE

Publisher, Elsevier Earth & Environmental Sciences

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Elsevier Author Workshop – How to write a scientific paper… and get it published

  1. 1. How to Get Publishedin a Research JournalKatherine EvePublisher, Geochemistry & Geophysics Journals, Elsevier LimitedIDRC 2012 26th August 2012
  2. 2. Outline• Publishing History• Publishing Landscape and Cycle• Publishing Cycle• Your Expertise• Initial Considerations • Are you ready to publish? • What is a strong manuscript? • Paper types • Choosing the right journal
  3. 3. • How to write a good manuscript • Preparations before starting • Constructing your article • Language • Submission• The review process • Demystifying the „black hole‟ • Types of review • What do reviewers look for?• Ethical issues • What is unethical behaviour? • Scientific misconduct • Publishing misconduct • Consequences
  4. 4. Publishing History
  5. 5. The Publisher’s Role TodayRegistration Certification Dissemination Preservation Use Innovation & Technology Publishers coordinate the exchange of ideas between authors, editors, reviewers, and the wider STM audience of researchers, scientists, health professionals, students, and patients. 5
  6. 6. Change in Scholarly Communication,... From “print science” to “electronic science”• Research output nowadays is more than text and images. Also data sets, computer code, multimedia files etc.
  7. 7. ...Dramatic Growth in Output... 25000 ~3% per annum “This is truly the decade of the journal and one should seek to limit their 20000 number rather than to increaseActive, Peer-Reviewed Journals them, since there can be too many periodicals.” 15000 Neues medicinisches Wochenblatt fur Aerzte (1789) 10000 5000 0 <1900 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s >2000 Decade • Extent of output means readers need assistance with analysing and interpreting research
  8. 8. ...and increasing importance of data... Publishing Research Consortium, 2010 Researchers, N = 3824 Important, but hard to access
  9. 9. ...means changes in the way we publish• Content: Need to enhance the online article so that it allows researchers to optimally communicate scientific research in all its (digital) breadth• Context: Need to connect the online article to trustworthy scientific resources to present valuable additional information• Presentation: Need to optimise browsing and reading experience pres. content context• Introducing Elsevier‟s Article of the Future
  10. 10. The Article of the Future? Feedback “New presentation format and extra features make it faster / easier to obtain understanding” “Article outline in the left pane helps to easily navigate within an article” “Additional content/features in the right pane help when reading the article” (Survey with 600+ participants)Left pane: efficient Center pane: Full-textnavigation Right pane: collects domain- view, designed for optimal& browsing specific tools and content. online reading experience Shown here: Fossil Taxa from PaleoDB
  11. 11. Interactive Maps e.g. GoogleMapsHow does it work?1. Authors store geospatial data as a .KML file (using regular GIS tools)2. Authors upload .KML files as supplementary material through EES (may also be at revision stage)3. Elsevier turns this into an Interactive Map and includes this in the online article4. Readers can explore map from the article, or download KML file
  12. 12. Data-Linking Applications e.g. PANGAEA How does it work? 1. Authors (or data managers for large projects) deposit data at PANGAEA and provide publication info 2. Online article reader sees an interactive application that visualizes data on the map 3. Application contains link to full data record at PANGAEA
  13. 13. Publishing Landscape and Cycle
  14. 14. • 2,000 publishers• 20,000 journals• 3M articles submitted from 5.5 M researchers• 1.5M articles published• 30M readers• 2 billion digital article downloads• 30M article citations Source: Knowledge Networks and Nations: Royal Society 2011 http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/In fluencing_Policy/Reports/2011-03-28-Knowledge-networks- nations.pdf
  15. 15. The Journal Publishing Cycle• Organise editorial boards Solicit and• Launch new specialist manage journals submissions Archive and Manage peer promote use review Publish and Edit and disseminate prepare Production 15
  16. 16. Submission and Assessment• Organise editorial boards Solicit and• Launch new specialist manage journals submissions Archive and Manage peer promote use review Publish and Edit and disseminate prepare Production 16
  17. 17. Online Peer Review Systems
