Monitoring Ponderosa Pine
Health Using Satellite Imagery

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential
Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using
Satellite Imagery
Team Participants:

• Kathleen

Johnson*
• Greg Hammann
• Rachana...
Goals & Objectives
• To Demonstrate the capabilities of WV02 8-bands for
vegetation health/stress assessments

• Document ...
World View-2
TABLE 1: WorldView -2 Bands
Band
#
1

Coastal

Wavelength
(nm)
400-450

2

Blue

450-510

3

Green

510-580

...
Jefferson County Preliminary Study:
Elk Meadow Park

DigitalGlobe

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential

5
Elk Meadow:
Dwarf Mistletoe Damage
JUNE 2010

JUNE 2012

False Color:
Healthy Trees are Bright Red

Natural Color:
Damage ...
Jefferson County Research Site:
White Ranch Park

DigitalGlobe

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential

7
Ground Truth Assumptions:
• Ground Truth for Dwarf Mistletoe acquired

December 2010 (Rawhide and Sawmill Ridges)
• Treatm...
White Ranch Park: Ground Truth

DigitalGlobe

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential

9
Parasites:
Dwarf Mistletoe
(Arceuthobium vaginatum)

Mountain Pine Beetle
(Dendroctonus ponderosae)

DigitalGlobe

Digital...
Pre-Processing:
• Imagery Selection (4):
- 10JUNE24, 11AUGUST23, 12MAY24, 13AUGUST14
• Bundle Adjustment

- Orthorectifica...
Vegetative Indices
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

NDVI = (rNIR – rRED)/(rNIR + rRED)
Brightness = Health
T...
NDVI Results & Change Detection
JUNE 2010

AUGUST 2013

CHANGE

Table 7. Change Detection Color Codes
BLUE
Negative Change...
Classification Model:
• DG Classification-Supervised
• Decision Tree Classifiers:
Robust to outliers
• Applies the same ru...
Random Forest – 20 Trees:
• A stable model builder with little data

preprocessing
• Does not require a normal distributio...
Classification Results: Accuracy and Precision
Imagery

Accuracy

Kappa Statistic

10JUNE24

93.17

0.92

11AUG23

93.47

...
Ponderosa Health:
Random Forest-20

10JUNE24

DigitalGlobe

11AUGUST23

Table 8. Classification Codes
ORANGE
Unhealthy/Str...
Ponderosa Health:
Random Forest-20

10JUNE24
DigitalGlobe

Table 8. Classification Codes
ORANGE
Unhealthy/Stressed
GREEN
H...
Ponderosa Health:
Random Forest-20

12MAY24
DigitalGlobe

Table 8. Classification Codes
ORANGE
Unhealthy/Stressed
GREEN
He...
Ponderosa Health:
Pine Beetle Treatment

10JUNE24
DigitalGlobe

Table 8. Classification Codes
ORANGE
Unhealthy/Stressed
GR...
Ponderosa Health:
Pine Beetle Treatment

12MAY24
DigitalGlobe

Table 8. Classification Codes
ORANGE
Unhealthy/Stressed
GRE...
Summary of Classification Results

10JUNE24

DigitalGlobe

11AUGUST23

12MAY241

3AUGUST14

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and B...
Conclusions:
•

Ponderosa Pines within White Ranch Park have shown signs of
accumulated stress:
Mistletoe,
Pine Beetle
Dro...
Conclusions:
•

This Study lays the foundation for continuing forestry studies across
the Foot Hills region, using satelli...
Acknowledgments:
JCOS: Keith Bol, Barbara Morey
• Project Sponsor: Kumar Navulur, NGP Director
• My Manager: Giovanni Marc...
Thank You
Questions/Discussion

DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential
2013 ASPRS Track, Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using Satellite Imagery by Kathleen Johnson
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2013 ASPRS Track, Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using Satellite Imagery by Kathleen Johnson

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In recent years, forested areas along the foothills of the Colorado Front Range have been subject to parasite infestations and drought conditions that have stressed these systems. The focus of this study are the Ponderosa Pines (Pinus ponderosa) of the Jefferson County Parks and Open Space, which show the accumulated effects of infestation by Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum cryptopodum), Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and drought conditions that began in the Fall of 2011. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of satellite imagery analysis for the monitoring of parasite infestations and general forest health. We have examined WorldView-2 satellite imagery from 2010-2013, confirmed by ground truth provided by Jefferson County Parks and Open Space for White Ranch Park and Elk Meadow Park. The research approach included the examination of data optimization methods for spectral identification of affected trees using 8-band data (e.g., normalized band ratios, principal component analysis, maximum noise fraction, and statistical validation), decision tree land cover classification methods, and change detection. The results of supervised classification analysis of Ponderosa Pine health have an accuracy of > 90% and a precision of 0.89 (Kappa Statistic). High accuracy land cover mapping is critical for parasite mitigation, and efforts to minimize future infestations. This project is part of an ongoing a partnership between Jefferson County Parks and Open Space and DigitalGlobe, monitoring vegetation health, invasive species and parasite activity for the purpose of long-range remediation planning.

