I’m Jessica Osborne … And my co-presenter is Betsy Jacobsen. She is the Bicycle and Pedestrian Manager for the Colorado Dept. of Transportation. Her focus is to make Colorado more bikeable and walkable by working with planners and engineers on design; developing policy; helping local communities develop more active transportation, etc. In preparing this presentation we were thinking about where people live and work, and the roads they use to connect from one place to another, and of course the most popular road of all is the yellow brick road, which leads to Oz (literally), and suddenly we found ourselves in a time warp from a 1939 movie. But there are correlations between what Dorothy and her friends encountered on their way to Oz, and the current effects of the built environment on today’s lifestyles.
Insert Jessica’s information on health and slides.
Let’s further clarify to be sure we are all on the same page. Here is what is commonly meant by PH and BE…
Safe Routes to School 2009 Policy Report In 1969 48% of students walked or biked to school. 85% of children who lived within a mile of school walked or biked. In 2001 Less than 15% of students between the ages of five and 15 walked to or from school, and 1 percent biked 50% of children living within a mile of school walked or biked. Pedrosa, Margo. “Safe Routes to School 2009 Policy Report, Moving to the Future: Building on Early Achievements.” www.saferoutespartnership.org. Safe Routes to School National Partnership, March 2009. Web. Sept. 11, 2010.
Residents of more sprawling counties are likely to walk less during leisure time, have a higher BMI, weigh up to six pounds more, and have greater prevalence of hypertension than residents of more compact counties. 1, 2 Communities designed for walking encourage an extra 15 to 30 minutes of walking per week. For a 150-pound person, that could mean losing, or keeping off, ~1-2 lbs/year. 3 1 Reid Ewing, Tom Schmid, Richard Killingsworth, Amy Zlot, Stephen Raudenbush. “Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity.” American Journal of Health Promotion, Sep/Oct 2003, V18, I1, 47. 2 McCann, B and R. Ewing. “Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl: A National Analysis of Physical Activity, Obesity and Chronic Disease.” Smart Growth America, September 2003. 3 Saelens B, Sallis J, Frank L. “Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures.” Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; Mar/Apr. 2003. ========================================= people in more sprawling counties are likely to have a higher body mass index, and weigh up to six pounds more than people in the most compact county. People who report having access to sidewalks and trails are 28-55% more likely to be physically active (1) 46% of Americans would walk or bike to work or for errands if they only had facilities that were “ safe and convenient ” (2) AND… Communities designed for walking encourage an extra 15 to 30 minutes of walking per week. For a 150-pound person, that could mean losing, or keeping off, ~1-2 lbs/year (3) (1) Humpel et al., 2002 (2) Rodale Press Survey Both as cited in Community Design, Active Living and Public Health presentation, www.lgc.org/freepub/land_use/presenetations/zykofsky_denver03, accessed on June 26, 2007. (3) Saelens B, Sallis J, Frank L. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; Mar/Apr. 2003. As cited in McCann, B and R. Ewing. Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl: A National Analysis of Physical Activity, Obesity and Chronic Disease. Smart Growth America, September 2003.
Clearly, this is also a complex issue. Which, of course, makes it hard to collect all of the data and all of the direct impacts. Not to mention the economic implications
So, in our diagram, we have added the element of planning, policy and code… And it comes first in the chain
And what is your level of power with regard to the project? City Council, Department Directors, Adams County (CDBG), Suncor, LiveWell Colorado
Key private partnerships: Suncor, Derby Tire, Darryl Stwalley, DBA Key Public partnerships: Adams County, School District, RTD, Housing Authority, Adams County Commissioners, Rangeview Library District Key Non-Profit partnerships: Partnerships for Healthy Communities, Community Enterprise, LiveWell Colorado,
Sub Area Plan, PUD, Design Standards (Implementation)
Design Standards implemented the policy Derby Façade Program, talk about economic partners
Opening the Derby Resource Center Meetings: Derby Business Association, Individual property owners, residents, community stakeholders, developers
http://bike-pgh.org/blog/2007/06/12/the-paint-is-to-the-pavement-on-liberty-ave/ on 6/13/2011
So let’s talk about Dorothy’s journey to Oz. What was her transportation choice? Did she have other choices? Was it an interesting walk? Was there a lot to see? Did she have a food source near by? Was she just out for a stroll, or did she have a destination? Did she feel safe? How does Dorothy’s journey compare with trips in your own neighborhood or community?