  18. 18. Editing, Preparation and Production• Organise editorial boards Solicit and• Launch new specialist manage journals submissions Archive and Manage peer promote use review Publish and Edit and disseminate prepare Production 18
  19. 19. Editing, Preparation and Production Copy editing, Logo, paginatioAuthor Submits Manuscript Author Proofing, n, brandingManuscript Accepted Preparation for publishing 2. Accepted 4. Published 1. Preprint Author 3. Document Journal Article Manuscript Electronic Warehouse Published as Published as Print Copy HTML or PDF • Publishers can create an Electronic Warehouse and other electronic production tools to speed up production times • These tools require heavy investments, but they can process hundreds of thousands of articles and maintain digitized backfiles 19
  20. 20. Publication and Dissemination• Organise editorial boards Solicit and• Launch new specialist manage journals submissions Archive and Manage peer promote use review Publish and Edit and disseminate prepare Production 20
  21. 21. From Print to Electronic Traditional Print Journals Electronic JournalPlatforms improve online dissemination and access, for example 21
  22. 22. Universal Access Open Access Journals Open Access Articles Author pays Option to pay for OA at point of acceptance Open Archives Delayed access to recent archives after embargo of 6-48 months Retained Author Rights Supporting and FacilitatingPermitted posting of preprint and accepted Posting in Repositoriesauthor manuscript (AAM) for personal use, Example: Elsevier deposits NIH institutional use, and permitted scholarly funded research in PMC on author posting behalf
  23. 23. Global Reach – Information Philanthropy Free or very low cost access to 1000s of peer-reviewed journals from current day back to 1995to public institutions in over 100 developing countries 23
  24. 24. Archiving and Promoting Article Use• Organise editorial boards Solicit and• Launch new specialist manage journals submissions Archive and Manage peer promote use review Publish and Edit and disseminate prepare Production 24
  25. 25. 3rd Party Archiving In addition to traditional print archives, publishers are partnering to create multiple distributed electronic archives with 3rd parties for posterityElsevier has partnered with the …and is developing similar National Library of the arrangements with other Netherlands… organizations 1st official archive 2nd official archive 2-year Pilot Study 25
  26. 26. Promoting Use by New Audiences• Abstract & Index Databases• Workflow & Research Tools• Scientific Search Engines• Patient Use (Patient Research)• Point of Care Decision Making 26
  27. 27. Your Expertise
  28. 28. Switzerland
  29. 29. Initial Considerations
  30. 30. Are you ready to publish?You should consider publishing if you have informationthat advances understanding in a specific research fieldThis could be in the form of:• Presenting new, original results or methods• Rationalizing, refining, or reinterpreting published results• Reviewing or summarizing a particular subject or field If you are ready to publish, a strong manuscript is what is needed next
  31. 31. What is a strong manuscript?• Has a clear, useful, and exciting message• Presented and constructed in a logical manner• Reviewers and editors can grasp the significance easily Editors and reviewers are all busy people – make things easy to save their time
  32. 32. Paper types1. Conference papers2. Full articles / Original articles3. Letters / Rapid Communications/ Short communications4. Review papers / perspectives
  33. 33. 1. Conference Papers• Excellent for disseminating early or in-progress research findings• Typically 5-10 pages, 3 figures, 15 references• Typically edited by conference/session organiser(s)• Good way to start a scientific research career
  34. 34. 2. Full articles• Standard for disseminating completed research findings• Typically 8-10 pages, 5 figures, 25 references• Good way to build a scientific research career
  35. 35. 3. Letters• Quick and early communications of significant, original advances• Much shorter than full articles• Usually follow up with a full length paper later
  36. 36. 4. Review papers/perspectives• Critical synthesis of a specific research topic• Typically 10+ pages, 5+ figures, 80 references• Typically solicited by journal editors• Good way to consolidate a scientific research career
  37. 37. Citations impact varies by publication type
  38. 38. Which paper type?Self-evaluate your work. Is it sufficient for a full article? Would a short communication/letter be better?Ask your supervisor and your colleagues for advice on manuscript type. Sometimes outsiders can see things more clearly than you.
