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Building Indoor Wireless Network

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Webinar topic: Building Indoor Wireless Network
Presenter: Achmad Mardiansyah

In this webinar series, We are discussing Building Indoor Wireless Network

Please share your feedback or webinar ideas here: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback
Check our schedule for future events: https://www.glcnetworks.com/en/schedule/
Follow our social media for updates: Facebook, Instagram, YouTube Channel, and telegram

Recording available on Youtube
https://youtu.be/_kJL6Tq5iqE

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Building Indoor Wireless Network

  1. 1. www.glcnetworks.com Building indoor wireless network GLC webinar, 1 Jul 2021 Achmad Mardiansyah achmad@glcnetworks.com GLC Networks, Indonesia 1 Source: mikrotik.com
  2. 2. www.glcnetworks.com Agenda ● Introduction ● Review prerequisite knowledge ● Layered communication ● indoor wireless ● Mikrotik for indoor wireless ● Live practice ● Q & A 2
  3. 3. www.glcnetworks.com introduction 3
  4. 4. www.glcnetworks.com What is GLC? ● Garda Lintas Cakrawala (www.glcnetworks.com) ● Based in Bandung, Indonesia ● Areas: Training, IT Consulting ● Certified partner for: Mikrotik, Ubiquity, Linux foundation ● Product: GLC radius manager ● Regular event 4
  5. 5. www.glcnetworks.com Trainer Introduction ● Name: Achmad Mardiansyah ● Base: bandung, Indonesia ● Linux user since 1999, mikrotik user since 2007, UBNT 2011 ● Mikrotik Certified Trainer (MTCNA/RE/WE/UME/INE/TCE/IPv6) ● Mikrotik/Linux Certified Consultant ● Website contributor: achmadjournal.com, mikrotik.tips, asysadmin.tips ● More info: http://au.linkedin.com/in/achmadmardiansyah 5
  6. 6. www.glcnetworks.com Past experience 6 ● 2021 (Congo DRC, Malaysia): network support, radius/billing integration ● 2020 (Congo DRC, Malaysia): IOT integration, network automation ● 2019, Congo (DRC): build a wireless ISP from ground-up ● 2018, Malaysia: network revamp, develop billing solution and integration, setup dynamic routing ● 2017, Libya (north africa): remote wireless migration for a new Wireless ISP ● 2016, United Kingdom: workshop for wireless ISP, migrating a bridged to routed network
  7. 7. www.glcnetworks.com About GLC webinar? ● First webinar: january 1, 2010 (title: tahun baru bersama solaris - new year with solaris OS) ● As a sharing event with various topics: linux, networking, wireless, database, programming, etc ● Regular schedule ● Irregular schedule: as needed ● Checking schedule: http://www.glcnetworks.com/schedule ● You are invited to be a presenter ○ No need to be an expert ○ This is a forum for sharing: knowledge, experiences, information 7
  8. 8. www.glcnetworks.com Please introduce yourself ● Your name ● Your company/university? ● Your networking experience? ● Your mikrotik experience? ● Your expectation from this course? 8
  9. 9. www.glcnetworks.com Prerequisite ● This presentation some prerequisite knowledge ● We assume you already know: ○ RF terms ○ Routing ○ Security concepts ○ Encryption ○ Mikrotik basics ○ Mikrotik packet flow 9
  10. 10. www.glcnetworks.com Review prerequisite knowledge 10
  11. 11. www.glcnetworks.com 7 OSI layer & protocol 11 ● OSI layer Is a conceptual model from ISO (International Standard Organization) for project OSI (Open System Interconnection) ● When you send a message with a courier, you need to add more info to get your message arrived at the destination (This process is called encapsulation) ● What is protocol ○ Is a set of rules for communication ○ Available on each layer ● Communication consist of series encapsulation ○ SDU: service data unit (before PDU) ○ PDU: protocol data unit (after header is added)