CDOT Bicycle and Pedestrian Policy passed in October 2009. Procedural Directive February 2010
Legislature like it! Passed our policy into law June 2010.
Required development of the ever-popular Chapter 14 Bible of bike and ped design Incorporates all AASHTO and MUTCD requirements and more Train engineers every year.
Not a wish list that sits on the shelf. Developing criteria to help make decisions and select projects. We asked stakeholders and the public what considerations they’d like to have in the plan. What do you think they said? (Ask the audience to name specific areas)
Increase Bicycling and Walking Activity Enhance Safety Expand Recreational Opportunities and Enhance Quality of Life Improve Public Health Improve Environment, Air Quality, and Fossil Fuel Independence Expand Social and Educational Opportunities Maximize Transportation Investments Improve State/Regional Economy We’re hoping our plan will support other initiatives already being developed in the state.
So we have the policy in place. We’re teaching engineers and planners how to do better designs. What next? How do we make biking and walking mainstream?
Headquarters. I work in small building next to it with about 100 other people. My floor has planners on one side. Traffic and GIS people on the other. Happens that the traffic manager and I are both runners, so one day as we were talking in the break room, we started asking each other what we did at CDOT. Then the national count program came along and I asked her to help.
Right off the bat she explained we should treat biking and walking information like all the other traffic information they manage. Model it after motorized traffic, and all will be good.
So Kaiser Permanente gave us $50,000 to start a counting program. Sent out request for suggested locations. Within 24 hours received more than 130 sites.
A couple of the sites we selected are on roadways – the others are on trails. These are shots of installing permanent counters in pavement.
As soon as you turn them on, they start collecting. This is the kind of information traffic analysts look at all the time
Example of two types of users
Example of what you get with 2 hour count Bike to work day in 2011. 3 of 5 locations showed a change in traffic counts – reducing motorized traffic by up to 5 percent.
Big impacts. Changing policy (maintenance) Including it as a measurement in our Statewide Plan Measurements are being used in various grant programs TRB – Transportation Research Board has created a bicycle and pedestrian data subcommitte – that’s huge! Traffic Monitoring Guide – which is the federal requirements of traffic data collection, is developing complete chapters around non-motorized traffic counts.
Studies that are being done around counting.
So what do we see for the future?
Wanted to simplify. Give states more authority over spending. Replaced Enhancements and made a larger category called Transporation Alternatives to compete for about 30% fewer dollars. Rec Trails program, SRTS, some environmental mitigation is now eligible,
Takes effect October 1. Internally we’re still learning what it all means. Federal guidance won’t even be out for 18 months; and it expires in October 2014.
Where we live affects how we live. Poor Wicked Witch of the West. She lived in a dark, scary castle and look what happened to her!
It’s within each of us to understand that our community can have a big impact on our lifestyles.
The Vital Role of the Built Environment in Building Healthy Communities
Lions and Tigers and BearsThe Vital Role of the Built Environment OH MY! Building Whole Communities Think Tank July 10, 2012
Jessica Osborne, MURP, MUDColorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment Betsy Jacobsen Colorado Dept. of Transportation
Defining our termsPUBLIC HEALTH BUILT ENVIRONMENTPublic health is "the science and art of The term built environment refers to thepreventing disease, prolonging life and human-made surroundings that providepromoting health through the organized the setting for human activity, ranging inefforts and informed choices of society, scale from personal shelter and buildingsorganizations, public and private, communities to neighborhoods and cities, and can oftenand individuals." (1920, C.E.A Winslow) It is include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks.concerned with threats to the overall healthof a community based on populationhealth analysis.Both definitions adapted from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org.
