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GOhydro Presentation at The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development

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GOhydro Presentation at The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development. 23-25 September, 2021

GOhydro Presentation at The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development

  1. 1. Pre-kick off Meeting, 1 February 2021 INFLUENCING FACTORS IN OBTAINING MICROGREENS IN HYDROPONIC CONDITIONS The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development, 23-25 September, 2021, USAMV Cluj-Napoca Teodor RUSU, Paula Ioana MORARU* and Mihai Avram MAXIM University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania *Corresponding author, e-mail: paulaioana.moraru@usamvcluj.ro
  2. 2. Pre-kick off Meeting, 1 February 2021 2  ERANET, ICT-AGRI-FOOD, European and International Cooperation,  Subprogram 3.2_Horizon 2020, Contract no. 201/2020  Project title: A smart-sensing, AI-driven platform for scalable, low-cost hydroponic units P1 - SCiO Private Company, https://scio.systems, Grecia P2 - University of Copenhagen, https://www.ku.dk/english, Danemarca P3 - Holisun SRL, https://www.holisun.com, Romania P4 - Nr21 Design, https://www.nr21.com, Germania P5 - Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, https://inn.demokritos.gr, Grecia P6 - University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca (USAMV Cluj-Napoca) https://www.usamvcluj.ro ○ The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development, ○ 23-25 September, 2021, USAMV Cluj-Napoca
  3. 3. Pre-kick off Meeting, 1 February 2021 3 Asmart-sensing,AI-drivenplatformforscalable,low-costhydroponicunits 3 https://www.gohydro.org Main project activities  Review and analysis of the factors that affect microgreens growth and nutrient quality;  Appropriate selection of sensing devices to be included in the GOhydro platform as a multi-modal sensor kit;  Development of an artificial intelligence (AI) component implementing a multi-model approach that will be able to produce accurate predictions and recommendations with limited amounts of data;  Evaluation cycles (in Greece, Denmark and Romania) of incremental proximity to the realistic usage of the platform, i.e., as a stand-alone hydroponic unit installable in everyday settings (offices, houses) and requiring no expertise to be managed and configured. ○ The 20th International Conference Life Sciences for Sustainable Development, ○ 23-25 September, 2021, USAMV Cluj-Napoca
  4. 4. Pre-kick off Meeting, 1 February 2021 Timeline USAMV Cluj-Napoca two-year action plan: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 4 T 5.2 - Communication and dissemination T 4.1 - Task protocol preparing T 4.2 - Production trials in hydroponic units T 4.3 – Performances validation T 1.1 - Literature review
  5. 5. Pre-kick off Meeting, 1 February 2021 Expected results 5 Scientific publications: - Journal publications - Conference proceedings Deliverables D4.1 Trial protocols for microgreens production in hydroponic units (R, PU) [M15] A report detailing the methods, materials and hydroponic units to be used for the GOHYDRO trials both in controlled and operational settings. D4.2 Evaluation results from experiments in semi-controlled realistic installations (R, PU) [M21] A report presenting and analysing the results and insights gained from the pilots under controlled settings D4.3 Report on validation of microgreens production in operational settings (R, PU) [M24] A report presenting and analysing the results and insights gained from the pilots under operational settings
  6. 6. Documentation related to hydroponic crops: • Introduction • Importance of microgreens • Cultivation of microgreens in hydroponic system • The nutrient solution (pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen in water) • Metabolism of microgreens and biotic and abiotic stressors • Disease and pest control in hydroponic crops - 164 bibliographical references Project proposal for literature review:  nutrient requirements and production parameters  lighting needs for hydroponically grown microgreens: effect of light parameters on crop growth, nutrient profile and yield; light quality, light intensity and photoperiod effects on microgreen growth and development  different production parameters like: pH, electrical conductivity, humidity, dissolved oxygen, temperature (of air and water) and nutrients
  7. 7. Aims: In this paper is presented a review of the literature, which demonstrates that the production of microgreens using hydroponic systems must be organized with care for controlling the many environmental and production parameters to achieve desired outputs and of an adequate quality. Materials and Methods: The review of the literature and data collection followed in detail certain keywords relevant for the production of microgreens in hydroponic systems, such as: species, temperature, humidity, pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen dissolved in water, carbon dioxide, nutrient solutions, and the influence of light (quantity, quality and photoperiods). INFLUENCING FACTORS IN OBTAINING MICROGREENS IN HYDROPONIC CONDITIONS The research was conducted between December 2020 and August 2021, using the databases: Web of Sciences, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholars.
