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How inclusive is the “Openness” of Open Education?

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Sarah Lambert's presentation of her #PhD research at the 6th GO-GN Seminar in Cape Town, March 5th-6th, 2017.

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How inclusive is the “Openness” of Open Education?

  1. 1. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B deakin.edu.au/cradle How inclusive is the “Openness” of Open Education? Sarah Lambert – 5/3/17 slambe@deakin.edu.au Twitter @SarahLambertOz CC-BY-SA
  2. 2. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Quick overview 19 years in Wollongong South Coast of NSW, Australia Now at Deakin - Regional Unis, Diverse cohorts Photo by Sarah Lambert CC-BY-SA
  3. 3. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Full time on scholarship with Cradle – Started, moved to Melbourne Feb 2016 • 1 year down, 2 to go • Passed Colloquia Nov 2016 and now collecting data Quick PhD overview
  4. 4. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PhD Research Question How can Australian Higher education providers make use of Open Education programs for Student Equity and Social Inclusion? Access, progress and success in HE Lifelong learning, health info, empowerment, personal goals, community development
  5. 5. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PhD Research Question an educational program offered freely to the community with a mixture of resources, activities or assessment, and instructional materials to guide learning and mastery of a particular topic How can Australian Higher education providers make use of Open Education programs for Student Equity and Social Inclusion?
  6. 6. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B The Personal • Motivated by practitioner enlightenment – 18 yrs ed tech, 3 yrs Open Ed/MOOC practitioner – Are we really reaching the un-reached? – Early MOOC evals: Great for educated white guys • Dawning realisation – More digital divide? – What if ed-tech is part of the problem?
  7. 7. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Critical approach, Realist method • Critical: include the excluded voices and perspectives, privilege the unprivileged, what is missing? • Realist: what works for whom in what circumstances; the state of the actual; beyond “promise” or “potential”
  8. 8. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B 2 Phase research project
  9. 9. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Your input • Help me find good cases for Phase 2 (in depth case studies) • Where OE is working for particular underprivileged groups – for real, in practice
  10. 10. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B In theory: Free stuff. So what? • Selwyn(2011): advantaged people tend to take-up and take advantage of the new techs • Rohs & Ganz (2015): MOOCs increasing the digital divide • Tinto (2008): access to education without support does not lead to equal opportunity of education
  11. 11. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Free is not enough • Warshauer’s major work “Technology for Social Inclusion” (2003) – providing technology for free on its own rarely improves the lot of disadvantaged learners – Also required: physical, digital, human and social forms of support for learning and making meaning of the new techs – Irish “Information Town Competition” winner ($22M free stuff, failed) vs 1.5M runner up (plan, partner, embed/engage, success)
  12. 12. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B HEI student Equity lit • Major Australian and English program reviews of HEI interventions: – Targetted: LSES schools, Indigenous mentoring – Universal: FYE, transition, Inclusive pedagogy, – High-touch, low-tech – Community Partnerships are key, bring more resources, acknowledge community strengths, avoid colonial discourse and deficit discourse
  13. 13. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B In practice: Inclusion Forum • FiF Forum Nov 2016: revealed more interest in online technologies (as compared to journals) – Syncronous techs: keep F2F flavour – Virtual techs: keep sense of place or campus – Digital storytelling: privilege FiF/LSES/Indigenous student experience in their own words
  14. 14. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Virtual student mentoring Synchronous + Virtual sense of place
  15. 15. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B New thinking • Universal and targeted – Universal social inclusion programs for normalising cohorts, sharing common ground? – Targeted social inclusion programs for valuing cultural difference and strengths? • Both needed, complementary – Will Open Education programs of both types also exist and be mutually supportive and helpful?
  16. 16. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B New thinking • Many social inclusion projects run over many years, build and enhance relationships – Part of the ‘How” question needs to look at “Where” and “When” to locate/embed the digital – If there is interest in synchronous techs, will Open Education programs remain mostly asynchronous?
  17. 17. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Method: Systematic Review Who is putting OE to use for inclusion? What contexts? What interventions? What supports and resources?
  18. 18. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Title/abstract screening • 91 citations imported – 49 from Google Scholar, 44 from Scopus – 59 judged as suitable, useful, in scope • Observations from 59 abstracts – MOOCs + study groups – MOOCs about inclusion, MOOCs for inclusion programs – Piloting techs for remediating knowledge gaps (new supports) – Different types of inclusion partnerships (new contexts) Thanks to Marc Singer, my 2nd reviewer
