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Consequences of the Armed Conflict as a Stressor of Climate Change in Colombia, Diana CONTRERAS

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6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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Consequences of the Armed Conflict as a Stressor of Climate Change in Colombia, Diana CONTRERAS

  1. 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Consequences of the Armed Conflict as a Stressor of climate phenomena in Colombia Dr. Diana Contreras, University of Salzburg, Austria B.Comm. Sandra contreras, Grupo Planeta, Colombia Resilience Academy 2013 – 2014 : Exploring livelihood resilience
  2. 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org OUTLINE  Introduction  Methodology  Results  Conclusions  References Sapzurro – Colombia. Photo: Diana Contreras 2/12
  3. 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org ARMED GROUPS  Guerrilla  Paramilitary forces (until 2003)  Criminal gangs INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Clan Úsuga Drugs trafic corridors (until 29 August 2016) 3/12
  4. 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org ILLICIT CROPS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Coca crops density in Colombia in 2009 UNODC. (2011). Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 23. Small-scale mining near to Capurganá (Colombia) Photo: Diana Contreras 22/02/2014 Regional distribution of the permanence of the coca crops between 2001 and 2010 UNODC. (2011). Source: UNODC. (2011). Monitoreo de Cultivos de Coca 2010. Pag. 18. Not Area affected between 2008 and 2010 Area affected intermittent between 2001 and 2010 Area affected from 2008 Area permanently affected between 2001 and 2010 4/12
  5. 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org La Niña 2010 - 2011 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Significatively below normal ( 0 - 30%) Moderately below normal ( 30 - 60%) Slightly below normal ( 60 - 90%) Normal ( 60 - 90%) Slightly above normal ( 110 - 140%) Moderately above normal ( 140 - 170%) Significatively above normal ( > 170%) Rainfall anomalies between January and December 2010 Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno "La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 20. Rainfall anomalies between January and May 2011 Euscátegui, C., & Hurtado, G. (2016). Análisis del impacto del fenómeno "La Niña" 2010 - 2011 en la hidroclimatología del país. Retrieved from http://www.ideam.gov.co/documents/21021/418818/An%C3%A1lisis+I mpacto+La+Ni%C3%B1a.pdf. Maps 1 to 12. Pag. 21. Significatively below normal ( 0 - 30%) Moderately below normal ( 30 - 60%) Slightly below normal ( 60 - 90%) Normal ( 60 - 90%) Slightly above normal ( 110 - 140%) Moderately above normal ( 140 - 170%) Significatively above normal ( > 170%) Hoyos, N., Escobar, J., Restrepo, J. C., Arango, A. M., & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event. Applied Geography, 39(0), 16-25. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.018. Fig. 5. Pag. 21. 4 millions affected 9% population 448 people died 524 injured 73 missing 447,482 houses damaged 13,110 destroyed Economic losses US$ 7.8 billion 5/12
  6. 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 6/12 POVERTY
  7. 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CASE STUDY AREA INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Departments from Colombia with problems regarding deforestation in the period between 2002 and 2007, are considered (SINCHI, 2010) CORRELATION  Fires for land clearing  Deforestation  Cattle ranching  Illicit crops  Other crops  Farmers  Armed and/or illegal groups Armenteras and Retana (2012) NO CORRELATION  Climate Variables  Fire variables  Precipitation anomalies (accumulated rainfall)  Fire hotspots Number of violent events in Colombia between the 1st January 2012 and 15th July 2013. Baracaldo Orjuela, D. (2013). Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? Política. Retrieved from http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/ 7/12
  8. 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CASE STUDY AREA INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Comparison of the number of Km2 deforested in Colombia between 2002 and 2007, the number of affected households by La Niña phenomenon between 2010 and 2011, and the number of events of armed violence between 2012 and 2013. ND: No data. DEPARTMENTS DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 ARMED VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 Km2 Number Number of events Caquetá 2093,36 6248 339 Meta 1711,84 5545 213 Guaviare 1315,26 95 60 Putumayo 1090,48 4171 221 Amazonas 413,89 695 0 Vichada ND ND 6 Vaupés 257,08 3 3 Cauca 91,58 71220 657 Nariño 41,06 47438 331 8/12