  8. 8. No. Systems Characteristics Website 1 Wick System The plants are placed in a container, on an absorbent growth medium, and the connection to the tank with nutrient solution is made with absorbant wicks, through which the nutrient solution circulates to the level of the plant roots www.hydroponics.eu 2 Drip System The plants are installed on a medium, the nutrient solution is transported from the solution tank through drip tubes; the excess solution reaches the tank again and recirculates again through the system. www.trees.com 3 Ebb and Flow System It works according to the principle of flooding the growing environment in which the roots of plants with nutrient solution are located. A pump pushes the nutrient solution out of the tank, and then the excess drains back slowly, allowing the plants to receive nutrients regularly. www.nosoilsolutions.com 4 Deep Water Culture (DWC) System The plants have their roots immersed directly in the nutrient solution and float above it. As support, you can use expanded polystyrene plates with perforations in which the plants are inserted. Oxygenation of the solution is necessary. www.epicgardening.com 5 Nutrient Film Technology (NFT) This system ensures a constant flow of nutrient solution directly to the plant roots. The plants grow in perforated polyethylene tubes and PVC pipes. The pumping system is essential in this system. www.thespruce.com 6 Aeroponic System Involves suspending the plants on top of sprayers that directly spray the roots with nutrient solution every few minutes. The advantages of this system are the use of a much smaller amount of water, the roots receive oxygen in large quantities and the plants grow faster. However, the roots of the plants being suspended in the air, they are more prone to drying faster than in any other hydroponic system. https://aeroponicsdiy.com 7 Aquaponic Systems It integrates aquaculture and hydroponics into a single culture system. The water used in these crops comes from the fish farming system. They secrete nitrogen compounds that are captured and used by plants in their growth, prolonging water use and reducing the adjustment of the nutrient solution for plants. www.futurefarming.group Overview of hydroponic systems
  9. 9. No. Lactuca sativa L. Reference Light colour Effect on growth 1 Lettuce - Green Salad Bowl Legendre and van Iersel, 2021 Far-red 700–800 nm Increasing supplemental far-red light increased leaf length and width, which was associated with increased projected canopy size 2 Green leaf lettuce (Lobjoits green cos) and red leaf lettuce Viršilė et al., 2020 Green 510 nm Green light had reasonable impact on the contents of nutritive primary metabolites in red and green leaf lettuce 3 Lettuce - var foliosum cv. Dubacek and cv. Michalina Sergejeva et al., 2018 Blue 440 nm Compact plant morphology; impact of illumination source on the dry matter content significantly depended on cultivar and sampling time 4 Lettuce - Frillice Crisp Pinho et al., 2017 Far red 700–850 nm Addition of far red light increased leaf area index; faster growth may have caused decrease in dry weight content 5 Lettuce - Sunmang seedlings from 16 days- old Lee et al., 2016 Far red 700–850 nm Improved shoot and root growth; with far-red LEDs improves lettuce growth and bioactive compound content in a closed-type plant production system 6 Red lettuce - Sunmang Lee et al., 2015 Far red 700–850 nm The number of leaves increased, leaves were longer; the results of this study suggest that the supplementation with far-red LEDs should be considered when designing artificial lighting systems for closed-type plant factories 7 Lettuce - cultivars, red leaf Sunmang and green leaf Grand Rapid TBR, 18 day seedlings for 4 weeks Son and Oh, 2015 Green 490–550 nm The substitution of blue with green LEDs in the presence of a fixed proportion of red enhanced growth of lettuce 8 Red leaf lettuce - cv. Banchu Ref Fire Johkan et al., 2012 Green 490–550 nm High intensity (300 μmol m−2 s−1) green LED light promoted lettuce growth; 510 nm light had the greatest effect on plant growth 9 Red leaf lettuce seedlings - cv. Banchu Red Fire Johkan et al., 2010 Blue 425–490 nm Resulted in compact lettuce seedling morphology; promoted the growth of lettuce after transplanting 10 Baby leaf lettuce - Red Cross Li and Kubota, 2009 Far red 700–850 nm The fresh weight, dry weight, stem length, leaf length and leaf width significantly increased by 28%, 15%, 14%, 44% and 15%, respectively, with supplemental FR light compare to white light 11 Red leaf lettuce - Outeredgeous Stutte et al., 2009 Far red 700–850 nm Leaf elongation; total dry weight of plants grown under red LEDs alone was ≈20% lower than plants with blue or far red added 12 Red leaf lettuce - cv. Outeredgeous Stutte et al., 2009 Blue 425–490 nm Leaf expansion; the addition of blue light allowed full development of anthocyanin to occur The effect of light colour on growth of lettuce
