SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 75
BE 8252- BASIC CIVIL AND
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HEAT ENGINES
Heat engine is a device used for
converting heat energy into
mechanical energy.
Heat energy is obtained by
combustion of fuel
Classification of Heat engines :
 Internal combustion engine (I.C Engine)
 External combustion engine (E.C Engine)
Internal combustion engine
(I.C Engine)
• In I.C engines, the combustion of
fuel takes place inside the engine
cylinder
Examples :
Diesel engine
Petrol engine
Gas engine
External combustion engine
(E.C engine)
• In E.C engines, the combustion of
fuel takes place outside the
working cylinder
Examples :
Steam Engines
Steam turbines
Classifications of I.C Engines
Number of strokes
 Two stroke engine
 Four stroke engine
Fuel used
 Petrol (or) Gasoline engine
 Gas engine
 Diesel engine
 Dual fuel engine
Working cycle
 Otto cycle
 Diesel cycle
 Dual combustion engine
Classifications of I.C Engines
Cylinder arrangement
Inline engine
V engine
Radial engine
Vertical and horizontal engine
Fuel supply
Carbureted type
Injection type
Methods of ignition
Spark ignition
Compression ignition
Classifications of I.C Engines
 Cooling system
 Air cooled engine
 water cooled engine
 Lubrication system
 Wet sump lubrication engine
 Dry sump lubrication
Basic components of I.C engine
I.C Engine Terminology
• Bore : The inside diameter of the
cylinder is known as bore,
measured in mm
• Stroke : Distance travelled by the
piston between two dead centres
(TDC & BDC)
• TDC : The extreme position
reached by the piston at the top of
the cylinder in the vertical engine
is called as Top Dead Centre
I.C Engine Terminology
• BDC : The extreme position
reached by the piston at the Bottom
of the cylinder in the vertical
engine is called as Bottom Dead
Centre
• Compression ratio:
– Maximum cylinder volume
Clearance volume
• For Petrol engine : 6:1 to 10:1
• For Diesel engine : 16:1 to 26:1
Compression ratio:
video
Petrol engine
• Petrol engine is also known as
spark ignition (SI) engine
• Four stroke petrol engine requires
four strokes of the piston for one
cycle of operation
• Number of strokes:
– Four stroke petrol engine
– Two stroke petrol engine
Four stroke petrol
engine
• In four stroke engine, one power
stroke is completed for every four
strokes of the piston or during two
revolutions of the crankshaft.
• Four strokes are,
– Suction stroke
– Compression stroke
– Expansion stroke
– Exhaust stroke
Suction stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : open
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : TDC to BDC
Compression stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : BDC to TDC
Expansion stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : TDC to BDC
Exhaust stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : open
Piston movement : BDC to TDC
Two stroke petrol engines
• In two stroke engines, the cycle of
operation is completed in two
strokes of the piston (or) one
revolution of the crankshaft
• A two stroke engine has no valves
and only ports are present
• Three ports :
– Inlet port
– Exhaust port
– Transfer port
Two stroke petrol engines
Two strokes :
• First stroke : ( upward movement of piston)
– compression , suction and ignition
• Second stroke : Expansion and Exhaust
2 stroke petrol engine
Exhaust port
Inlet port
Transfer port
1.Upward
movement of piston
2.Downward
movement of piston
First stroke :
( upward movement of piston)
Second stroke
( downward movement of piston)
Four stroke Diesel engine
• Diesel engine is also known as
compression ignition ( C.I ) engine.
• The working is similar to that of a
petrol engine and the only difference
is a fuel injector is present instead of
a spark plug.
• This is known as “ Diesel cycle”
Four strokes are,
Suction stroke
Compression stroke
Expansion stroke
Exhaust stroke
Suction stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : open
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : TDC to BDC
Compression stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : BDC to
TDC
Expansion stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : closed
Piston movement : TDC to BDC
Exhaust stroke
Valve position :
Inlet valve : closed
Outlet valve : open
Piston movement : BDC to TDC
Two stroke Diesel engine
BOILERS
Boilers
• Boiler also known as steam
generator is a closed vessel in
which steam is generated from
water by the application of heat
and pressure being higher than
the atmospheric
• The main function of a boiler is to
evaporate water into steam at a
higher pressure
Requisites of a boiler
• A good boiler should be capable of
producing maximum amount of steam
with minimum initial cost
• It should be compact in size and safe
in working
• The components and parts should be
easily accessible for inspection and
repair
• The heat produced by the fuel in the
furnace should be utilized maximum
Classification of boilers
According to the flow of water and hot
gases
Fire tube boilers – Ex Cochran, Lancashire
Water tube boilers- Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler
According to the method of firing
