Pillar 2 can be considered to be the most complicated of the 3 pillars as in encompasses so much and involves significantly different groups.In Pillar 1 or Infrastructure you have two primary stakeholders Engineers & Educationalists. While they battle out the difference between “feasibility” and “enabling learning space” both groups have internationally recognized indicators, such as building codes and educational outcomes. Pillar 2 become a little more amorphous So why has it worked in some countries and not others. One of the primary reasons I believe is where the directive came from and who is driving it.So often we see the starting point be at best the Ministry of Education and at worst an individual school in yet another Safer Schools Pilot. The reality is that the concept of Pillar 2 is not unique and is basically Disaster Risk Management – it is NOT a plan. It goes way beyond that. It is a philosphy that accepts responsibility as a duty bearer.In countries where it has succeeded is where the drive has been external and part of a large social responsibility campaign. Eg: it has been driven from National level Disaster Management Functions with the power to obtain funds and direct other Ministries. So why is it so much more than drills and school maps.
Basic Data on the School itself. Most of this Data is the type of data that is asked about in a Educational assessment, yet this information one would think would be readily available. However it is not the case. Simple cheap databases and paper based forms could have a entire nations schools system mapped out. Once we know where the schools are and how they are built we can then determine the likelihood of something going wrong. This is particularly iportant when linking in with other emergency services. Schools should be the first place that Emergency Search and Rescue go to if an event happens during school hours. However this needs to be an SOP.Mechanisms to ensure that all student emergency Contact details are held in an accessible way.
What is interesting to note that even with Indonesia’s sophisticated Local, Regional and national disaster risk management committee’s there still isn’t full take up of the concept universally across the country.
A division of labor is needed. We need to stop taking to each other and preaching to the converted. A division of labor is needed. Clearly the World Bank can take the lead on the intrastructure safety issues as it is an extension of asset risk. DRR Curriculum development can be driven by UNESCO and UNCIEF with support for NGO’s. However who takinging on Pillar @ who, going to champion it.
Disaster Risk Management in Schools – The Second Pillar
Disaster Risk Management in Schools The Second Pillar
Parent/Teacher National Association Disaster Management Committee Local DisasterLocal Disaster Response SurfaceManagement Committee School Disaster Risk Management Local Social Welfare Division National Education Authority
Some Key Elements of School Based Disaster Risk Management.• Complete Data on the School (number of Students, Teachers, Building types, Maps Floor plans, Assets. Etc)• Probability and Impact Scenarios• Student/Guardian contact information, bother primary and secondary.• Full integration of roles and responsibilities of other agencies such as Social Welfare, Hospitals etc.• Hold before release and shelter plan, to ensure appropriate alternative care.• Emergency warning system• A school evacuation plan and map including highlighting surrounding building danger.• Provision of emergency transportation for students and staff• Contingency plan for education continuity and mutual assistance plans.• Off-site back-up of documents and records.• Matriculation special circumstance procedures.
Where has take up of the Second Pillar been a success - IndonesiaIndonesia - Provide preparedness information tostudents, teachers, staff, and school administratorsregarding what to do before, during, and after a hazardevent: The Indonesian Institute of Science (Lembaga IlmuPengetahuan Indonesia - LIPI) and UNESCO office Jakartahas developed a school-based disaster preparednessprogram (Sekolah Siaga Bencana - SSB). The SSB supportsschools in building their capacity based on fiveparameters: knowledge and attitude; school policy andstandard operating procedures; emergency planning;school early warning system; and school‘s resourcemobilization capacity.
Where has take up of the Second Pillar been a success - Guatemala Guatemala - Include hazards, vulnerability and risk evaluation, alert systems and evacuation routes, as well as first-aid kits or disaster kits (e.g. earthquake survival kits) as part of the plans: The capabilities of the Ministry of Education are being improved through support and collaboration with DIPECHO partners‘ initiatives. National workshops on education in emergency have been conducted. They included topics like: ―Escuela Protegida/Protected School, “Safe Schools in a Safe Territory,” Using Schools as a Shelter, Emergency Simulation Activities, Continuing Education in Emergency Situations, and Education Emergency Response Activities, among others.
Where has take up of the Second Pillar been a success - Angola Angola - Create backup plans to ensure schools operations continuity in case natural hazards without disruptions in the school calendar: UNICEF developed its National Contingency Plan for the Education Sector to ensure minimum disruption of educational services for all students and teachers in areas affected by disasters by promoting access to quality primary education for all children with particular emphasis on girls. Planning assumptions relative to school continuity include that: The government will assume the leadership role in conducting rapid with affected or displaced communities.
Challenges• School Disaster Management Plans are written for Schools instead of by Schools• Under-utilization of local staff to be trained up as providers of Technical assistance• Child Protection measures ignored as loco parentis• Drills are used as activities and not as a form of monitoring and correcting behavior• Response Orientated – Not truly looking at risks and how to reduce them.• Minorities and special needs groups are often not addressed• Clash between Community Shelter demands and Education Continuity.• No Lead Agency championing 2nd Pillar.• Education Driven programming rather than Disaster Risk Management Programming• Poor support infrastructure• Poor data management mechanisms• Decentralized Education systems
Next Steps• Division of Labor.• Full integration in to an National and Regional level disaster management committees.• Go to scale and stop the pilots .• Use Drills and Simulations as a way of testing outcomes and not as activities themselves.• Development of GIS mechanisms that can be used by Countries to store relevant data.