  10. 10. No. Reference Investigation context Treatment Results (can be yield, quality and quantity, chlorophyl, etc.) 1 Bulgari et al., 2021 Influence of three growing media (vermiculite, coconut fiber, and jute fabric) on yield and quality parameters of two basil varieties (green and red) Microgreens were grown in a floating Micro Experimental Growing system equipped with LED lamps, with modulation of both energy and spectra of the light supplied to plants Results showed high yield, comprised from 2 to 3 kg m−2; nutritional quality varied among species and higher antioxidant compounds were found in red basil on vermiculite and jute; coconut fiber allowed the differentiation of crop performance in terms of sucrose and above all nitrate; the choice of the substrate significantly affected the yield, the dry matter percentage and the nitrate concentration of microgreens 2 Manawasinghe et al., 2021 Influence of substrate: nutrient film technique (NFT) culture, in comparison with conventional soil, culture and compost mixed coco- peat substrate The treatments were: top soil (control; T1), as compost and coir dust mixture at the rate of 1:1 (T2) and NFT (T3); the pH and EC of the supply solution were 5.9 (at 27.9°C) and 1.5 mS cm-1, respectively A significantly high vegetative growth and total yield was found in the NFT grown basil; the nitrate accumulation in basil leaves was well below the maximum permissible limit (MPL), set-forth by the recommendations of the European Health Commission 3 Pannico et al., 2020 Identification and quantification of polyphenols, major carotenoids and macro micro-minerals; twenty-seven phenolic compounds were quantified, of which the most abundant were: cichoric acid and rosmarinic acid in basil Sodium selenate applications at three concentrations (0, 8, and 16 μM Se) on green and purple basil; Hoagland nutrient solution; pH: 6; EC: 0.35 dS cm−1 In green and purple basil microgreens, the 8 μM Se application enhanced the lutein concentration by 7% and 19%, respectively; the same application rate also increased the overall macroelement content by 35% and total polyphenols concentration by 32% but only in the green cultivar; the latter actually had a tripled chicoric acid content compared to the untreated control 4 Puccinelli et al., 2019 Selenium biofortified microgreens from selenium-enriched seeds of basil; subtrate: perlite and vermiculite; pH: 5.6; EC: 2.04 dS m−1 Basil plants were grown in a nutrient solution, containing 0 (control), 4 or 8 mg Se L−1 as sodium selenate Seeds from plants treated with Se showed a significantly higher germination index than seeds from control plants; and the microgreens were enriched in Se; the antioxidant capacity of Se-fortified microgreens was higher compared to the control 5 Scagel et al., 2019 Effect of salinity on biomass yield; for every 10 mM increase in NaCl, treatment solution EC increased 1.1 dS m-1; pH: 5.1-5.2; hydroponic solution pH decreased slightly during the experiment (7.5 to 6.8) but all treatments had similar pH Two basil cultivars were grown hydroponically for 71 d with four different concentrations of NaCl (no NaCl, low, moderate, and high (20 dS m-1) In both cultivars, salinity increased leaf concentrations of certain caffeic acid derivatives, caftaric acid, cinnamyl malic acid, and feruloyl tartaric acid and decreased concentrations of chicoric acid; salinity increased leaf concentrations of the two of the major polyphenolics in basil leaves, quercetin-rutinoside and rosmarinic acid; salinity decreased concentrations of rosmarinic acid in leaves 6 Bulgari et al., 2017 Yield, mineral uptake, and quality of basil, Swiss chard, and rocket microgreens Hoagland’s nutrient solution; pH: 5.56; EC: 1.12 dS cm−1; minimum and maximum temperatures: 9.7-43.1°C; microgreens were harvested at the first true leaf stage, with green and swollen cotyledons With reference to data reported in literature for the same species hydroponically grown but harvested at adult stage, these microgreens yielded about half, with lower dry matter percentage, but higher shoot/root ratio; they showed high concentrations of some minerals, but their nutrient uptake was limited due to low yield; nitrates content was lower if compared with that usually measured in baby leaf or adult vegetables of the same species, as well as the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenols, and sugars 7 Saha et al., 2016 Nutritional dynamics Compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp.) as the aquatic species Aquaponic basil (AqB) showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB) 8 Walters and Currey, 2015 Quantify productivity and characterize growth of 35 basil cultivars grown in two hydroponic production systems In this two, two hydroponic systems were compared - nutrient film technique (NFT) and deep flow technique (DFT) systems, grown for 3 weeks Fresh weight of plants grown in DFT systems was 2.6 g greater compared with plants grown in NFT systems. Basil cultivars differed greatly in fresh weight; however, the yield of basil seems to be affected more by cultivar selection than hydroponic production system 9 Kiferle et al., 2013 The nutrient solutions contained different NO3 - concentrations (0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mol m-3) or NO3 -/ NH4 + molar ratios (1:0, 1:1 and 0:1; total N concentration