Challenges for sustainable development of Drylands                                           Elena María Abraham          ...
CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION- Recognizing the value of drylands- Constraints in drylands- The issue of resilience in dryla...
Drylands   REFERENCESHyperaridAridSemiaridDry subhumidHumidCold climates                                          Source: ...
Recognizing thevalue of Drylands         Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA)              ...
Drylands provide multiple goods and                services:    • Biodiversity: uniquely adapted plants and animals       ...
   Freshwater: freshwater resources in             drylands, often limited and variable in             availability, are ...
   Drylands are at risk of irreversible           degradation, that is, DESERTIFICATION: the loss           of their long...
   Dryland assessment and management initiatives to    date have failed to generate adequate interest and    funding, lar...
Constraints in drylands   We are used to assert, that drylands are very fragile   ecosystems. ...how can a system be fragi...
THE CASE OF DRYLANDS’S WETLANDSInstituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA)     CONICET-Gobierno de...
DRYLANDS RESILIENCIE        sensitivity versus fragilityThis is a concept that I want to submit to consideration: letus no...
DRYLANDS:LOW OR HIGH RESILIENCE…   Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA)        CONICET-Gobi...
A deployment of strategies for                      modeling      and      adjusting      to                      change, ...
In drylands, these considerations place            the concept of resilience at a very high            level and afford an...
THE MOST SERIOUS PROBLEM IN THE THIRD                  WORLD         Developing countries are the most         affected be...
Desertification is cause and consequence of                       unsustainable models for dryland development            ...
The dilemma of development models in drylands Desertification has been favored by development models which have overlooke...
In this sense it is essential to discuss andagree on the development model we want for                     drylands Among ...
ACCCORDING TO UNEP´S “GLOBAL DESERT OUTLOOK” we canchoose:• From the Cadillac scenario, which means a deep transformation ...
Scenarios of Global Warming and Desertification during the                       XXI century          Instituto Argentino ...
• Whatever model is chosen, science and        technology must form the basis for decision        making.      • Dryland d...
Muchas Gracias!!!
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Elena Maria ABRAHAM "Challenges for sustainable development of drylands"

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Elena Maria ABRAHAM "Challenges for sustainable development of drylands"