  39. 39. Choosing the right journal• Discuss with your co-author, supervisor and collaborators.• Look at your references to narrow down your choices.• Review recent publications in each candidate journal. Find out the hot topics, the accepted types of articles, etc.• Find out journal specifics:  Is the journal peer-reviewed?  Who is this journal‟s audience?  What is the average time to print?  What is the journal‟s Impact Factor?• Decide on one journal. DO NOT submit to multiple journals• Consider journals‟ Guides/Instructions for Authors
  40. 40. How to write a good manuscript
  41. 41. Preparations before you start– Read the Guide for Authors • You can find the Guide for Authors on the journal homepage on Elsevier.com • Stick to the Guide for Authors in your manuscript, even in the first draft (text layout, nomenclature, figures & tables, references etc.). In the end it will save you time, and also the editor‟s. • Editors (and reviewers) do not like wasting time on poorly prepared manuscripts.
  42. 42. Constructing your article- General structure of a research article Make them easy for • Title The progression andthe thematic indexing of searching! • Abstract scope of a paper: (informative, attractive, • Keywords effective) general  specific general • Main text (IMRAD) Journal space is not – Introduction However, we often write in the unlimited. – Methods following order: as Make your article – Results – Figuresconcise as possible. and tables – And – Discussions– Methods, Results and Discussion • Conclusions – Conclusions and Introduction • Acknowledgements – Abstract and title • References • Supplementary Data
  43. 43. - Title• Attract the reader‟s attention• Be specific• Keep it informative and concise• Avoid jargon and abbreviations
  44. 44. - Title – some examplesOriginal Title Revised RemarksPreliminary Effect of Zn on Long title distracts readers.observations on the anticorrosion of zinc Remove all redundancies such aseffect of Zn element plating layer “observations on”, “the nature of”, etc.on anticorrosion ofzinc plating layerAction of antibiotics Inhibition of growth Titles should be specific.on bacteria of mycobacterium Think to yourself: “How will I search for this tuberculosis by piece of information?” when you design the streptomycin title.
  45. 45. - Abstract A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered... – Brief - one paragraphWe tackle the general linear instantaneous model (possiblyunderdetermined and noisy) where we model the source prior with aStudent t distribution. The conjugate-exponential characterisation of the t – Advertisement of your article (freely What hasdistribution as an infinite mixture of scaled Gaussians enables us to doefficient inference. We study two well-known inference methods, Gibbs available through A&I)sampler and variational Bayes for Bayesian source separation. We derive been doneboth techniques as local message passing algorithms to highlight their – Easy to understand (without reading the wholealgorithmic similarities and to contrast their different convergencecharacteristics and computational requirements.Our simulation results suggest that typical posterior distributions in source article)separation have multiple local maxima. Therefore we propose a hybrid What are theapproach where we explore the state space with a Gibbs sampler and – Must be accurate and specific! main findingsthen switch to a deterministic algorithm. This approach seems to be ableto combine the speed of the variational approach with the robustness ofthe Gibbs sampler.