  19. 19. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Sample set of data: 17 of 59 • Completed full paper review and data extraction from the first batch of 17 papers • Hooray, papers from diverse global authors and settings: – America (6), England (4), Spain (3) – Switzerland, China, Scotland, Australia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Chile, Italy and the Netherlands. • Half conference papers, 35% journals, the rest reports
  20. 20. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B 4 staff accounts • Staff accounts of designing OE: 4 papers – technical accounts, innovations in auto-generating support for students (Miranda, Mangione, Orciuoli, Gaeta, & Loia, 2013; Muñoz-Merino, Rodríguez, & Kloos, 2014); – MOOCs and embedded support in classrooms (de Waard, Anckaert, Vandewaetere, & Demeulenaere, 2016); – assessment design perspectives (Hills & Hughes, 2016).
  21. 21. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B 1 national policy paper • synthesised a broad range of national data and successful interventions to improve the skills of low-skilled Americans • explicitly referencing multiple types of OERs and open technologies (Strawn, 2015).
  22. 22. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B 11 student evaluated OE projects • majority (11) completed projects, run with - and evaluated by - students Outcomes exceeded Outcomes met or largely met Mixed outcomes Unclear/Other Totals Universal interventions 1 3 3 1 8 Targetted interventions 1 1 1 3
  23. 23. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Partners and supports No partners + technology partner + community partner + community and technology partner Totals Single Higher Education Institution 6 3 1 1 11 Multiple Higher Education Institutions 3 1 0 1 6 Total 9 4 1 2 16 Cases with a community partner provided a set of physical spaces and technologies, and human/personalised one on one and group support (de Waard et al., 2016). Project sponsored by Samsung had both education, technology and community organisation partner support (McDougall et al., 2016.)
  24. 24. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Examples Identifier Study setting/institution Types of open technologies, author/s reference U (#71) 8 week introductory computer science MOOC on edX platform The "Recommender” tool helps students who get stuck prior to doing a quiz, was deployed as an "XBlock" into the edX MOOC platform, uses staff and student crowdsourced resources (Li & Mitros, 2015) S (#34) Design of auto-generated multiple choice quiz questions for MOOCs and a process of academic quality checking at the University of Salerno "Adaptive Remedial Work Environment (ARWE) based on adaptation and personalization features provided by the IWT platform. The resulting MOOC platform is released in beta version as MOMAMOOC." (Miranda et al., 2013) U (#24) MOOC used as flipped classroom resource for a campus cohort of engineering foundation students at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland Students had the option of a voluntary peer study group, were provided with technology and spaces to learn together - by watching MOOC videos and solve quizzes collaboratively each week, for a 5 week period (N. Li et al., 2014) U (#45) Coursera Human Trafficking (HT) MOOC aiming for attitudinal change Coursera MOOC The MOOC was designed for both attitudinal (cognitive) and behavioural change in mind. Students were not only exposed to powerful "undercover" videos and first hand accounts of trafficking, but were encouraged to develop their own form of activism by developing a Public Service Announcement (PSA) as an assignment." (Watson et al., 2016)
  25. 25. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Examples T (#12) "The Hands-On ICT (HANDSON) MOOC included seven teams of facilitators to manage forums in 7 different languages: English, French, Greek, Slovenian, Bulgarian, Catalan and Spanish." The MOOC was developed and delivered in the Canvas platform, combined with weekly Google hangouts (Colas, Sloep, & Garreta-Domingo, 2016) S (#15) Belgian upper secondary students follow an English or French MOOC of their own choosing. Prep for university, language and digital skills. Multiple MOOCs were used as classroom learning resources, firstly in groups, then individually. (de Waard et al., 2016) T (#61) Spanish speaking learners, including a cohort from the University of El Salvador, learning in the edX MOOC "MIT 6.002x Circuits and Electronics" On campus informal study groups. Guidelines developed which cover use of "three platform components: a learning management system (LMS), a content management system (CMS), and an adaptive content engine (ACE)." (Sanchez- Gordon & Luján-Mora, 2016) S (#37) Design of MOOCs and organisational change at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Khan Academy technologies for Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs) plus Moodle for communications tools (Muñoz-Merino et al., 2014)
  26. 26. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B OpenEd programs: how inclusive? • So far, not bad for STEM, NNS/ESL, college prep equity cohorts • Not yet seeing focus on other equity groups (but there are 32 left to look at) • A number of technical and pedagogical designs that could be put to more targeted use for equity needs
  27. 27. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B My wish • More interdisciplinary conversations and collaborations • some common aspirations yet different strengths, skills and knowledges social inclusion/widening participation Ed tech/IT/analytics
  28. 28. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B Comments and questions • Email slambe@deakin.edu.au • Twitter @SarahLambertOz With thanks to supervisors Prof. David Boud, Assoc. Prof Phillip Dawson, and Dr Nadine Zacharias

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