Internally fired boilers – Ex Lancashire
Externally fired boilers - Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler
According to the method of water
circulation
Natural circulation boilers - Cochran, Lancashire
Forced circulation boilers – La-Mont , velox boiler
According to the pressure
developed
Low pressure boilers - Ex Cochran, Lancashire
Medium pressure boilers-Ex Lancashire,
Locomotive Boiler
High pressure boilers - Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler
According to the axis of the shell
Vertical boilers – Cochran boiler
Inclined boilers
Horizontal boilers - Lancashire boiler , locomotive
boiler
According to the use of the boiler
Stationary boilers - Babcock, Wilcox boiler
Low pressure boilers
• The boilers producing steam at a
pressure of less than 80 bar are
termed as low pressure boiler.
• Fire tube boilers are generally
preferred for low pressure steam
production
• Eg. Cochran boiler , Lancashire
boiler , locomotive boiler
Cochran Boiler
Cochran Boiler
• It is a vertical, multi-tubular low
pressure fire tube boiler.
• It is the modification of a simple
vertical boiler.
• It has many horizontal fire tubes
and hence the heating surface
has been increased
Specifications
Diameter of the shell 2.75m
Height of the shell 5.8m
Working pressure 6.5 bar – 15 bar
Steam Capacity 3500 kg/hr
Efficiency 72%
Number of tubes Upto 165
PARTS
• Shell
• Furnace
• Flue pipe
• Combustion chamber
• Chimney
• Man hole
• Water gauge
• Safety valve
• Steam stop valve
• Blow off cock
• Fusible plug
Salient feature
• The dome shape of the furnace
causes the hot gases to deflect
back and pass through the flue
pipe
• The hemispherical shape of the
shell provides maximum volume
of space
• It occupies less floor area and
hence compact
LOCOMOTIVE BOILER
High pressure Boiler
• The boilers producing steam at a
pressure of more than 80 bar are
termed as high pressure boilers
• The high pressure boiler can deliver
40 to 1600 tonnes/hr superheated
steam.
• Water tube boilers are generally
preferred for high pressure boilers
• Example : Babcock and wilcox
boiler , Lamont boiler, Benson boiler
Lamont Boiler
• It is a water tube, forced circulation
type externally fired high pressure
boiler
Main parts
• Feed pump
• Economizer
• Steam separator drum
• Circulating pump
• Evaporator
• Convection super heater
• Air preheater
• Economizer:
• It a device in which the waste heat
of the flue gases is utilized for
heating the feed water
• Air Pre-heater :
• The function of the air pre-heater is to
increase the temperature of air before it
enters the furnace.
• It is placed after the economizer.
• Flue gases pass through the economizer
and then to the air preheater
• Super heater :
• The function of a super heater
is to increase the temperature
of the steam above its
saturation point
• Steam separator :
• The function of a steam
separator is to remove the
entrained water particles from
the steam conveyed to the
steam engine or turbine
Specifications
• Capacity – 50 tonnes/hr
• Steam pressure – 170 bar
• Temperature – 500oC
Advantages
• It can produce steam at very high
pressure
• Air preheater and economizer
increases the boiler efficiency
• Arrangement is compact
• The weight of the boiler is reduced as
the separator drum is kept outside
the boiler
Disadvantages
• The disadvantages of lamont boiler
is the deposition of salt and
sediments on the inner surface of
the waste tubes
• The deposition reduces the heat
transfer capacity and the efficiency
Benson boiler
• Specifications
• Capacity – 150 tonnes/hr
• Steam pressure – 210 bar
• Temperature – 650oc
LOEFFLER BOILER
FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION BOILER
BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS
CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED
BOILERS
PRESSURISED FLUIDIZED
BUBBLING BED BOILER
Low Pressure VS High pressure
Low pressure boiler High Pressure Boiler
This boiler produces steam at a
pressure less than 80 bar
This boiler produces steam at a
pressure of more than 80 bar
Fire tube boilers are generally
preferred for low pressure boiler
Water tube boilers are generally
preferred for high pressure boiler
Dry steam is produced in this
type of boiler
Superheated steam is produced
in this type of boiler
Rate of steam production is low Rate of steam production is high
Lesser risk of explosion
Eg : Cochran boiler ,
Lanchashire Boiler , locomotive
Boiler
More risk of explosion due to
high pressure
Eg: Babcock and Wilcox Boiler,
Lamont Boiler, Benson Boiler
Boiler Mountings
Boiler mountings are the devices mounted on the
boiler surface for safe operation , proper
maintenance and control of steam generation.
Boiler mountings include :
Pressure Gauge
Water Gauge
Safe valve
Fusible plug
Steam stop Valve
Blow off cock
Boiler Accessories
Boiler accessories are the devices fitted in boiler to
increase the efficiency of the boiler and proper
working of the boiler.
• Boiler Accessories are :
Economizer
Air Preheater
Superheater
Steam separator
Pressure Gauge
Water Gauge
Safe valve
Fusible plug
Boiler Accessories
• Economizer
Air Preheater
Super Heater