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2009 (*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 1999 2009No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010 (*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 2000 2010No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
Physical Activity and ObesitySafe Routes to School 2009 PolicyReport:•Walked/biked•Walk/Bike 1969< 1 mile•Walked/biked•Walk/Bike 2001< 1 milePedrosa, Margo. “Safe Routes to School 2009 Policy Report, Moving to the Future: Building on Early Achievements.” www.saferoutespartnership.org. Safe Routes to School National Partnership, March 2009. Web. Sept. 11, 2010.
Physical Activity and Obesity SPRAWL COMPACT DESIGN Less Walking1 More Walking3 More Weight Gain1, 2 Less Weight Gain1, 2, 31 Reid Ewing, Tom Schmid, Richard Killingsworth, Amy Zlot, Stephen Raudenbush. “Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity.” American Journal of Health Promotion, Sep/Oct 2003, V18, I1, 47.2 McCann, B and R. Ewing. “Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl: A National Analysis of Physical Activity, Obesity and Chronic Disease.” Smart Growth America, September 2003.3 Saelens B, Sallis J, Frank L. “Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures.” Annals of Behavioral Medicine; Mar/Apr. 2003.
Multiple Connections & ImplicationsBuilt Environment Strategies Health Implications• Bicycle lanes/paths • Decreased air pollution, carbon dioxide omissions• Wide sidewalks improved air quality• Street trees • Improved water quality• Mode options • Reduced heat island• Traffic calming effects• Compact mixed– • Reduced risk for chronic diseases use • Reduced risk for obesity• Healthy food retail • Reduced stress & isolation• Connectivity • Fosters positive mental• Community spaces health & social capital• Walkable • Reduced asthma• Parks/trails/paths • Reduced injuries• Greenways • Reduced deaths• Community gardens• Parking maximums
A Systems Issue Built and Public &Plans, Codes, Our Natural Individual Policies Health Environments Behaviors
Economic ValueTRANSPORTATIONNearly half the U.S. population – 150million baby boomers and their children –may be in the market for walkable, transit-oriented neighborhoods with smallerhomes. Boomers are downsizing as theirchildren leave home.[Brookings Institution, 2011]
Economic ValueTRANSPORTATIONFamilies living in walkable areas save $400 to $500 monthly in auto costs compared to those in auto-dependent communities. [Center for Neighborhood Technology & Surface Transp. Policy Project, 2000]
Economic ValueTRANSPORTATIONReinvestment in existing infrastructure is less costly, reduces expenses and boosts profits over the short and long- term. [National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals, 2004]
Economic ValueTRANSPORTATION• Cost to purchase and install bike racks: $150 to 300 each (parks two bikes)• Cost to purchase and install bike lockers: $1000 to $4000 each (parks two bikes)• Cost to provide car parking space: $2200++ surface lot, $12,500++ garage• Number of bike spaces in one car space: 10–12 [Bicycle Parking.” Bicyclinginfo.org: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/engineering/parking.cfm Accessed June 15, 2011]
Economic ValueLIVABLE COMMUNITIES People living in walkable neighborhoods trust neighbors more, participate in community projects and volunteer more than in non-walkable areas. This positive social aspect improves health and economic opportunities and leads to a higher quality of life. [University of New Hampshire, 2010]
Economic ValueREAL ESTATE/PROPERTY VALUEWalkable office, retail, apartment and industrial properties command higher property values. On a 100 point scale, a 10 point increase in walkability increases property values by 5% to 8%, depending on property type. [Active Living Research. (2010). The Economic Benefits of Open Space, Recreation Facilities and Walkable Community Design Active Living Research. Active Living Research Synthesis.]
