BRAZILIAN SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMS IN NATURAL DISASTRES
BRAZILIAN SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMS IN NATURAL DISASTRES Dr. Celia Regina de Gouveia Souza Geological Institute - Environmental Secretariat of the State of São Paulo – Brazil Department of Physical Geography – Unversity of São Paulo – Brazil (email@example.com)
Natural Disasters in Brazil In the last few decades, natural disasters have been increasing in magnitude, frequency, complexity, and socio-economic impacts in Brazil. In 2008 it was the 10th country most stricken, when at least 2 millions of people in 831 counties were affected. Objective : assessment on Brazilian scientific research groups officially registered in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), focusing on: year of foundation , federal state of origin , kind of institution , professional formation , and principal themes of research and actuation .
Natural Hazards in Brazil (1) coastal erosion; (2) severe storms and winds; (3) storm surges; (4) drought; (5) dune movements; (6) salinization/saline soil; (7) floods (ordinary, flash, fords, coastal inundation); (8) continental erosion; (9) siltation (lakes, rivers, ponds and reservoirs); (10) karst subsidence; (11) mass movements (landslides, rock falls and flows); (12) expansive soils and rocks; (13) soil liquefaction; (14) collapsible soils and yielding; (15) freeze/frost; (16) wildfire (forests and peats); (17) desertification; (18) natural toxic compounds in soil and water; (19) natural radioactivity; (20) seismic activities (earthquakes, ground shaking); (21) extreme temperatures (heat and cold waves); (22) epidemics; (23) insect infestation.
Natural Disasters in Brazil ( recorded between 1948 and February/2010)
Scientific Research Groups in Natural Disasters (Year and State)
Scientific Research Groups in Disasters (Year and State)
Scientific Research Groups in Disasters (Professional Formation)
Scientific Research Groups in Disasters (Research and Actuation)
<ul><li>The number of RG is considerably higher in the SE (SP, RJ, MG) and S (PR, SC, RS) regions: 72% of the RG (18 groups). They were 7 groups until the 1980s and raised up to 18 new groups in the last two decades (9 new groups per decade). </li></ul><ul><li>These states are the most populous; include 8 huge metropolitan regions; have had the most catastrophic natural disasters; flood, mass movements and severe storms/winds have consubstantially increased in the last two decades; have the most important Brazilian and Latin American centers of scientific research (SP, RJ and SC). </li></ul>Conclusions
<ul><li>Flood, coastal erosion and other impacts of climate changes (extreme temperature, storms, drought and epidemics), as well as risk management, have become very important issues in the last years. </li></ul><ul><li>However, only a few of those 25 RG are currently able to develop researches about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of perception, need for new professionals/recycling, groups still bad structured, and/or no actualized databases seem to be the explanation. </li></ul>Conclusions