  1. 1. Challenges for sustainable development of Drylands Elena María Abraham National Research and Technological Council (CONICET) Argentine Institute for Arid Lands Research (IADIZA) Laboratory of Desertification and Land Management (LaDyOT) Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  2. 2. CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION- Recognizing the value of drylands- Constraints in drylands- The issue of resilience in drylands- The dilemma of development models in drylands Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  3. 3. Drylands REFERENCESHyperaridAridSemiaridDry subhumidHumidCold climates Source: CRU/UEA, UNEP/GRID Brandt Line’s Aproximate equatorial scale 1: 115 million Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  4. 4. Recognizing thevalue of Drylands Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  5. 5. Drylands provide multiple goods and services: • Biodiversity: uniquely adapted plants and animals to variable and extreme environments • Carbon Storage: most of it in the soil • Energy: alternative energy resources such as wind and solar power • Tourism: open, vast, dryland sites are considered culturally and spiritually important • Forage and Livestock: some of the highest livestock densities in the world are in drylands. From cattle, sheep, and goat herds, to horses and camels, drylands support a large variety of domestic animals, which become the source of meat, milk, wool, and leather products for humansInstituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  6. 6.  Freshwater: freshwater resources in drylands, often limited and variable in availability, are important water sources for drinking, irrigating crops, and supporting wetland flora and fauna. Water basins in drylands are found on every continent, ranging from low population densities (1 person/km2) to high population densities (nearly 400 people/km2).  Food Production: dryland ecosystems are also used extensively for the production of food. Many of our major food crops, such as wheat, barley, sorghum, and millet originated in drylands. Today, wild varieties from these centers of origin serve as sources of genetic plant material for developing drought-resistant crop varieties.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  7. 7.  Drylands are at risk of irreversible degradation, that is, DESERTIFICATION: the loss of their long-term capacity to supply goods and services to human populations.  Desertification in drylands would exacerbate the conditions of poverty and threaten the livelihoods of those most dependent on natural resources. These people are frequently among the poorest in the world.  And, living in regions of highly variable rainfall and periodic drought, they experience high food insecurity.  Unfortunately, policies thus far have not been as effective as possible or uniquely focused on their attempts to address poverty and inequity issues in drylands.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  8. 8.  Dryland assessment and management initiatives to date have failed to generate adequate interest and funding, largely because investors, development agencies, and the public have an incomplete understanding of the full range of valuable goods and services drylands have to offer. Traditionally, emphasis has been placed on the damage that dryland ecosystems have incurred due to human activities. Support for programs in drylands has the potential to grow significantly if more attention is called to their diverse production capacities, while simultaneously incorporating the optimization of dryland resource use, focusing on food security and empowering the participation of the local population into the program’s objectives and actions. For this, we must thoroughly understand what desertification means as a complex problem. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  9. 9. Constraints in drylands We are used to assert, that drylands are very fragile ecosystems. ...how can a system be fragile if it is capable of reacts immediately at the slightest positive or negative impulse?... If the impact is negative, such as overuse or misuse of water, we reach desertification, but if the impacts are positive, like a proper use of water –which is indeed a scarce resource- and for this very reason, there emerges for instance an oasis with high capacity to produce food.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  10. 10. THE CASE OF DRYLANDS’S WETLANDSInstituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  11. 11. DRYLANDS RESILIENCIE sensitivity versus fragilityThis is a concept that I want to submit to consideration: letus not confuse sensitivity and resistance with fragility.Drylands are sensitive to react swiftly, positively ornegatively, to positive or negative impacts. And there liestheir strength and the opportunity to successfully intervenein their capability for regeneration and sustenance. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  12. 12. DRYLANDS:LOW OR HIGH RESILIENCE… Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  13. 13. A deployment of strategies for modeling and adjusting to change, either cyclic or exceptional, in practices tied to memories and to social reproduction strategies, which organize the actions on natural resources and enable the groups to dialogue with change and adjust to it. .These conditions allow overcoming the basement ofuncertainty that characterizes drylands, placingsocial groups a wide margin above the conditions ofvariability Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  14. 14. In drylands, these considerations place the concept of resilience at a very high level and afford an example for other ecosystems worldwide which are also affected by conditions of variability associated with climate change scenarios. Drylands inhabitants have known how to dialogue over the years with uncertainty scenarios which will extend to other areas in the near future and which constitute one of the major concerns of environmental conventions and of national states.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  15. 15. THE MOST SERIOUS PROBLEM IN THE THIRD WORLD Developing countries are the most affected because the recovery of their drylands are worsened by conditions of poverty, political instability, territorial imbalance, and concentration processes typical of globalization.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  16. 16. Desertification is cause and consequence of unsustainable models for dryland development Making such development sustainable will require aDiplachne uninervia shared view by decision-makers, scientists and society. Consensus must be attained on basically two topics: • 1-discussing, and agreeing on, a model for dryland development is essential to ensure that the Eragrostis lugens ecological complexity of drylands is balanced against the needs and demands of local populations. • 2- the contribution of science through policies setting up measurement and assessment of Cortesia cuneifolia processes for the long, medium and short term. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  17. 17. The dilemma of development models in drylands Desertification has been favored by development models which have overlooked the ecological complexity of drylands, the needs and demands of their people and their cultural and historical heritage. It draws attention the absence of debate about what development model we want for our drylands, it is essential to discuss and agree on what we want and what model we want to implement. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  18. 18. In this sense it is essential to discuss andagree on the development model we want for drylands Among which development models can we choose? Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  19. 19. ACCCORDING TO UNEP´S “GLOBAL DESERT OUTLOOK” we canchoose:• From the Cadillac scenario, which means a deep transformation of thedesert natural conditions, with important capital and infrastructureinvestment, (remember Las Vegas or the modern huge Arabian Gulf cities)• To leaving everything as it is, enclosing the arid environment in a bottle• Halfway between these two extremes is the “development in patches”“In patches” means developing only those sites with better conditions forsettlement and production (wadis margins, terraces, corridors, oases) andrestore and preserve the rest of the territory Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  20. 20. Scenarios of Global Warming and Desertification during the XXI century Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  21. 21. • Whatever model is chosen, science and technology must form the basis for decision making. • Dryland development models must be based on deep knowledge of the current status of the system, its capacity for resilience and the desertification processes affecting it, highlighting the role of National and International Observatories.Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas (IADIZA) CONICET-Gobierno de Mendoza- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
  22. 22. Muchas Gracias!!!

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