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Addressing Risk and Resilience:An analysis of Māori communities and culturaltechnologies in response to the Christchurchea...
Aim and Purposes• Identify and document Ngāi Tahu cultural  attributes that facilitate resilience In Māori  communities fo...
Community-based Participatory         Research Design• Māori Qualitative Research Methodology:• Participants:  - 100* Te R...
Christchurch ContextPopulation: 399,900 (1800 Ngāi Tahu)Loss of Shelter (100,000 damaged homes)Loss of Power (54,000 homes...
Ngāi Tahu‟s Response•   Established contact and communication support•   Opened Marae (community centres) as shelters/welf...
Kaupapa (values) = Cultural Strengths •   Kotahitanga (Unity) •   Whānau (family, whakapapa {genealogy}) •   Whanāunatanga...
Kotahitanga (Unity)• There is no you, There is no I, there is only us. We are in this  together. (MS)• In the end everyone...
Whānau (Families)• We had power, food and water and others didn‟t, and for  whānau that is what you do, you get on, ring a...
Whanāungatanga (relationships)• The communication between our staff and other services was  good. We kept in touch with Te...
Marae (Community Centres)• Welfare centres were set up on our marae (community centre);  and they all opened even Rapaki (...
Manaakitanga (Support)• “It was about getting out to the people, engaging face to face  and offering support.” (DA)• “We h...
Kaitaikitanga (Guardianship)•   We have passed down knowledge of our whenua (land)    our awa (rivers) which could help in...
Value for Risk Management• Integration of Ngāi Tahu resources and strengths into  disaster preparedness and emergency resp...
Conclusion• Ngāi Tahu identity imposes relational obligations on  tribal members to facilitate community well-being• Ngāi ...
References•   Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhanaungatanga Collaborative Research Stories. Palmerston North: Dunmore    Press Lt...
References•   Kenney, Christine (2009). Me aro ki te hā o Hineahuone: women miscarriage stories and midwifery: towards    ...
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Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes

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Christine Marie KENNEY1, David JOHNSTON2, Douglas PATON3, John REID4, Suzanne Rachel PHIBBS5

1Edith Cowan University, Australia; 2Joint Centre for Disaster Research/GNS Science, New Zealand; 3University of Tasmania, Australia; 4Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, New Zealand; 5Massey University, New Zealand

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Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes