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Boilers and its types & components
Boilers and its types & componentsBoilers and its types & components
Boilers and its types & components
 
BOILER DRAUGHT
BOILER DRAUGHTBOILER DRAUGHT
BOILER DRAUGHT
 
High pressure boilers (1)
High pressure boilers (1)High pressure boilers (1)
High pressure boilers (1)
 
Steam boiler
Steam boilerSteam boiler
Steam boiler
 
Steam boilers
Steam boilersSteam boilers
Steam boilers
 
A Seminar On Boiler
A Seminar On BoilerA Seminar On Boiler
A Seminar On Boiler
 
Introduction to Boilers by PNP
Introduction to Boilers by PNPIntroduction to Boilers by PNP
Introduction to Boilers by PNP
 
Boilers (A basic approach)
Boilers (A basic approach)Boilers (A basic approach)
Boilers (A basic approach)
 
Boiler parts
Boiler partsBoiler parts
Boiler parts
 
Steam boiler
Steam boilerSteam boiler
Steam boiler
 
TYPES OF BOILER. FIRE, WATER AND ELECTRIC.............
TYPES OF BOILER. FIRE, WATER AND ELECTRIC.............TYPES OF BOILER. FIRE, WATER AND ELECTRIC.............
TYPES OF BOILER. FIRE, WATER AND ELECTRIC.............
 
Ppt on boilers
Ppt on boilersPpt on boilers
Ppt on boilers
 
How to improve the efficiency of water tube boiler
How to improve the efficiency of water tube boilerHow to improve the efficiency of water tube boiler
How to improve the efficiency of water tube boiler
 
Applied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal EngineeringApplied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal Engineering
 
Boilers (1) (1)
Boilers (1) (1)Boilers (1) (1)
Boilers (1) (1)
 
Boiler Designs
Boiler Designs Boiler Designs
Boiler Designs
 
Part1
Part1Part1
Part1
 
Boiler Drum And Its Internals
Boiler Drum And Its InternalsBoiler Drum And Its Internals
Boiler Drum And Its Internals
 
B.tech i eme u 2 steam boilers
B.tech i eme u 2 steam boilersB.tech i eme u 2 steam boilers
B.tech i eme u 2 steam boilers
 
Boiler ssasit
Boiler  ssasitBoiler  ssasit
Boiler ssasit
 

Similar to IC Engines

Ic engines
Ic enginesIc engines
Ic enginesmahe49
 
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptx
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptxUNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptx
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptxprakash0712
 
Ipe301 e internal combustion engines
Ipe301 e internal combustion enginesIpe301 e internal combustion engines
Ipe301 e internal combustion enginesK. M.
 
Applied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal EngineeringApplied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal EngineeringNitin Shekapure
 
Ipe301 e steam generation unit
Ipe301 e steam generation unitIpe301 e steam generation unit
Ipe301 e steam generation unitK. M.
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptZookOne
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptHRHabib7
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptSupratimRoy16
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptrajam575648
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptSubratSahu57
 
Introduction of Boiler
Introduction of BoilerIntroduction of Boiler
Introduction of BoilerMarine Study
 
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessories
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessoriesSteam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessories
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessoriesRidwanul Hoque
 

Similar to IC Engines (20)

Ic engines
Ic enginesIc engines
Ic engines
 
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptx
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptxUNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptx
UNIT-1-Steam Power Plant.pptx
 
