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Datums and Tools to Connect Geospatial Data Accurately                Pamela Fromhertz          Colorado State Geodetic Ad...
Agenda•   Datums•   GPS - Accuracy•   NGS - National Spatial Reference System•   MetaData•   Tools    – DS-World    – CORS...
NGS Advisor Program
DatumsA mathematical and geometric concept thatserves as a foundation or starting point formapping, surveying, engineering...
Geodetic Reference Surfaces          A beachball globe          Mathematical best fit to Earth’s surface…            used ...
Geodetic Datums                       Horizontal 2-D (Latitude and Longitude) (e.g. NAD 27, NAD 83 (1986))              Ve...
GPS Receiver Grades• Recreational Grade      – $100-$1000             1-10 meters• Mapping      – $2,000-$6,000          s...
Autonomous GPS Accuracy25 hrs @ 1 fix/15 sec = 6,000 fixesMean Fix: 0.8m @ 212 deg50% of fixes w/in 1.8m68% of fixes w/in ...
Accuracy           Precision
U.S. Department of CommerceNational Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration        National Geodetic Survey Mission: To defin...
The NSRS Supports     Nautical charts, among many other geospatial applications          National Oceanic and Atmospheric ...
The NSRS has evolved        1 Million            70,000        Monuments            Passive Marks        (Separate       ...
NGS     National Spatial Reference System(NSRS)                  Improvements                  TIME         NETWORK       ...
Accurate positioning begins      with accurate coordinates Geodetic control (the NSRS) is the   foundation for all geospat...
Same pointdifferent datums = different lat/long’s                1000 m radius COMET           500 m radius Flagpole NAD83
Datum DifferencesNAD 27 – NAD 83
Datum DifferenceNGVD 29 – NAVD 88
-1.18 ft to +1.28 ft
2011 US Topo Map           Slide by John Kosovich, USGS
Are NAD 83 & WGS 84 The           Same?            NO but for your application is it significant? If requirements are grea...
State Plane Coordinates   State plane coordinates are theprojection of latitudes and longitudesTo a flat mapping surface t...
Plane Coordinate Conversion ToolsState Plane CoordinatesGPPCGP (NAD 27 only)SPCS83 (NAD 83 only)http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TO...
Height Modernization                           Height                        Modernization                           -fast...
Ellipsoid, Geoid, and             Orthometric HeightsH = Orthometric Height (leveling)h = Ellipsoidal Height (GPS)        ...
Ellipsoid, Geoid, and             Orthometric HeightsH = Orthometric Height (leveling)h = Ellipsoidal Height (GPS)        ...
Exaggerated view of theEarths Gravity Measure
Gravity for the Redefinition of theAmerican Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)               • GRAV-D means fast, accurate,          ...
Gravity for the Redefinition of theAmerican Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)                • Replace the Vertical Datum of        ...
Building a Gravity Field                          Long Wavelengths:                             (≥ 350 km)GRACE and GOCE (...
GRAV-D Update          Alaska FY10-13                       West Coast FY11                           FY10   =   Green    ...
For instance: What is the Source of the Data? What is the Datum/Adjustment Epoch? What are the Field Conditions? What ...
Legislation for NAD 83 and units  *      Utah is now a U.S. Survey Foot State(Blue)
“DSWorld”          Software Program• Highly rated new NGS software tool• Developed to search the NGS database• Easy to lea...
Geodetic ControlTriangles – Horizontal Control   Blue – First OrderSquares – Vertical Control       Red – Second Order
Triangles – Horizontal Control     Black - Third Order
Datasheets     RecoveryPhotos         DirectionsDescriptions
Direct Access to the NGS Datasheet
2010 May 11   Federal Geospatial Summit   50
2010 May 11   Federal Geospatial Summit   51
DSWorld opening screen
Where do you get DS-World?
OPUS    Online Positioning User Service•   OPUS   –   S (2 hrs)•   OPUS   –   RS (15 minutes)•   OPUS   –   DB (Publish)• ...