  9. 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CORRELATION ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 ARMED VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 DEFORESTATION 2002 - 2007 Pearson Correlation 1 -,423 -,031 Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,471 N 9 9 8 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS 2010 - 2011 Pearson Correlation -,423 1 ,865** Sig. (1-tailed) ,129 ,003 N 9 9 8 VIOLENCE 2012 - 2013 Pearson Correlation -,031 ,865** 1 Sig. (1-tailed) ,471 ,003 N 8 8 8 **.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). Pearson's one-tailed bivariate correlation 9/12
  10. 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REGRESSION ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Variables Entered/Removeda Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDSb . Enter a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE b. All requested variables entered. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .865a .748 .706 118.7693 a. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 25,0736.584 1 25,0736.584 17.775 .006b Residual 84,636.916 6 14,106.153 Total 335,373.500 7 a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE b. Predictors: (Constant), AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 111.155 50.411 2.205 .070 AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS .007 .002 .865 4.216 .006 a. Dependent Variable: ARMED VIOLENCE 10/12
  11. 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES  The problem is not the hazard or the intensity of the natural phenomenon, the real problem is the low resilience of the communities involved in the internal conflict of Colombia, when they have to face regular climate phenomenon such as La Niña.  To construct social capital and develop resilience to face phenomena such as La Niña and El Niño, it is necessary to increase the presence of the government in the areas where there are natural resources, which are usually geographically far from the institutional control.  One of the most urgent policies in Colombia is a land reform beside the process of land restitution, and more support for the farmers in the process of substitution of illegal crops. 11/12
  12. 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org REFERENCES INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES  Armenteras, D. & Retana, J. (2012). Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia. PLoS ONE, 7, 1-7.  Baracaldo, D. 2013. Cuáles son las zonas "rojas" por violencia en Colombia? [Online]. KIENZKE. Available: http://www.kienyke.com/politica/las-zonas-de-mas-violencia-en-colombia/ [Accessed December 10th, 2014 2013].  Billar, O. & Fontalvo, E. (2014). En cinco departamentos se concentra la deforestación en Colombia. In: Billar, O., Fontalbo, E., Franco, O., Perea, J. M., Plazas, M. & Rengifo, W. (eds.) Actualidad. Caracol radio.  CEPAL (2012). Valoración de daños y pérdidas. Ola invernal en Colombia, 2010-2011. Bogotá: Misión BID - CEPAL.  Contreras, S. (2008). Los Victimarios en Colombia. Radiografía de la Violencia en los últimos 50 años. Comunicación Social con énfasis en Periodismo y Producción Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.  González, D. (1999). La coca, la deforestación y la seguridad alimentaria en la Amazonia colombiana. In: Departamento de Montes. FAO.  Herrera, J. S. (2013). Caquetá, Meta y Guaviare, donde hay más deforestación en Colombia. El Tiempo, August 5th, 2013.  Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.; Restrepo, J. C.;Arango, A. M. & Ortiz, J. C. (2013). Impact of the 2010–2011 La Niña phenomenon in Colombia, South America: The human toll of an extreme weather event. Applied Geography, 39, 16-25.  Nordås, R. & Gleditsch, N. P. (2007). Climate change and conflict. Political Geography, 26, 627-638.  Reuveny, R. (2007). Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 656-673.  SINCHI (2010). Tasas de deforestación para cada unidad geográfica en la Amazonía Colombiana. Ministerio de Ambiente Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial.  Tellman, B., Rivera, A., Alaniz, R. & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the context of climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper. United Nations University Institute of Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS). DANKE MERCI GRACIAS THANK YOU dziękuję MULTUMESC KÖSZÖNÖM OBRIGADA DANKJEWEL धन्यवाद ขอบคุณ HVALA ХВАЛА 謝謝 고맙습니다 ありがとうございました 12/12

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