Ipe301 e internal combustion engines
Ipe301 e internal combustion enginesIpe301 e internal combustion engines
Ipe301 e internal combustion engines
 
Steam boilers
Steam boilersSteam boilers
Steam boilers
 
Steam generator (boiler) vamshi
Steam generator (boiler) vamshiSteam generator (boiler) vamshi
Steam generator (boiler) vamshi
 
Boilers IN EME
Boilers IN EMEBoilers IN EME
Boilers IN EME
 
Applied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal EngineeringApplied Thermal Engineering
Applied Thermal Engineering
 
Ipe301 e steam generation unit
Ipe301 e steam generation unitIpe301 e steam generation unit
Ipe301 e steam generation unit
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.ppt
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.ppt
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.ppt
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.ppt
 
Power Plant Boilers.pdf
Power Plant Boilers.pdfPower Plant Boilers.pdf
Power Plant Boilers.pdf
 
GME.pptx
GME.pptxGME.pptx
GME.pptx
 
Boiler.pptx
Boiler.pptxBoiler.pptx
Boiler.pptx
 
Power Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.pptPower Generation-10n.ppt
Power Generation-10n.ppt
 
Introduction of Boiler
Introduction of BoilerIntroduction of Boiler
Introduction of Boiler
 
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessories
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessoriesSteam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessories
Steam Generation Units (boilers) with their mountings and accessories
 
Boilers
BoilersBoilers
Boilers
 
Steam power plant 2
Steam power plant 2Steam power plant 2
Steam power plant 2
 

More from GOBINATHS18

Thermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIThermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIGOBINATHS18
 
Thermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIThermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIGOBINATHS18
 
Second law of Thermodynamics
Second law of ThermodynamicsSecond law of Thermodynamics
Second law of ThermodynamicsGOBINATHS18
 
Concepts of Thermodynamics
Concepts of ThermodynamicsConcepts of Thermodynamics
Concepts of ThermodynamicsGOBINATHS18
 
Application of Thermodynamics
Application of ThermodynamicsApplication of Thermodynamics
Application of ThermodynamicsGOBINATHS18
 
Basic Concepts and First Law
Basic Concepts and First LawBasic Concepts and First Law
Basic Concepts and First LawGOBINATHS18
 

More from GOBINATHS18 (12)

Thermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIThermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - II
 
Thermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - IIThermal Engineering - II
Thermal Engineering - II
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Second law of Thermodynamics
Second law of ThermodynamicsSecond law of Thermodynamics
Second law of Thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Concepts of Thermodynamics
Concepts of ThermodynamicsConcepts of Thermodynamics
Concepts of Thermodynamics
 
Application of Thermodynamics
Application of ThermodynamicsApplication of Thermodynamics
Application of Thermodynamics
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Basic Concepts and First Law
Basic Concepts and First LawBasic Concepts and First Law
Basic Concepts and First Law
 
Strategy of ib
Strategy of ibStrategy of ib
Strategy of ib
 

Recently uploaded

Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt
Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.pptIndustrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt
Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.pptNarmatha D
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsSachinPawar510423
 
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girls
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call GirlsCall Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girls
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girlsssuser7cb4ff
 
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort serviceGurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort servicejennyeacort
 
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptArduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptSAURABHKUMAR892774
 
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionSachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionDr.Costas Sachpazis
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfRajuKanojiya4
 
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIPast, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIabhishek36461
 
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxVelmuruganTECE
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingMuhammadUzairLiaqat
 
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teams
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teamsThe SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teams
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teamsDILIPKUMARMONDAL6
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHC Sai Kiran
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESIndustrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESNarmatha D
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substationstephanwindworld
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt
Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.pptIndustrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt
Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
 
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girls
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call GirlsCall Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girls
Call Girls Narol 7397865700 Independent Call Girls
 
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
 
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort serviceGurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
 
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptArduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
 
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective IntroductionSachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
Sachpazis Costas: Geotechnical Engineering: A student's Perspective Introduction
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
 
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIPast, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
 
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the welding
 
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teams
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teamsThe SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teams
The SRE Report 2024 - Great Findings for the teams
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating System
 
Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating System
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESIndustrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
 
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdfDesign and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
 