  1. 1. Addressing Risk and Resilience:An analysis of Māori communities and culturaltechnologies in response to the Christchurchearthquakes Dr Christine M. Kenney PhD Research Fellow Joint Centre of Disaster Research Massey University /GNS Edith Cowan University 4th IDRC Davos Switzerland 28th August 2012
  2. 2. Aim and Purposes• Identify and document Ngāi Tahu cultural attributes that facilitate resilience In Māori communities following disasters• Support development of Māori disaster preparedness workforce capacity• Inform local, regional and national policy development in regards to recovery, rebuild, and disaster preparedness planning
  3. 3. Community-based Participatory Research Design• Māori Qualitative Research Methodology:• Participants: - 100* Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu staff and tribal members• Recruitment: community determined; self selection• Data Collection: semi-structured interviews; focus groups• Data analysis: Bricolage approach - Kaupapa Māori theories (Bishop, 1996; Smith, 1999), - Social theories (Blaikie, 2007; Latour, 2005; Foucault,1963) - Adaptive Capacity Model (Paton, in press).
  4. 4. Christchurch ContextPopulation: 399,900 (1800 Ngāi Tahu)Loss of Shelter (100,000 damaged homes)Loss of Power (54,000 homes without power)Loss of Water Supply (80% population)Limited Food Supplies (Main outlets closed)Disrupted Transport (Liquefaction, ≠ roading)Physical Injury and Illness (7500+ ACC claims)Death Toll: 185 from 15 countries
  5. 5. Ngāi Tahu‟s Response• Established contact and communication support• Opened Marae (community centres) as shelters/welfare centres• Integrated recovery response with Govt, NGOs, and other Iwi,• Coordinated reception/redistribution supplies/resources• Provided emergency support services• Offered outreach primary health care• Assisted immigrants and immigrant support agencies• Assisted urban security services• Provided financial support• Provided/distributed water• IN TOTAL: Contacted/ provided shelter, food, water clothing, toys, finances and other non perishable goods to 8000 households following the earthquake
  6. 6. Kaupapa (values) = Cultural Strengths • Kotahitanga (Unity) • Whānau (family, whakapapa {genealogy}) • Whanāunatanga (relationships) • Manaakitanga (Respect/Support/Hospitality) • Katiakitanga (Guardianship) • Mana whenua (Belonging to the land) • Marae (Community Centres) • Tūrangawaewae (Homeland)
  7. 7. Kotahitanga (Unity)• There is no you, There is no I, there is only us. We are in this together. (MS)• In the end everyone came to our house.., there was 18 to 20 people living in our house with us for 8 weeks . And that is what you do as Ngāi Tahu, as Māori you come together.., you take in whoever needs somewhere to stay.., support.(PA)• If we were able we came and helped..., some Ngāi Tahu was accountants and managers , it didn‟t; matter it was cool. We all pitched in did what we had to do to get the job done to the best of our abilities. It was a horrible time but it was also a great time in terms of the bonds that was formed so it was kotahitanga, unity eh. (AP)
  8. 8. Whānau (Families)• We had power, food and water and others didn‟t, and for whānau that is what you do, you get on, ring around all your family networks and let everybody know …, and say „You need to do washing, somewhere to stay, kai (food)?‟ Come over! (SH)• When they (Govt) want to encourage people to respond well to disaster .., they encourage them to make connections to their neighbours their family… Well that already naturally occurs with an Iwi (tribe); and that is their first advantage… an advantage that you can‟t underestimate… That whānau (family) and that connectedness-base, underpins why Ngāi Tahu performed so well. (LA)
  9. 9. Whanāungatanga (relationships)• The communication between our staff and other services was good. We kept in touch with Te Puni Kokeri, they are friends so.., we knew if the whānau (families) weren‟t getting the assistance that was needed they would contact us.(SO)• We had care parcels arrive in from Tauranga Iwi (tribes) ..There was a lot of baby stuff which was great because a lot of the mothers had lost stuff and there was real thought given to a lot of these parcels. (MA)• We had Iwi (tribes)coming down looking to assist. To help out and we were providing them with what information we could on where their people were and those of their people that had contacted us about what their people‟s core needs were. (DO)
  10. 10. Marae (Community Centres)• Welfare centres were set up on our marae (community centre); and they all opened even Rapaki (marae) who were one of our more harder hit communities with boulders smashing through their houses. I mean they were straight down there..., the marare was open, and functioning, accommodating and supporting whānau. (DA)• Ngāi Tahu was hard hit organisationally so we had to turn to one of the cultural mechanisms of support we know, so obviously we turned to our marae (community centres) because they are right there when a storm hits, there for everyone, pakeha and Māori. (TO)
  11. 11. Manaakitanga (Support)• “It was about getting out to the people, engaging face to face and offering support.” (DA)• “We had people ringing families and saying what do you need? What can we get you? And then we‟d ring up one of the boys and say Can you drop off $50.00 worth of groceries this person needs coffee milk sugar, water whatever.” (MA)• We‟d get containers in from the Kohanga (kindergarten) in Wellington and they would leave little notes with the kai (food) and clothing for people and it was primo!” (SH)
  12. 12. Kaitaikitanga (Guardianship)• We have passed down knowledge of our whenua (land) our awa (rivers) which could help in planning for the future. Some of our kaumatua (elders) even have old maps, for example one Ngāi Tahu whānau has a map of all the underground awa (rivers) below Christchurch. (SO)• We have a responsibility as Kaitiaki (guardians) of our land to work with CERA and the others to plan for the future. One of the ways we can help is by using our cultural knowledge to inform the redesigning and rebuilding of Christchurch. (T)
  13. 13. Value for Risk Management• Integration of Ngāi Tahu resources and strengths into disaster preparedness and emergency response planning at local and national levels• Application of Ngāi Tahu cultural and environmental knowledge to inform urban panning/rebuilding• Creation of a Ngāi Tahu model of Māori community resilience following disasters• Enhancement of Ngāi Tahu disaster preparedness infrastructure and disaster and emergency response workforce capacity
  14. 14. Conclusion• Ngāi Tahu identity imposes relational obligations on tribal members to facilitate community well-being• Ngāi Tahu cultural values constitute cultural strengths• Ngāi Tahu cultural strengths act as moral and relational technologies/actor networks to facilitate community recovery and resilience• Ngāi Tahu cultural knowledge and practices will enhance integrated disaster risk management
  15. 15. References• Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhanaungatanga Collaborative Research Stories. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press Ltd.• Blaikie, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Inquiry (2nd ed.). Malden, MA, Cambridge: Polity Press.• Boulton, Amohia; Gifford, Heather (2011). Resilience as a Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Māori Experience: Positions, Challenges and Risks. In Tracey McIntosh and Malcolm Mulholland Māori and Social Issues: Volume One, Huia, Publications, Wellington, New Zealand.• Frank, Arthur (2005). What is dialogical research and why should we do it? Qualitative Health Research, 15(7), 964-974.• Frank, A. (2006). Health stories as connectors and subjectifiers. Health, 10(4), 421-440• Freire, Pablo. (1967, 2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed 30th Anniversary Edition (M. Ramos, Trans.), Continuum, London, New York.• Harre, R. & Van Langenhove, L. (Eds.) (1999). Positioning Theory: Moral Contexts of Intentional Action. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.• Hudson, James; Hughes, Emma (2007). The role of marae and Māori communities in post disaster recovery: A Case study, GNS Science Report, 2007/15, GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand.• Israel, Barbara; Schulz, Amy; Parker, Edith; Becker, Adam (1998). Review of community based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 173-202.• Johnston, David; Becker, Julia; Paton, Douglas. (2008). Building disaster-resilient communities: the need for community-based programmes. New Zealand Local Government, 44, 17.
  16. 16. References• Kenney, Christine (2009). Me aro ki te hā o Hineahuone: women miscarriage stories and midwifery: towards a contextually relevant research methodology. PhD Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, NZ, http://hdl.handle.net/10179/1191• Latour, B. (1991). Technology is society made durable. In J. Law (Ed.), A Sociology of Monters: Essays on Power, Technology and domination (pp. 103-131). London, New York: Routledge.• Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press• Paton, Douglas (2007). Measuring and monitoring resilience. GNS Science Report 2007/18, GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand.• Paton, Douglas (In Press). Psychological rehabilitation planning for disaster survivors. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.• Proctor, Elisabeth-Mary (2010). Toi tu te whenua, toi tu te tangata: A holistic Māori Approach to flood management in Pawarenga. Masters Thesis, Waikato University, Hamilton, New Zealand.• Smith, Linda (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies Research and Indigenous Peoples (2nd ed.), University of Otago Press, Dunedin, New Zealand.• Somers. M. (1994). The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society, 23, 605-649• Sonn, Christopher; Green, Meredith (2006). Disrupting the dynamics of oppression in intercultural research and practice. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 16(5), 337-346.

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