Economic ValueREAL ESTATE/PROPERTY VALUE As the density increases, the cost of developing each unit decreases, “with some estimates of the average savings around 32 percent.” [Levine J and Inam A. “The Market for Transportation–land Use Integration: Do Developers Want Smarter Growth than Regulations Allow?” Transportation, 31(4): 409–427, November 2004.]
Economic ValueREAL ESTATE/PROPERTY VALUE Homebuyers are willing to pay an average $20,000 to $34,000 premium for homes in pedestrian-friendly communities compared to similar houses in surrounding areas. [CEOs for Cities, 2009]
Economic ValueRECREATION Mountain bikers contribute an estimated $25 million to the Fruita, Colorado economy—approximately 15 percent of the annual budget for the entire Mesa County. [LeCarner, T., 2011, "Fruita Fat Tire Fest: All About the Ride," Singletrack.com, 4 May 2011 ]
Economic ValueRECREATION Bicycling brings more than $1 billion to the Colorado state economy. [Colorado Department of Transportation Bicycle/Pedestrian Program, 2000. Bicycling and Walking in Colorado: Economic Impact and Household Surv ]
Power Who has control? Where are they? What is their connection? What is your relationship to them?
Partnerships•Public•Private•Non-Profit•Neighborhood Organizations•MediaWhat new partnerships are being createdand how will they ensure success?
PhilosophyCollective vision for how acommunity seeks to design, build,grow, and thrive.
PolicyHow a local government agencyresponds to the philosophy setforth in the Comprehensive Planwith rules to mandate certainoutcomes in the built environment.
ProceduresThe system that implementspolicies and plans and reinforcesthe philosophy.
Policy Development“Itis the policy of the ColoradoTransportation Commission to providetransportation infrastructure thataccommodates bicycle and pedestrian useof the highways in a manner that is safeand reliable for all highway users. Theneeds of bicyclists and pedestrians shallbe included in the planning, design, andoperation of transportation facilities, asa matter of routine.”
Limited Exemptions۰ Bicyclists and pedestrians are prohibited by law from using the roadway۰ The cost of establishing bikeways or walkways would be excessively disproportionate to the need or probable use. (Excessively disproportionate is defined as exceeding twenty percent of the cost of the larger transportation project.)۰ Where scarcity of population or other factors indicate an absence of need.
Effect of CountingTraffic Monitoring Guidebook (TMG) Update. These are theguidelines required by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)defining how to collect and report traffic counts. Updated once every10 years.TRB (Transportation Research Board) Created a Bicycle andPedestrian Data SubcommitteeCDOT Research to determine appropriate criteria for counterlocations
Effect of Counting (cont.) NCHRP 07-19 – (National Highway Cooperative Research Program) An Evaluation of Innovative Methods to obtain Bicycle and Pedestrian Volume Data (Highway Safety Funding) NCHRP 08-78 – Estimating/forecasting of Bicycle and Walking Volumes for Planning and Project Development Oregon, Delaware and Minnesota following our lead
MAP-21 (Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century) Signed into law July 6, 2012 Expires October 1, 2014 Eliminates “Transportation Enhancements” and creates new category called “Transportation Alternatives”
MAP-21 (Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century) Transportation Alternatives combines many programs that will be competing for fewer dollars (Approx. $700 million compared to previous $1 billion) 50% of funds are directed to MPOs (Metropolitan Planning Organizations)
MAP-21 (Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century) Adds eligible expenses such as truck stop electrification, HOV lanes, turning lanes, diesel retrofits, etc. All funds to be distributed through competitive grants
Individuals’ choicesARE affected by the community in which they live
Ever y sector of a community has a role to play in supporting and promoting healthy lifestyles
Communities can suppor tindividuals in their efforts to make healthy choices
Jessica Osborne, MURP, MUDBuilt Environment CoordinatorColorado Department of Public Health & Environment303-692-2725Jessica.firstname.lastname@example.orgBetsy JacobsenBicycle/Pedestrian Section ManagerColorado Department of Transportation303-757-9982Betsy.email@example.com