IC Engines

  • 1. BE 8252- BASIC CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  • 2. HEAT ENGINES Heat engine is a device used for converting heat energy into mechanical energy. Heat energy is obtained by combustion of fuel Classification of Heat engines :  Internal combustion engine (I.C Engine)  External combustion engine (E.C Engine)
  • 3.
  • 4. Internal combustion engine (I.C Engine) • In I.C engines, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder Examples : Diesel engine Petrol engine Gas engine
  • 5. External combustion engine (E.C engine) • In E.C engines, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the working cylinder Examples : Steam Engines Steam turbines
  • 6. Classifications of I.C Engines Number of strokes  Two stroke engine  Four stroke engine Fuel used  Petrol (or) Gasoline engine  Gas engine  Diesel engine  Dual fuel engine Working cycle  Otto cycle  Diesel cycle  Dual combustion engine
  • 7. Classifications of I.C Engines Cylinder arrangement Inline engine V engine Radial engine Vertical and horizontal engine Fuel supply Carbureted type Injection type Methods of ignition Spark ignition Compression ignition
  • 8. Classifications of I.C Engines  Cooling system  Air cooled engine  water cooled engine  Lubrication system  Wet sump lubrication engine  Dry sump lubrication
  • 9. Basic components of I.C engine
  • 10. I.C Engine Terminology • Bore : The inside diameter of the cylinder is known as bore, measured in mm • Stroke : Distance travelled by the piston between two dead centres (TDC & BDC) • TDC : The extreme position reached by the piston at the top of the cylinder in the vertical engine is called as Top Dead Centre
  • 11. I.C Engine Terminology • BDC : The extreme position reached by the piston at the Bottom of the cylinder in the vertical engine is called as Bottom Dead Centre • Compression ratio: – Maximum cylinder volume Clearance volume • For Petrol engine : 6:1 to 10:1 • For Diesel engine : 16:1 to 26:1
  • 13. Petrol engine • Petrol engine is also known as spark ignition (SI) engine • Four stroke petrol engine requires four strokes of the piston for one cycle of operation • Number of strokes: – Four stroke petrol engine – Two stroke petrol engine
  • 14. Four stroke petrol engine • In four stroke engine, one power stroke is completed for every four strokes of the piston or during two revolutions of the crankshaft. • Four strokes are, – Suction stroke – Compression stroke – Expansion stroke – Exhaust stroke
  • 15. Suction stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : open Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : TDC to BDC
  • 16. Compression stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : BDC to TDC
  • 17. Expansion stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : TDC to BDC
  • 18. Exhaust stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : open Piston movement : BDC to TDC
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Two stroke petrol engines • In two stroke engines, the cycle of operation is completed in two strokes of the piston (or) one revolution of the crankshaft • A two stroke engine has no valves and only ports are present • Three ports : – Inlet port – Exhaust port – Transfer port
  • 22. Two stroke petrol engines Two strokes : • First stroke : ( upward movement of piston) – compression , suction and ignition • Second stroke : Expansion and Exhaust
  • 23. 2 stroke petrol engine Exhaust port Inlet port Transfer port 1.Upward movement of piston 2.Downward movement of piston
  • 24. First stroke : ( upward movement of piston)
  • 25. Second stroke ( downward movement of piston)
  • 26. Four stroke Diesel engine • Diesel engine is also known as compression ignition ( C.I ) engine. • The working is similar to that of a petrol engine and the only difference is a fuel injector is present instead of a spark plug. • This is known as “ Diesel cycle”
  • 27. Four strokes are, Suction stroke Compression stroke Expansion stroke Exhaust stroke
  • 28. Suction stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : open Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : TDC to BDC
  • 29. Compression stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : BDC to TDC
  • 30. Expansion stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : closed Piston movement : TDC to BDC
  • 31. Exhaust stroke Valve position : Inlet valve : closed Outlet valve : open Piston movement : BDC to TDC
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 37. Boilers • Boiler also known as steam generator is a closed vessel in which steam is generated from water by the application of heat and pressure being higher than the atmospheric • The main function of a boiler is to evaporate water into steam at a higher pressure
  • 38. Requisites of a boiler • A good boiler should be capable of producing maximum amount of steam with minimum initial cost • It should be compact in size and safe in working • The components and parts should be easily accessible for inspection and repair • The heat produced by the fuel in the furnace should be utilized maximum