4,000++ OPUS-Published Solutions            April 2012
NGS Data Sheets Traditional       Newblue booking     OPUS-DB
OPUS Submission Webpage                 Your email address                 Location of your data file                     ...
Introducing…          NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00•   Multi-Year CORS Solution (MYCS)    – Reprocessed all CORS GPS data Jan...
Changes in Horizontal NAD 83 Positions                     Different Epochs          NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.0 – NAD 83(CO...
Changes in Horizontal NAD 83 Positions            Same Epoch    NAD 83(2011) epoch 2002.00 – NAD 83(CORS96) epoch 2002.00
CONUS Secondary                  AlaskaPacific(MA11)                           CONUS Primary          Pacific (PA11)
NAD 83(2011/PA11/MA11) epoch            2010.00Passive control results summary• Station network accuracies (95% confidence...
NAD 83(2011/PA11/MA11) epoch            2010.00Passive control results summary• Station coordinate and height changes  – O...
National Geodetic Survey            Ten+Year Plan• Official NGS policy as  of January 2008• Replace NAVD 88 with  a GPS/ge...
New Vertical Datum   (Outcome)
How to Plan for the Future• Use most recent realization of NAD 83• Move away from passive marks to GNSS• Move off of NGVD ...
NGS Training CenterWebinars!            http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/corbin/
More information…NGS Home Page: http://www.geodesy.noaa.gov                  geodesy.noaa.govCORS Webpage: http://www.ngs....
Federal Geospatial Summit   82
2010 May 11   Federal Geospatial Summit   83
Questions GOOD COORDINATION BEGINS WITH       GOOD COORDINATESGEOGRAPHY WITHOUT GEODESY IS A FELONY pamela.fromhertz@noaa....
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz
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2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz

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Demands for accuracy are increasing and the use of geospatial technologies, such as GIS continue to rise. But how often do you have problems with data not aligning in your GIS? Knowing how your data is collected in terms of reference systems, coordinate systems, and datums, is growing more important to ensure your data layers do align properly.
The National Geodetic Survey produces the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) ensuring projects have the consistency and accuracy desired. The NSRS consists of the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). There are many tools available to access the NSRS (DS-World, CORS, and OPUS) and these will be highlighted during this session.
DS-World, makes it possible for users to display the million-plus geodetic survey marks and the GPS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that make up the NSRS in GoogleEarth. This tool displays survey marks and its associated information. You can access, locate and survey these marks and tie your data layers directly to the NSRS and the most recent datums.
NGS’ OPUS program is highly automated and requires minimal user input accessing the network of CORS for determining ones position. OPUS processes GPS data files along with CORS coordinates to provide results consistent with those of other users in the NSRS.
There are many developments occurring in NGS that will be presented including the new adjustment, new datums (in 2022) and the GRAV-D program (which will change the way we obtain vertical heights).

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2012 PLSC Track, Datums and tools to connect geospatial data accurately, Pamela Fromhertz

  1. 1. Datums and Tools to Connect Geospatial Data Accurately Pamela Fromhertz Colorado State Geodetic Advisor National Geodetic Survey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration GIS in the Rockies September 20, 2012 Denver, CO
  2. 2. Agenda• Datums• GPS - Accuracy• NGS - National Spatial Reference System• MetaData• Tools – DS-World – CORS – OPUS• New Datums
  3. 3. NGS Advisor Program
  4. 4. DatumsA mathematical and geometric concept thatserves as a foundation or starting point formapping, surveying, engineering based onrealization of actual geospatial data points.