  46. 46. - KeywordsUsed by indexing and abstracting services• Labels/tags• Use only established abbreviations (e.g. DNA)• Check the „Guide for Authors‟Article Title Keywords“Silo music and silo quake: granular Silo music, Silo quake, stick-slipflow-induced vibration” flow, resonance, creep, granular discharge“An experimental study on evacuated Solar collector; Supercritical CO2;tube solar collector using supercritical Solar energy; Solar thermalCO2” utilization
  47. 47. The same things?• Title• Abstract• Keywords• Main text (IMRAD) – Introduction – Methods – Results – And – Discussions• Conclusion• Acknowledgement• References• Supporting Materials
  48. 48. - Introduction Provide context to convince readers that you clearly know why your work is usefulSample 1st paragraph of an Introduction• Be brief• Clearly address the following: – What is the problem? – Are there any existing solutions? – Which solution is the best? – What is its main limitation? – What do you hope to achieve?• Try to be consistent with the nature of the journal Zhang, XR; Yamaguchi, H. “An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using supercritical CO2” Applied Thermal Engineering © Elsevier
  49. 49. - Methods st paragraph of an ExperimentalSample 1Describe how the problem Set-Up section was studied• Include detailed information• Do not describe previously published procedures• Identify the equipment and describe materials used Zhang, XR; Yamaguchi, H. “An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using supercritical CO2” Applied Thermal Engineering © Elsevier 49
  50. 50. - Results – what have you found?• Tell a clear and easy-to-understand story.• Include: – Main findings – Unexpected findings – Results of the statistical analysis
  51. 51. - Results – graphs, figures and tables• Captions and legends must be detailed enough to make figures and tables self-explanatory• No duplication of results described in text or other illustrations• Use colour ONLY when necessary e.g. if different line styles can clarify the meaning, use this instead of colour. Figure should be visible and distinguishable when printed out in black & white.• Do NOT ‘selectively adjust’ any image to enhance visualization of results.
  52. 52. - Discussion Sample 1st paragraph of an Discussion sectionWhat the results mean• Most important section• Make the Discussion correspond to the Results• You need to compare published results with yours Muite, B.K., Quinn, S.F., Sundaresan, S., Rao, K.K.. “Silo music and silo quake: granular flow-induced vibration” Powder Technology. © Elsevier
  53. 53. Not the same things• Title• Abstract• Keywords – Introduction (background, literature survey)• – Methods Main text (IMRAD) – Introduction (definition/notation, theory/hypothesis, specifi – Methods cation, experimental set up, proofs) – Results – Results (your proof, Algorithms, data) – And – And – Discussions – Discussions• Conclusion (evaluation, comparisons, further• Acknowledgement work, related work)• References• Supporting Materials
  54. 54. - Conclusion How the work advances the field from theSample Conclusion present state of knowledge • Should be clear • Justify your work in the research field • Suggest future experiments Muite, B.K., Quinn, S.F., Sundaresan, S., Rao, K.K.. “Silo music and silo quake: granular flow-induced vibration” Powder Technology. © Elsevier
  55. 55. - References Cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based• Do not use too many references• Always ensure you have fully absorbed material you are referencing and do not just rely on checking excerpts or isolated sentences• Avoid excessive self-citations• Avoid excessive citations of publications from the same region• Conform strictly to the style given in the Guide for Authors Muite, B.K., Quinn, S.F., Sundaresan, S., Rao, K.K.. “Silo music and silo quake: granular flow-induced vibration” Powder Technology. © Elsevier
  56. 56. - AcknowledgementsEnsures those who helped in the research are recognisedInclude individuals who have assisted with your study, including:• Advisors• Financial supporters• Proofreaders• Typists• Suppliers who may have given materials
  57. 57. Language - Why is language important? Save your editor and reviewers the trouble of guessing what you meanComplaint from an editor:“[This] paper fell well below my threshold. I refuse to spend timetrying to understand what the author is trying to say. Besides, Ireally want to send a message that they cant submit garbage to usand expect us to fix it. My rule of thumb is that if there are morethan 6 grammatical errors in the abstract, then I dont waste mytime carefully reading the rest.”
  58. 58. - Do publishers correct language?• No. It is the author‟s responsibility to make sure his paper is in its best possible form when submitted for publication• However: – Publishers often provide resources for authors who are less familiar with the conventions of international journals. Please check your publishers‟ author website for more information. – Some publishers may perform technical screening prior to peer review. – Visit http://webshop.elsevier.com for translation and language editing services.