was 10.0 mol m-3); concentration of other nutrients were as follows: 1.0 mol m-3 P-H2PO4, 10.0 mol m-3 K+; 3.0 mol m-3 Ca2+; 1.5 mol m-3 Mg2+ plus trace elements Influence of nitrogen nutrition on growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid in sweet basil The use of a total NO3 - concentration of 5 mol m-3 resulted in optimal plant growth and rosmarinic acid production; this suggests that the standard N concentration used in hydroponic culture (10 mol m-3 or higher) could be reduced considerably, with important implications from the environmental point of view; in contrast, the addition of NH4 + to the nutrient solution was detrimental to both growth and rosmarinic acid production Studies on effects of Nutrient solution, pH, EC, and Substrate on basil grwoth and production
  11. 11. No. Parameter Unit of measurement Average value of parameters 1 Light W 400 1.1 Photoperiodicity h 07:00–20:00 (12h) 1.2 Light intensity μmolm−2s−1 400 1.3 Color spectrum nm 440-460 1.4 Position cm 150 – Lamps HPS (High Pressure Sodium) 40 - Lamps LED 2 Ambiental temperature °C 20 ± 2 3 Humidity % 80 ± 5 4 Nutrient N-P-K : 3-2-3 (5-1-5) changed every 10 days 5 pH pH units 6.3 ± 0.4 6 Electrical conductivity mS 1.8 ± 0.2 7 Dissolved oxygen mgL−1 6 8 Solution temperature °C 18 ± 2 Needs of lettuce microgreens grown in a hydroponic system
  12. 12. No. Parameter Unit of measurement Average value of parameters (parameter variation) 1 Light W 400 1.1 Photoperiodicity h 06:30-21:30 (15h) (10-20h) 1.2 Light intensity μmolm-2s-1 300 (200-400) 1.3 Color spectrum nm 440-460 (260-780) 1.4 Position cm 150 – Lamps HPS (High Pressure Sodium) 40 - Lamps LED 2 Ambient temperature °C 21±2 Day; 17 Night 3 Humidity % 65±5 (50-60) 4 Nutrient N-P-K : 3-2-3 (%) changed every 10 days 5 pH pH units 6.8±0.4 6 Electrical conductivity mS 1.2±0.2 7 Dissolved oxygen mg L-1 6.5 8 Solution temperature °C 20±2 Environmental needs of basil microgreens grown in a hydroponic system
  13. 13. The literature review undertaken here has demonstrated that the production of basil microgreens using hydroponic systems must be organized with care for controlling the many environmental and production parameters to achieve desired outputs that are of an adequate quality. This paper has shown that the nutritional solution, temperature and light regime have the most important role in seed germination and development, while also summarizing the recent research on the many promising explorations in refining microgreen production to achieve optimal outputs along its phenological stages. Results and Conclusions
  14. 14. The nutritional solution, temperature and light regime, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature are all important factors which influence secondary metabolism from an incipient phase, which in the final stages increases both the perceived and actual value of the plants by contributing to human health and nutritional fortification. This literature review has shown that microgreen producers must integrate specific systematic hydroponic strategies to obtain high quality microgreens and high quantity and quality bioactive substances, while also avoiding the potential for spoilage and low-quality production when moving too far beyond the noted parameter ranges summarized here. It is necessary to standardize certain cultivation protocols to ensure their quality. This high degree of control necessary for optimal growth is also a benefit of hydroponic systems, as the sophisticated organization can lead to the elaboration of certain protocols to control as many factors which can positively, and negatively, influence plants in order to obtain a crop as uniform as possible throughout the year, with higher concentrations of active substances and nutrients valuable for human health.
  15. 15. 1. Rusu, T., 2021. GoHydro – O nouă perspectivă în producția microplantelor (GoHydro - A new perspective in the production of microgreens). Agricultura 365, Anul IX, nr. 45, mai-august 2021, pag. 46-47. ISSN 2343-9580, ISSN-L 2343-9580, Tipografia Inkorporate Print București. 2. Rusu, T., P.I. Moraru, O.S. Mintas, 2021. Influence of environmental and nutritional factors on the development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) microgreens grown in a hydroponic system: A review. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(3), Article number: 12427 (FI: 1.444). DOI: 10.15835/nbha49312427. 3. Rusu, T., R.J. Cowden, P.I. Moraru, M.A. Maxim, B.B. Ghaley, 2021. Overview of multiple applications of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the effects of production environmental parameters on yields and secondary metabolites in the hydroponic system. Sustainability, 13, x. https://doi.org/10.3390/xxxxx. (FI: 3.521). https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability Publications
  16. 16. ThankYou Teodor RUSU, Paula MORARU, Mihai MAXIM +40 724 719 774 trusu@usamvcluj.ro; moraru_paulaioana@yahoo.com http://www.usamvcluj.ro/ A smart-sensing AI-driven platform for scalable, low-cost hydroponic units FUNDED BY https://www.gohydro.org/

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