  5. 5. Geodetic Reference Surfaces A beachball globe Mathematical best fit to Earth’s surface… used for defining Latitude and Longitude Modeled best fit to “sea surface” equipotential gravity field used for defining Elevation
  6. 6. Geodetic Datums Horizontal 2-D (Latitude and Longitude) (e.g. NAD 27, NAD 83 (1986)) Vertical/Geopotential1-D (Orthometric Height) (e.g. NGVD 29, NAVD 88, Local Tidal) Geometric 3-D (Latitude, Longitude and Ellipsoid Height) Fixed and Stable(?) - Coordinates seldom change (e.g. NAD 83 (1993), NAD 83 (2007)) also 4-D (Latitude, Longitude, Ellipsoid Height, Velocities) Coordinates change with time (e.g. NAD 83, ITRF00, ITRF05)
  7. 7. GPS Receiver Grades• Recreational Grade – $100-$1000 1-10 meters• Mapping – $2,000-$6,000 submeter - 3 meter• Survey Grade – $10,000 + 5mm – 2 cm2010 May 11 Federal Geospatial Summit 14
  8. 8. Autonomous GPS Accuracy25 hrs @ 1 fix/15 sec = 6,000 fixesMean Fix: 0.8m @ 212 deg50% of fixes w/in 1.8m68% of fixes w/in 2.4m 6.3 meters 5.095% of fixes w/in 4.2m 3.899% of fixes w/in 5.7m 2.5 1.3 *
  9. 9. Accuracy Precision
  10. 10. U.S. Department of CommerceNational Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration National Geodetic Survey Mission: To define, maintain & provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS)to meet our Nation’s economic, social & environmental needs National Spatial Reference System •Latitude •Scale •Longitude •Gravity •Height •Orientation & their time variations
  11. 11. The NSRS Supports Nautical charts, among many other geospatial applications National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Flood zones for the National Flood Insurance Program Emergency Response Imagery Federal Emergency Management AgencyLevee Safety Program to determine levee heights and positions United States Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Maps and interior water data for the nation United States Geological Survey NSRS gravity data for the geospatial mission of NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Aeronautical Data Quality Assurance Federal Aviation Administration
  12. 12. The NSRS has evolved 1 Million 70,000 Monuments Passive Marks (Separate  (3-Dimensional) Horizontal and Vertical Systems) Passive Marks 1,800+ CORS (Time Dependent (Limited Knowledge  System Possible; of Stability) 4-Dimensional) GPS CORS  GNSS CORS
  13. 13. NGS National Spatial Reference System(NSRS) Improvements TIME NETWORK LOCALNETWORK SPAN ACCURACY ACCURACYNAD 27 1927-1986 10 meter s (1 part in 100,000)NAD83(86) 1986-1990 1 meter (1 part in 100,000)NAD83(199x)* 1990-2007 0.1 meter B-order (1 part in 1 million) HARN A-order (1 part in 10 million)NAD83(NSRS2007) 2007 - 2011 0.01 meter 0.01 meter (CORS)NAD83(NSRS2007) 2011 - 0.01 meter 0.01 meter (CORS) * CO was completed and adjusted in 1992
  14. 14. Accurate positioning begins with accurate coordinates Geodetic control (the NSRS) is the foundation for all geospatial products. Without Geodetic Control as a “base map”layer, GIS applications will not work properly Source: Zurich-American Insurance Group
  15. 15. Same pointdifferent datums = different lat/long’s 1000 m radius COMET 500 m radius Flagpole NAD83
  16. 16. Datum DifferencesNAD 27 – NAD 83
  17. 17. Datum DifferenceNGVD 29 – NAVD 88
  18. 18. -1.18 ft to +1.28 ft
  19. 19. 2011 US Topo Map Slide by John Kosovich, USGS
  20. 20. Are NAD 83 & WGS 84 The Same? NO but for your application is it significant? If requirements are greater than 3m then YesIf requirements are less than 3m then No Federal Register Notice: Vol. 60, No. 157, August 15, 1995, pg. 42146 “Use of NAD 83/WGS 84 Datum Tag on Mapping Products”