  59. 59. Submission- Final checks• Revise before submission• Vet the manuscript as thoroughly as possible before submission• Ask colleagues and supervisors to review your manuscript
  60. 60. - Covering letter Your chance to speak to the editor directly from all Final approval authors• Submitted along with your manuscript• Mention what would make your manuscript special to the journal Explanation of importance• Note special requirements of research (reviewers, conflicts of interest)Suggested reviewers
  61. 61. The review process
  62. 62. Demystifying the ‘black hole’ Author Editor Reviewer START Basic requirements met? Submit a [Yes] paper Assign reviewers Review and give [No] recommendation Collect reviewers’ recommendations [Reject] Make a REJECT decision Revise the [Revision required] paper [Accept]Michael Derntl. Basics of Research Paper Writing and Publishing.ACCEPT 63http://www.pri.univie.ac.at/~derntl/papers/meth-se.pdf
  63. 63. Desk Rejection (rejection without external review)The Editor-in-chief evaluates all submissions, and determines whether they go into thereview process or are rejected by the editorSome journal specific policy e.g. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta “Rule of Two”Criteria – Out of scope – Too preliminary – Lack of Novelty – Inadequate English language – Prior publication of (part of) the data – Ethical issues e.g. submitted elsewhere – And more...
  64. 64. Review ProcessRegular articles are initially reviewed by at least two reviewersA third reviewer may be used in case of disagreements between reviewersWhen invited, the reviewer receives the Abstract of the manuscriptThe editor generally requests that the article be reviewed within reasonable time (varies per field), limited extensions sometimes acceptableIf a report has not been received in good time, the Editorial office contacts the reviewerArticles are generally revised until the reviewers agree on either acceptanceor rejection, or until the editor decides that the reviewer comments have beenaddressed satisfactorilyThe reviewers‟ reports help the Editors to reach a decisionThe reviewer recommends…the editor decides
  65. 65. Review PolicyReviewers do not communicate directly As author with authors As editor As reviewerAll manuscripts and supplementary material must be As reader treated confidentially by editors and reviewersThe aim is to have a “first decision” to the authors as fast as possible after submission of the manuscriptMeeting these schedule objectives requires a significant effort on the part of the Editorial staff, As a researcher, Editor and Reviewers you wear many hats!If reviewers treat authors as they themselves would like to be treated as authors, then these objectives can be met
  66. 66. What is the reviewer looking for? Yes NoIs the article within the scope of the journal?Would the article be more appropriately published in a specialist journal?Can the article be condensed?• If so, where: Figures Figure legends Tables TextIs the language acceptable?Are there portions of the manuscripts which require further clarification?• If so, where? ________________On a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding), how do you rate Poor 1 2 3 4 5 Outstanding• Novelty, New knowledge in xyz• Experimental design• Evaluation of data• Discussion of results• Clarity of presentationThe article should beAccepted without change Accepted after minor revision Accepted after condensationReconsidered after major revision RejectedConfidential comments to the editor: [free text]
  67. 67. What is the reviewer looking for? Yes NoIs the article within the scope of the journal?Would the article be more appropriately published in a specialist journal?Can the article be condensed? “ Novelty”• If so, where: Figures Figure legends Tables TextIs the language acceptable?Are there portions of the manuscripts which require further clarification?• If so, where? ________________On a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding), how do you rate Poor 1 2 3 4 5 Outstanding• Novelty, New knowledge in xyz• Experimental design “ Technical” Quality• Evaluation of data• Discussion of results• Clarity of presentationThe article should beAccepted without change Accepted after minor revision Accepted after condensationReconsidered after major revision RejectedConfidential comments to the editor: [free text]
  68. 68. Decision possibilities• Accept without change (very rare!)• Minor revision (means you will have to change a few things)• Moderate revision (means you will have to rewrite a few things, possibly sections, figures, provide more data, etc)• Major revision (means you will have to address some fundamental shortcomings – possibly doing additional research and certainly rewriting big sections)• Rejection (means the manuscript is not deemed suitable for publication in that journal)
