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Increasing effectiveness of MOOCs to meet the 21st century skills

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Dilrukshi Gamage's presentation of her PhD research at the 7th GO-GN Seminar in Delft, April 21-22, 2018.

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Increasing effectiveness of MOOCs to meet the 21st century skills

  1. 1. Increasing effectiveness of MOOCs to meet the 21st century skills Dilrukshi Gamage Sri Lanka dilrukshi.gamage@gmail.com www.dilrukshigamage.com VII GO-GN Seminar
  2. 2. Increasing effectiveness of MOOCs to meet the 21st century skills
  3. 3. Agenda • 1. Introduction • 2. Background • 3. Problem Domain • 4. Research question and Methods • 5. Discussion • 6. Conclusion creative commons Lincence to add
  4. 4. Introduction • Learning communities are actively engaging E-Learning for more than 10 years • 2012, MOOCs were introduced and became the trend • MOOCs found to be following a sound pedagogy • Some researchers are skeptical
  5. 5. J. Young, "Udacity Official Declares MOOCs ‘Dead’ (Though the Company Still Offers Them)," EdSurge, 12 October 2017. Content orient Instructivist 2012 2018 Passive Pedagogical skeptism
  6. 6. MOOCs effectiveness Quality 21st Century skills Creative thinking Collaboration Communication Critical thinking
  7. 7. What and why we need? Creative thinking Critical thinking Collaboration Communication 21st century learning needs Industries require wicked problem solvers MOOCs are content focus
  8. 8. Introduction • MOOC effectiveness – Quality • Online learning increases with introduction of MOOC • Research findings indicate MOOC is effective – • Sound pedagogy (Glance, Forsey and Riley,2013) • Shown higher gains than a regular class (Colvin, Champaign, Zhou, Fredericks and Pritchard,2014) • But some researchers are not convinced, state it is not effective
  9. 9. Introduction • Broad view on the proposal – • What factors affects the effectiveness of MOOCs? • How can we measure the improvement of effectiveness? • In what way MOOCs platforms can be improved or what solutions can be implemented and integrated in order to improve MOOCs platforms using the dimensions we proposed above in 1, 2?
  10. 10. Introduction • Find solutions incorporating • Grounded Theory (GT) and Quantitative studies • Human Computer Interaction (HCI) methodologies and • Design Based Research (DBR) methodology. • The above is due to the perception that the problems of MOOCs need attention with respect to the social behaviors and human interaction • Broader question of “How can a large group of humans at any age learn better in online situations?”
  11. 11. Literature review • eLearning effectiveness – eLearning Quality • Online learning increases with introduction of MOOC • We already stated that research findings indicate MOOC is effective – • Sound pedagogy (Glance, Forsey and Riley,2013) • Shown higher gains than a regular class (Colvin, Champaign, Zhou, Fredericks and Pritchard,2014)
  12. 12. Literature review • But some researchers are skeptical – • No room for creativity (Martin, 2012) • Follow traditional didactic pedagogy (Daniel,2012) • Poor quality (Bali, 2013) J. Young, "Udacity Official Declares MOOCs ‘Dead’ (Though the Company Still Offers Them)," EdSurge, 12 October 2017. Content orient Instructivist 2012 2018 Passive Pedagogical skeptism
  13. 13. Literature review • Number of MOOCs and Courses increases – Quality issue • Less research conducted to benchmark quality of online learning - MOOC • Out of 4745 search hits – only 26 research relevant to Quality dimensions • Out of 26 – 2 research work with empirical evidence; 7 proposal frameworks
  14. 14. Literature review Journal name No of results with search terms “MOOC quality” Relevance to the review Last access date Education Specific Journals British Journal of Education 121 2 19-2-2015 American Journal of Distance Education 8 1 19-2-2015 Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 26 2 19-2-2015 Distance education 14 1 19-2-2015 International Journal of Distance education 12 0 Publisher Databases Wiley Online database 89 3 21-2-2015 SpringerLink 209 4 23-2-2015 Elsevier’s ScienceDirect 155 2 23-2-2015 Research Databases ERIC 156 2 25-2-2015 CiteSeerX 373 2 25-2-2015 Google Scholar 3509 5 25-2-2015 IEEEXplorer 73 2 25-2-2015 Total 4745 26
  15. 15. Literature review • Empirical evidence • 2 dimensions 6 categories (Yousef,2014) • used 107 students and 98 professors who take part in MOOC courses.
  16. 16. Literature review • Proposal Frameworks • 10 dimensional proposal to evaluate quality in MOOC - Sir John Daniel and Stamenka Uvaliæ-Trumbiæas “A guide to online learning” (Butcher and Wilson-Strydom,2014) • “Quality Matters” program proposes to use its metrics rubric in assessing MOOCs (Shattuck,2014) • European Foundation for Quality eLearning(EFQL) (Ehlers, Ossiannilsson and Creelman,2014) • 7c’s approach to bring enhancements in leaner experience and quality assurances (Conole,2013) • Open Education Initiatives (OEI) (Nagashima,2014) • Margaryan, Bianco & Littlejhon propose 10 dimensional instructional design criteria to evaluate MOOCs quality (Margaryan, Bianco & Littlejhon ,2015) • framework named mesoMOOC proposed by Schoenak addresses several challenges that hinder current effective delivery of MOOCs (Schoenak,2013)