  21. 21. State Plane Coordinates State plane coordinates are theprojection of latitudes and longitudesTo a flat mapping surface that is usually defined by state law
  22. 22. Plane Coordinate Conversion ToolsState Plane CoordinatesGPPCGP (NAD 27 only)SPCS83 (NAD 83 only)http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/spc.shtmlUTMUTMS (Both NAD 27 & NAD 83)http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/utm.shtmlBothCORPSCON (Both NAD 27 & NAD 83)http://crunch.tec.army.mil/software/corpscon/corpscon.html www.ngs.noaa.gov www.geodesy.noaa.gov
  23. 23. Height Modernization Height Modernization -faster -cheaperDifferential Leveling (Orthometric HT) GNSS (Ellipsoid Ht)
  24. 24. Ellipsoid, Geoid, and Orthometric HeightsH = Orthometric Height (leveling)h = Ellipsoidal Height (GPS) H =h-NN = Geoid Height (model) h (NAD83) TOPOGRAPHIC (NAVD88) H SURFACE N Geoid Height Geoid (GEOID09) Ellipsoid
  25. 25. Ellipsoid, Geoid, and Orthometric HeightsH = Orthometric Height (leveling)h = Ellipsoidal Height (GPS) H =h-NN = Geoid Height (model) h (NAD83) TOPOGRAPHIC (NAVD88) H SURFACE N Geoid Height Geoid (GEOID09) Ellipsoid TRANSPORTATION 1660.6 = 1643.354 – (-17.23*) METERS 1660.6 = 1643.4 + 17.2 *56.53 feet
  26. 26. Exaggerated view of theEarths Gravity Measure
  27. 27. Gravity for the Redefinition of theAmerican Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) • GRAV-D means fast, accurate, consistent orthometric heights everywhere in the USA • GPS already gives fast accurate ellipsoid heights • If the geoid were modeled (and monitored) to highest accuracy… • Voila… Fast, accurate orthometric heights, anywhere, anytime • No need to use leveling to “bring in the datum”
  28. 28. Gravity for the Redefinition of theAmerican Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) • Replace the Vertical Datum of the USA by 2022 (at today’s funding) with a gravimetric geoid accurate to 1 cm • Orthometric heights accessed via GNSS accurate to 2 cm • Three components of project: – Airborne gravity survey of entire country and its holdings – Long-term monitoring of geoid change – Partnership surveys Gravity and Heights are inseparably connected
  29. 29. Building a Gravity Field Long Wavelengths: (≥ 350 km)GRACE and GOCE (not shown) + Intermediate Wavelengths (500 km to 20 km) Airborne Measurement + Short Wavelengths (< 100 km) Surface Measurement 41
  30. 30. GRAV-D Update Alaska FY10-13 West Coast FY11 FY10 = Green FY11 = Blue FY12 = Orange FY13 = White Great Lakes FY11-13 FY12 Texas 42January 23, 2012
  31. 31. For instance: What is the Source of the Data? What is the Datum/Adjustment Epoch? What are the Field Conditions? What Equipment was used, especially what Antenna? What firmware was in the receiver and collector? What redundancy, if any, was used?
  32. 32. Legislation for NAD 83 and units * Utah is now a U.S. Survey Foot State(Blue)
  33. 33. “DSWorld” Software Program• Highly rated new NGS software tool• Developed to search the NGS database• Easy to learn/use• Multiple search options available• Displays search results using Google Earth
  34. 34. Geodetic ControlTriangles – Horizontal Control Blue – First OrderSquares – Vertical Control Red – Second Order
  35. 35. Triangles – Horizontal Control Black - Third Order
  36. 36. Datasheets RecoveryPhotos DirectionsDescriptions
  37. 37. Direct Access to the NGS Datasheet
  38. 38. 2010 May 11 Federal Geospatial Summit 50
  39. 39. 2010 May 11 Federal Geospatial Summit 51
  40. 40. DSWorld opening screen
  41. 41. Where do you get DS-World?