  12. 12. www.glcnetworks.com Layered model (TCP/IP vs ISO) and encapsulation 12 / datagram
  13. 13. www.glcnetworks.com Did you notice? ● There is a big overhead on encapsulation process ● More encapsulation means less payload? 13
  14. 14. www.glcnetworks.com 802.11 header 14
  15. 15. www.glcnetworks.com Radio Frequency (RF), checklist ● Wave properties: f, A, period, wavelength, phase ● Analog bandwidth vs digital bandwidth ● Modulation: FSK, ASK, PSK, QAM ● Modulation and Coding Scheme, MCS0, MCS1, etc ● The Shannon-hartley theorem (channel capacity) ● Electricity and magnetism ● Wireless communication properties: channel, channel-width, signal strength, coverage ● Simplex vs duplex, full duplex vs half duplex ● Wifi standards: 802.11a/b/g/n/ac ● Standard organisation (ITU-R, US FCC, IEEE, ISO, postel - indonesia) ● Wireless regulation: frequency, channel-width, intentional- radiator, eirp, indoor vs outdoor usage ● ● RF behaviour: propagation, absorption, reflection, scattering, refraction, diffraction, loss, free-space path loss (FSPL), multipath, gain ● Power comparison: bel, decibel, milibel ● Unit of power: watt, dbm, db, dbi ● RF components: TX, RX, IR, EIRP ● Link budget calculation (dbm) ● Noise: noise floor, signal vs noise (SNR) ● CCQ: client connection quality ● L2 retransmission ● RX sensitivity ● TX power vs data-rate ● 15
  16. 16. www.glcnetworks.com RF signal and antenna, checklist ● Azimuth and elevation chart ● Radiation pattern ● Antenna directionality (omni, directional) ● Antenna type (omni, patch, yagi, sectoral, grid, solid disc) ● Antenna gain ● Antenna beamwidth ● Antenna polarization (H, V, X) ● Antenna Front-to-Back Ratio ● Antenna Port to Port Isolation ● Beamforming ● Fresnel zone ● Antenna diversity (SISO, MIMO) ● Antenna accessories (cables, connectors, POE, plitter, amplifier, attenuation, lighting arrestor, grounding, radome, sleeve) ● ● 16
  17. 17. www.glcnetworks.com 802.11 standards, checklist ● Channel-width ● Frequency band ● Access Point vs station ● Physical topology: ○ PTP ○ PTMP ● CSMA-CD vs CSMA-CA (hidden node issue) ● Topology: Distributed system (DS) vs Wireless Distributed System (WDS) ● 17
  18. 18. www.glcnetworks.com Wireless on mikrotik, checklist Hardware ● wireless card ● built-in hardware ● Software features ● Registration table ● Scan tool ● Snooper ● Frequency usage ● Spectral scan ● Spectrum analyzer ● Alignment ● Sniffer ● Regulatory domain ● Data-rate policy (modulation) ● TX power policy ● Multiple chain ● Access list vs connect list ● Wireless security (WPE, WPA, WPA2, frame protection) ● TX data-rate ● Mikrotik proprietary wireless protocol (nstreme, nv2) 18
  19. 19. www.glcnetworks.com Indoor wireless 19
  20. 20. www.glcnetworks.com indoor Wireless ● Located in indoor environment, closed space ● Mostly PTMP ● 20
  21. 21. www.glcnetworks.com Indoor Wireless components ● Radio Equipment/Access point (AP) ● Power On Ethernet (POE) ● A (very) good cable system ● AP Controller ● Layer 3 devices 21
  22. 22. www.glcnetworks.com Indoor installation ● Location is important (layout is your friend) ● Wireless survey is VERY recommended ● Safety first!! ● Plan before run, use checklist ● Out-of-band device ● Communication devices between sites 22 Source: edimax.com
  23. 23. www.glcnetworks.com Mikrotik for indoor wireless 23
  24. 24. www.glcnetworks.com Mikrotik indoor wireless products Wireless categories: ● Indoor ○ Usually have mounting ○ Lowest power ● Outdoor 24
  25. 25. www.glcnetworks.com Product selection 25
  26. 26. www.glcnetworks.com Wireless controller (CAPSMAN) 26