  17. 17. Literature review • Identifying effectiveness factors for MOOC • Used Grounded theory (GT) process (Glaser,1967) • Why – • GT is important for eLearning research since the data produced by GT gives the best possible insights into the students and their experiences • Provides flexibility to the researcher as it does not assume hypotheses • Researchers identified the nature of GT approach to educational research is not built upon a structured and pre-determined methodology, but rather it represents a strategy for continually redesigning research in the light of emergent concepts
  18. 18. • Who else used GT in educational research – • to understand the social context of the UK online community and issues around the creation and exchange of knowledge within and between online communities (Cook, John & Smith,2004) • focus groups to investigate and analyze critical success factors (CSFs) that are required to deliver eLearning within higher education (HE) courses and programs (McPherson and Nunes,2008) • tried to identify the eLearning experience in students using Grounded Theory (Gliber & Jennifar, 2007) • a novel analysis using user generated online reviews to find the factors which make a great MOOC (Adamopoulos,2013) Literature review
  19. 19. Literature review • Use of Design Based Research Method (DBR) • DBR is an emerging paradigm • Is used for the study of learning in context through the systematic design/ study of instructional strategies/ tools. • Scholars in DBR collective argue that design-based research can help create and extend knowledge about developing, enacting, and sustaining innovative learning environments [DBR Research Collective, 2003].
  20. 20. Literature review • Use of DBR Method • DBR collective (DBR Research Collective,2003) suggest value of design-based research should be measured by its ability to improve educational practice • four areas where design-based research methods are most promising (a) exploring possibilities for creating novel learning and teaching environments (b) developing theories of learning and instruction that are contextually based (c) advancing and consolidating design knowledge (d) increasing our capacity for educational innovation.
  21. 21. Research Objectives • Our perceptions • Improving the effectiveness of Learning experience in MOOCs. • Existing MOOC model does not support meeting the challenges faced in 21st century. • Existing model mostly follow the didactic lecture base learning, leaving less room for the students to critically think and work collaboratively. • MOOCs are not effective thus MOOCs are young itself, there are many opportunities and methods in that can be use to find an effective balance MOOCs effectiveness Quality 21st Century skills Creative thinking Collaboration Communication Critical thinking
  22. 22. Research Objectives --> Research Questions Therefore - 1. Identify what is needed by students to learn best in MOOCs, what factors does affect the effectiveness? 2. How can we improve the effectiveness of MOOCs using the discovered factors in 1. 3. Introduce an appropriate pedagogical model/ theoretical framework to enhance the Learning experience. 4. Design a working porotype model on the enhanced pedagogical model and empirically test the improvements
  23. 23. Research Objectives • Inline with the Objective 3 • Introduce Network grouping model/ algorithm, where we can group the students in MOOCs so that they can work effectively than following a typical MOOC. • Introduce effective peer reviewing model – We hypnotize an Identified Peer Reviewing (IPR) model where students can see the peers they grade which is opposite to the blind peer review.
  24. 24. Research Methodology • Phase 1 - Identifying what factors affect in the effectiveness • Phase 2 - Developing a pedagogical model to enhance the effectiveness • Phase 3 - Modeling a prototype and testing the improvements • Phase 4 – Implement the prototype and integrate as a learning intervention
  25. 25. Key gap in the pedagogical models cMOOC follow more connectivist approach. The lose structure in cMOOCs found to be difficult in following by novice and typically suited for well self-motivated students. xMOOCx behavioristic approach It does not appeared to be providing the skills needed by students who face 21st century challenges. xMOOCs are more and more lean towards decentralize system limiting students to student, student to instructor interactions. Learners are isolated in their learning environment and less motivated to commit to course activities.
  26. 26. Missing key components of MOOCs pedagogy Brouns,, 2014. Teacher Learner Interaction Building learning community Miller, 2015.
  27. 27. Key gap in pedagogical model 21st centaury learner need Collaboration Interaction Networked learning
  28. 28. key gaps convert to 6 design goals • 1) Learner Empowerment • 2) Learner orientation and structured plan • 3) Collaborating in work with team • 4) Social Networking • 5) Peer assistance • 6) Assessing and Feedback.
  29. 29. Outcomes of the research Designing interventions Improving MOOCs effectives Peer Identity Incentive Compatible algorithm Peer Communication 2017 Learning@Scale Boston Evolution of MOOCs in 21st Century Skills Quality Feedback Cluster Orient Focus Network & Collabora te
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