  69. 69. Revision: a great opportunity• Value the opportunity to discuss your work directly with other scientists in your community to improve your manuscript• Prepare a detailed letter of response – Cut and paste each comment by the reviewer – State specifically the changes (if any) you have made to the manuscript (identify the page and line number) – Provide a scientific response to any comment you accept – Offer a convincing, solid and polite rebuttal to any point on which you think the reviewer is wrong• Write in a such way that your responses can be forwarded by the editor to the reviewer
  70. 70. Rejection: not the end of the world•You are not alone – everyone has papers rejectedso do not take it personally•Try to understand why the paper was rejected•You have received the editors and reviewers‟ time – benefit fromthe advice and pointers they have given you•Re-evaluate your work and decide whether it is appropriate tosubmit the paper elsewhere. If so: begin as if you are going to write a new article read the Guide for Authors of the new journal address previous reviewer comments
  71. 71. Types of review SUBMIT TO A JOURNAL REVIEW ON A JOURNAL Less likely More likely Less likely More likely Single Blind Double Blind Open Peer Review (Reviewer known to author only) Open Peer Review (Reviewer name next to article) Open Peer Review(Reviewer report posted but NO name) Open Peer Review(Reviewer‟s name and report posted) Post-publication assessment (Peer reviewed before publication) Post-publication assessment (No peer review before publication)
  72. 72. Ethical Issues
  73. 73. What is unethical behaviour?Unethical behaviour can earn rejection and even a ban frompublishing in some journals. Unethical behaviour includes:• Scientific misconduct • Falsification/fabrication of results• Publishing misconduct – Plagiarism – Different forms / severities – The paper must be original to the authors – Duplicate/multiple submission – Redundant publication – Failure to acknowledge prior research and researchers – Inappropriate identification of all co-authors – Conflict of interest
  74. 74. Scientific misconduct- an example Rotated 180o Rotated Zoomed out 180o ?!
  75. 75. - Fabrication and falsification • Fabrication is making up data or results, and recording or reporting them • Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, processes, or changing/omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record
  76. 76. Publishing misconduct- Plagiarism“Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others’ research proposals and manuscripts” Federal Office of Science and Technology Policy, 1999“Presenting the data or interpretations of others without crediting them, and thereby gaining for yourself the rewards earned by others, is theft, and it eliminates the motivation of working scientists to generate new data and interpretations” Bruce Railsback, Professor, Department of Geology, University of Georgia 77
  77. 77. - Multiple/Duplicate submission• Two or more papers, without full cross reference, share the same hypotheses, data, discussion points, or conclusions• An author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper. Published studies do not need to be repeated unless further confirmation is required.• Nuances: – Previous publication of an abstract during the proceedings of conferences does not preclude subsequent submission for publication, but full disclosure should be made at the time of submission. – Re-publication of a paper in another language is acceptable, provided that there is full and prominent disclosure of its original source at the time of submission.
  78. 78. - Authorship General principles for who is listed first • First Author  Conducts and/or supervises the data generation and analysis and the proper presentation and interpretation of the results  Puts paper together and submits the paper to journal • Corresponding author  Makes intellectual contributions to the data analysis and contributes to data interpretation  Reviews each paper draft  Must be able to present the results, defend the implications and discuss study limitations Avoid • Ghost Authorship – leaving out authors who should be included • Gift Authorship – including authors who did not contribute significantly
  79. 79. - Conflicts of interest• Conflicts of interest can take many forms: – Direct financial e.g. employment, stock ownership, grants, patents – Indirect financial e.g. onoraria, consultancies, mutual fund ownership, expert testimony – Career & intellectual e.g. promotion, direct rival – Institutional – Personal belief• The proper way to handle potential conflicts of interest is through transparency and disclosure• At the journal level, this means disclosure of the potential conflict in your cover letter to the journal editor
  80. 80. ConsequencesThe article of which the authors committed plagiarism: it won’t be removed from ScienceDirect.Everybody who downloads it will see the reason of retraction… 81
  81. 81. Thank you for listening... ...and Good Luck!
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