  • 39. Classification of boilers According to the flow of water and hot gases Fire tube boilers – Ex Cochran, Lancashire Water tube boilers- Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler According to the method of firing Internally fired boilers – Ex Lancashire Externally fired boilers - Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler According to the method of water circulation Natural circulation boilers - Cochran, Lancashire Forced circulation boilers – La-Mont , velox boiler
  • 40. According to the pressure developed Low pressure boilers - Ex Cochran, Lancashire Medium pressure boilers-Ex Lancashire, Locomotive Boiler High pressure boilers - Ex Babcock, Wilcox boiler According to the axis of the shell Vertical boilers – Cochran boiler Inclined boilers Horizontal boilers - Lancashire boiler , locomotive boiler According to the use of the boiler Stationary boilers - Babcock, Wilcox boiler
  • 41. Low pressure boilers • The boilers producing steam at a pressure of less than 80 bar are termed as low pressure boiler. • Fire tube boilers are generally preferred for low pressure steam production • Eg. Cochran boiler , Lancashire boiler , locomotive boiler
  • 43. Cochran Boiler • It is a vertical, multi-tubular low pressure fire tube boiler. • It is the modification of a simple vertical boiler. • It has many horizontal fire tubes and hence the heating surface has been increased
  • 44. Specifications Diameter of the shell 2.75m Height of the shell 5.8m Working pressure 6.5 bar – 15 bar Steam Capacity 3500 kg/hr Efficiency 72% Number of tubes Upto 165
  • 45. PARTS • Shell • Furnace • Flue pipe • Combustion chamber • Chimney • Man hole • Water gauge • Safety valve • Steam stop valve • Blow off cock • Fusible plug
  • 46. Salient feature • The dome shape of the furnace causes the hot gases to deflect back and pass through the flue pipe • The hemispherical shape of the shell provides maximum volume of space • It occupies less floor area and hence compact
  • 48.
  • 49. High pressure Boiler • The boilers producing steam at a pressure of more than 80 bar are termed as high pressure boilers • The high pressure boiler can deliver 40 to 1600 tonnes/hr superheated steam. • Water tube boilers are generally preferred for high pressure boilers • Example : Babcock and wilcox boiler , Lamont boiler, Benson boiler
  • 50. Lamont Boiler • It is a water tube, forced circulation type externally fired high pressure boiler
  • 51.
  • 52. Main parts • Feed pump • Economizer • Steam separator drum • Circulating pump • Evaporator • Convection super heater • Air preheater
  • 53. • Economizer: • It a device in which the waste heat of the flue gases is utilized for heating the feed water • Air Pre-heater : • The function of the air pre-heater is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. • It is placed after the economizer. • Flue gases pass through the economizer and then to the air preheater
  • 54. • Super heater : • The function of a super heater is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation point • Steam separator : • The function of a steam separator is to remove the entrained water particles from the steam conveyed to the steam engine or turbine
  • 55.
  • 56. Specifications • Capacity – 50 tonnes/hr • Steam pressure – 170 bar • Temperature – 500oC
  • 57. Advantages • It can produce steam at very high pressure • Air preheater and economizer increases the boiler efficiency • Arrangement is compact • The weight of the boiler is reduced as the separator drum is kept outside the boiler
  • 58. Disadvantages • The disadvantages of lamont boiler is the deposition of salt and sediments on the inner surface of the waste tubes • The deposition reduces the heat transfer capacity and the efficiency
  • 59.
  • 60. Benson boiler • Specifications • Capacity – 150 tonnes/hr • Steam pressure – 210 bar • Temperature – 650oc
  • 66. Low Pressure VS High pressure Low pressure boiler High Pressure Boiler This boiler produces steam at a pressure less than 80 bar This boiler produces steam at a pressure of more than 80 bar Fire tube boilers are generally preferred for low pressure boiler Water tube boilers are generally preferred for high pressure boiler Dry steam is produced in this type of boiler Superheated steam is produced in this type of boiler Rate of steam production is low Rate of steam production is high Lesser risk of explosion Eg : Cochran boiler , Lanchashire Boiler , locomotive Boiler More risk of explosion due to high pressure Eg: Babcock and Wilcox Boiler, Lamont Boiler, Benson Boiler
  • 67. Boiler Mountings Boiler mountings are the devices mounted on the boiler surface for safe operation , proper maintenance and control of steam generation. Boiler mountings include : Pressure Gauge Water Gauge Safe valve Fusible plug Steam stop Valve Blow off cock
  • 68. Boiler Accessories Boiler accessories are the devices fitted in boiler to increase the efficiency of the boiler and proper working of the boiler. • Boiler Accessories are : Economizer Air Preheater Superheater Steam separator