  42. 42. OPUS Online Positioning User Service• OPUS – S (2 hrs)• OPUS – RS (15 minutes)• OPUS – DB (Publish)• OPUS – Projects (Network)
  43. 43. 4,000++ OPUS-Published Solutions April 2012
  44. 44. NGS Data Sheets Traditional Newblue booking OPUS-DB
  45. 45. OPUS Submission Webpage Your email address Location of your data file Your antenna type Antenna height Customize your solution - details on next slide
  46. 46. Introducing… NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00• Multi-Year CORS Solution (MYCS) – Reprocessed all CORS GPS data Jan 1994-Apr 2011 – 2264 CORS & global stations – NAD 83 computed by transformation from IGS08• National Adjustment of 2011 (NA2011) – New adjustment of GNSS passive control – GNSS vectors tied (and constrained) to CORS NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.00 – Approximately 80,000 stations and more than 400,000 GNSS vectors
  47. 47. Changes in Horizontal NAD 83 Positions Different Epochs NAD 83(2011) epoch 2010.0 – NAD 83(CORS96) epoch 2002.0 ID+MT+ND+SWA+OR East D+WY4.4E,5N 1.4E, -0.2N cm 1.7E,0.5N cm cm CA+NV 10.8E, 14.4N cm UT+CO+N M+AZ 0.5E,1.0N cm
  48. 48. Changes in Horizontal NAD 83 Positions Same Epoch NAD 83(2011) epoch 2002.00 – NAD 83(CORS96) epoch 2002.00
  49. 49. CONUS Secondary AlaskaPacific(MA11) CONUS Primary Pacific (PA11)
  50. 50. NAD 83(2011/PA11/MA11) epoch 2010.00Passive control results summary• Station network accuracies (95% confidence) – Overall median: 0.9 cm horiz, 1.5 cm height • 90% < 2.3 cm horizontal and 4.8 cm ellipsoid height – Median accuracies by network • CONUS Primary: 0.7 cm horiz, 1.2 cm height • CONUS Secondary: 1.6 cm horiz, 3.4 cm height • Alaska: 3.2 cm horiz, 5.7 cm height • Pacific (PA11): 2.2 cm horiz, 5.0 cm height • Pacific (MA11): 1.8 cm horiz, 3.8 cm height
  51. 51. NAD 83(2011/PA11/MA11) epoch 2010.00Passive control results summary• Station coordinate and height changes – Overall median: 1.9 cm horiz, 2.1 cm height • 97% changed < 5 cm horizontally and vertically – Median accuracies by network • CONUS : 1.9 cm horiz, 2.1 cm height • Alaska: 6.3 cm horiz, 2.8 cm height • Pacific (PA11): 2.1 cm horiz, 2.3 cm height • Pacific (MA11): 2.5 cm horiz, 6.8 cm height
  52. 52. National Geodetic Survey Ten+Year Plan• Official NGS policy as of January 2008• Replace NAVD 88 with a GPS/geoid datum• Replace NAD 83 with a geocentric GPS based datum• New 10 Year Plan for 2013
  53. 53. New Vertical Datum (Outcome)
  54. 54. How to Plan for the Future• Use most recent realization of NAD 83• Move away from passive marks to GNSS• Move off of NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 – Understand the accuracy of VERTCON in your area• Collect OPUS-DB on NAVD 88 bench• Require/provide complete metadata for all survey/mapping contracts – How did they get the positions/heights? – Survey Manual/Spatial Data Accuracy and Georeferencing Standards
  55. 55. NGS Training CenterWebinars! http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/corbin/
  56. 56. More information…NGS Home Page: http://www.geodesy.noaa.gov geodesy.noaa.govCORS Webpage: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS/ CORS newsletterOPUS Webpage: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS/Find Your Advisor:www.ngs.noaa.gov/ADVISORS/AdvisorsIndex.shtmlThis presentation will be uploaded to:http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/science_edu/presentations_archive/FAQs on the various webpages
  57. 57. Federal Geospatial Summit 82
  58. 58. 2010 May 11 Federal Geospatial Summit 83
  59. 59. Questions GOOD COORDINATION BEGINS WITH GOOD COORDINATESGEOGRAPHY WITHOUT GEODESY IS A FELONY pamela.fromhertz@noaa.gov 303-202-4082 240-988-6363

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