Literature reviewData collectionHealth System analysisEconomic analysisModelsSurveysReport generation (validation)
Many decisions of any disease control program will involve an economic branch. Hence, it is important to have an economic overview of the specific situation, and if possible assess the impact of disease at the societal level – both direct and indirect costs, due to agricultural, human health and production costs.
Scenario tree methodology allows for the assessment and comparison of the outcomes of a variety of interventions (surveillance system component) by varying the input determine the order of events affecting the objective of the scenario tree. include the livestock structure of the country or area of modelidentifying the risk factors involved in the disease/condition.incorporate the testing and sampling methods usedassess the feasibility of the program
Pathogenic species found in Australia include L. interrogans, L. santarosai, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii.
A One Health approach to disasters.
A One Health approach to disasters. OneHealthPublic health February 21st 2012 Zoonoses Vanessa Racloz, PhD One Health GroupEnvironment Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health School of Population Health University of Queensland, Australia Name of presentation Month 2009 GRF, One Health, Davos Switzerland
1Risk assessment Population density Climatic Environmental changes conditions Public, veterinary & Disasters ecosystem healthAgricultural practices Emerging Antibiotic usage disease Name of presentation Month 2009
1The weather in Queensland, AustraliaQueensland in 2010: The wettest year on record- Moderate to strong La Niña events developed ( El Niño over in May)- Widespread major flooding developed in March- 5 tropical cyclonesQueensland in 2011: A wet, cool year- The Queensland area averaged rainfall was 826.8 mm, which is 203.4 mm above the 1961-90 average of 623.4 mm- 72% of the state had above average rainfall, with some areas highest on record.- 4 tropical cyclones- lowest area averaged autumn mean temperature on record Name of presentation Month 2009 www.bom.gov.au/climate
1The weather in Queensland, Australia Rainfall records March 2011Extreme flooding (including river and flash flooding) during January Name of presentation Month 2009 www.bom.gov.au/climate
1 Infectious diseases in Queensland– Campylobacter– Cryptosporidiosis– Dengue fever– Legionella– Leptospirosis– Melioidosis– Pertussis– Ross River virus– Salmonellosis (all) – Barmah forest virus– Shigella – Murray Valley encephalitis– Yersiniosis – Brucellosis Name of presentation Month 2009 http://www9.health.gov.au/
1 Infectious diseases in QueenslandRoss River Virusassociated with:- increased temperature- increased rainfall Name of presentation Month 2009 Hu et al., 2010
1 Infectious diseases in Australia- possums, kangaroos, wallabies and humans Barmah forest virus Ross river virus -variety of freshwater and salt marsh mosquitoes -higher rate of disease during wet season www9.health.gov.au/ 2009 Name of presentation Month
1Leptospirosis in Australia Notification rates (per 100,000 human population) of leptospirosis in Australia per state (1991-2011). Black circles represent La Nina years. www9.health.gov.au/ 2009 Name of presentation Month
1 Leptospirosis in AustraliaAt risk populations:Occupation : farmers, vets, abattoir workers, and sugar cane and banana farmersRecreation : camping, gardening, bushwalking, white water rafting, & other water sportsProblem : Asymptomatic carriers, undiagnosed cases….both animals and humans.. www.publish.csiro.au 2009 Name of presentation Month
1 Leptospirosis in Australia : animals. - ‘The incidence of leptospirosis in Australian animals, domestic or otherwise, is unknown’ (WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference & Research on Leptospirosis) - ‘Potential pathway for transmission of leptospires from fruit bats to rodents, via rodent contact with infectious fruit-bat urine’ Tulsiani et al., 2011 In Australia cases 1) cows, pigs & sheep 2) rats & mice 3) bandicoots,possums, bats & kangaroos www.racgp.org.au/afp/201007/201007slack Name of presentation Month 2009
2Economic overview• important to have an economic overview of the specific situation to aid in decision making process.• assess the impact of disease at the societal level – both direct and indirect costs, due to agricultural, human health and production costs. Name of presentation Month 2009
2Economic overviewEconomic loss due to leptospirosis in cattle- outbreaks of mastitis and a significant decrease in milk production.- decreased calving percentage due to abortions and high death rate in calves- human lost labour costs- medical expenses- losses in animal production.‘The cost of leptospirosis preventative vaccination is affordable insurance – even asaving of only 1% of calves on average will cover the cost of vaccinating the wholebeef or dairy herd.’Economic loss due to leptospirosis in pigs‘In an outbreak of a 50-sow herd, it is realistic to expect 10 sows to abort and 5sows to wean only 5 piglets, a total loss of approximately 110 piglets.’Economic loss due to leptospirosis in humans- New Zealand study estimated that each case costs the company in over $5,000.- has contributed to the escalation of premiums to the industry Name of presentation Month 2009 Brown et al., 2005, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au
3Surveillance & intervention •involves planning of the surveillance, control or intervention strategies by ensuring the appropriate data is collected •identifying all options be it slight alterations of existing systems or the development of new approaches. Name of presentation Month 2009
3Surveillance & intervention - National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System www.health.gov.au, of presentation Month 2009 Name Slack et al., 2006
4Measurement & evaluation • the most important step is the validation process • the evaluation of a project will depend on its applicability and demonstrated advantages in at both health levels and economic terms • should be assessed in the public, veterinary and environmental health sectors, demonstrating the added benefits of interdisciplinary actions Name of presentation Month 2009
Thank you for your attention. May 17th 2011 Prof. Maxine Whittaker Associate Prof. Simon Reid Adnan Choudhury 17th 2011 May Dr. Vanessa RaclozPolicy Name of presentation Month 2009