  27. 27. www.glcnetworks.com About CAPsMAN ● Offers enterprise features: centralised platform to manage AP ● Software based, free to use ● Available since 6.11, CAPsMAN v1 (march 2014) ● Now its CAPsMAN v2 (since 6.22, nov 2014). Recommended version, not compatible to v1 ● CAP: controlled AP ● CAPsMAN: CAP manager (AP controller) 27
  28. 28. www.glcnetworks.com Layer 2 ● CAP and CAPsMAN are in the same network CAPsMAN - CAP connectivity Layer 3 (recomm.) ● CAP and CAPsMAN are in different network 28 CAP CAP CAP POE switch CAPs MAN RO ISP RO CAP CAP CAP POE switch CAPs MAN RO ISP RO
  29. 29. www.glcnetworks.com CAPsMAN configuration concepts 29 Channels | datapath | security cfg | rates configuration CAP interface Provisioning rules
  30. 30. www.glcnetworks.com Channels | datapath | security cfg | rates 30
  31. 31. www.glcnetworks.com Wireless survey 31
  32. 32. www.glcnetworks.com Wireless survey ● Process of planning and designing a wireless network, to provide a wireless solution that will deliver the required wireless coverage, data rates, network capacity, roaming capability and quality of service (QoS) ● Objective: identify optimum installation locations for access points ● Aka. RF (Radio Frequency) site survey or wireless survey ● Requires: ○ Physical visit ○ building floor plans ○ use of site survey tools ○ Interviews with stake holders ● Some indicator: ○ Signal to noise ratio (SNR) ○ Upload ○ Download ○ interference ● 32
  33. 33. www.glcnetworks.com Wireless survey case study: AP location www.telkomuniversity.ac.id 33 - AP is located outside the rooms - To cover 2 rooms (A103 & A104) - Is this enough? Lets survey….
  34. 34. www.glcnetworks.com Signal to noise ratio (SNR) 34
  35. 35. www.glcnetworks.com Download test… 35
  36. 36. www.glcnetworks.com Some myths ● Wireless is difficult, cannot be seen -> use wireless tool, to visualise the spectrum ● Brand determines the performance -> The location is more important ● Wireless is complex -> get a correct understanding of how wireless works ● Add more bandwidth solves everything -> depends on location ● We do not need wire -> wire is still needed as its more reliable and has more physical bandwidth 36
  37. 37. www.glcnetworks.com LIVE practice 37
  38. 38. www.glcnetworks.com preparation ● SSH client ● SSH parameters ○ SSH address ○ SSH port ○ SSH username ○ SSH password 38
  39. 39. www.glcnetworks.com Q & A 39
  40. 40. www.glcnetworks.com Interested? Just come to our training... ● Topics are arranged in systematic and logical way ● You will learn from experienced teacher ● Not only learn the materials, but also sharing experiences, best-practices, and networking 40
  41. 41. www.glcnetworks.com End of slides ● Thank you for your attention ● Please submit your feedback: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback ● Find our further event on our website : https://www.glcnetworks.com/en/ ● Like our facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/glcnetworks ● Slide: https://www.slideshare.net/glcnetworks/ ● Recording (youtube): https://www.youtube.com/c/GLCNetworks ● Stay tune with our schedule ● Any questions? 41

Webinar topic: Building Indoor Wireless Network Presenter: Achmad Mardiansyah In this webinar series, We are discussing Building Indoor Wireless Network Please share your feedback or webinar ideas here: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback Check our schedule for future events: https://www.glcnetworks.com/en/schedule/ Follow our social media for updates: Facebook, Instagram, YouTube Channel, and telegram Recording available on Youtube https://youtu.be/_kJL6Tq5iqE

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