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2013 ASPRS Track, Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using Satellite Imagery by Kathleen Johnson

  1. 1. Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using Satellite Imagery DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential
  2. 2. Monitoring Ponderosa Pine Health Using Satellite Imagery Team Participants: • Kathleen Johnson* • Greg Hammann • Rachana Ravi • Keith Bol • Barbara Morey *kathleen.johnson@digitalglobe.com DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 2
  3. 3. Goals & Objectives • To Demonstrate the capabilities of WV02 8-bands for vegetation health/stress assessments • Document the extent of tree stress from 2010 through 2013 in the White Ranch Park Area, using satellite imagery. • Test Case for DG classification system applied to vegetative health studies • Look for evidence of new Mountain Pine Beetle Activity DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 3
  4. 4. World View-2 TABLE 1: WorldView -2 Bands Band # 1 Coastal Wavelength (nm) 400-450 2 Blue 450-510 3 Green 510-580 4 Yellow 585-625 5 Red 630-690 6 Red Edge 705-745 7 NIR1 770-895 8 NIR2 860-1040 PAN Panchromatic 450-800 DigitalGlobe Name DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 4
  5. 5. Jefferson County Preliminary Study: Elk Meadow Park DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 5
  6. 6. Elk Meadow: Dwarf Mistletoe Damage JUNE 2010 JUNE 2012 False Color: Healthy Trees are Bright Red Natural Color: Damage is Visible DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 6
  7. 7. Jefferson County Research Site: White Ranch Park DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 7
  8. 8. Ground Truth Assumptions: • Ground Truth for Dwarf Mistletoe acquired December 2010 (Rawhide and Sawmill Ridges) • Treatment for mistletoe control started after ground truth acquisition (Spring 2011-Present) • Mountain Pine Beetle was discovered during the Winter Survey in 2010, and treatment began at that time. DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 8
  9. 9. White Ranch Park: Ground Truth DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 9
  10. 10. Parasites: Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum) Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 10
  11. 11. Pre-Processing: • Imagery Selection (4): - 10JUNE24, 11AUGUST23, 12MAY24, 13AUGUST14 • Bundle Adjustment - Orthorectification (30 m DEM) - Co-registration • Atmospheric Correction (DG-ACOMP) DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 11
  12. 12. Vegetative Indices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) NDVI = (rNIR – rRED)/(rNIR + rRED) Brightness = Health TABLE 4. Summary of Vegetative Indices applied to the JCOS Forestry Problem Index Formula Normalized Difference (NIR1 - Red)/(NIR1 + Red) Vegetative Index NIR1 NDVI-1 Bands 7-5 Reference Rouse et al. (1974) Shamsodinni et al. (2010) Normalized Difference (NIR2 - Red)/(NIR2 + Red) Vegetative Index NIR2 NDVI-2 8-5 Rouse et al. (1974) Shamsodinni et al. (2010) Red Edge NDVI 6-5 Filchev (2010) DigitalGlobe (Red Edge - Red)/(Red Edge + Red) DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 12
  13. 13. NDVI Results & Change Detection JUNE 2010 AUGUST 2013 CHANGE Table 7. Change Detection Color Codes BLUE Negative Change: YELLOW Neutral/Positive Change: DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 13
  14. 14. Classification Model: • DG Classification-Supervised • Decision Tree Classifiers: Robust to outliers • Applies the same rule at each Node • Compares well to Non-linear Classifiers • Random Forest – Ensemble Tree Method • • (Random Forest: Breiman 2001) • Use WEKA Scorer to Evaluate Models • http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/ DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 14
  15. 15. Random Forest – 20 Trees: • A stable model builder with little data preprocessing • Does not require a normal distribution • Relies upon balanced class sample size • Ensemble decision tree method (employs multiple trees) • Most robust decision tree method for outliers • Competitive with nonlinear classifiers such as neural networks DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 15
  16. 16. Classification Results: Accuracy and Precision Imagery Accuracy Kappa Statistic 10JUNE24 93.17 0.92 11AUG23 93.47 0.92 12MAY24 93.88 0.93 13AUG14 89.69 0.88 95% Confidence Interval DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 16
  17. 17. Ponderosa Health: Random Forest-20 10JUNE24 DigitalGlobe 11AUGUST23 Table 8. Classification Codes ORANGE Unhealthy/Stressed GREEN Healthy Yellow-Green Broadleaf 12MAY24 13AUGUST14 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 17
  18. 18. Ponderosa Health: Random Forest-20 10JUNE24 DigitalGlobe Table 8. Classification Codes ORANGE Unhealthy/Stressed GREEN Healthy Yellow-Green Broadleaf 11AUGUST23 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 18
  19. 19. Ponderosa Health: Random Forest-20 12MAY24 DigitalGlobe Table 8. Classification Codes ORANGE Unhealthy/Stressed GREEN Healthy Yellow-Green Broadleaf 13AUGUST14 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 19
  20. 20. Ponderosa Health: Pine Beetle Treatment 10JUNE24 DigitalGlobe Table 8. Classification Codes ORANGE Unhealthy/Stressed GREEN Healthy Yellow-Green Broadleaf 11AUGUST23 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 20
  21. 21. Ponderosa Health: Pine Beetle Treatment 12MAY24 DigitalGlobe Table 8. Classification Codes ORANGE Unhealthy/Stressed GREEN Healthy Yellow-Green Broadleaf 13AUGUST14 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 21
  22. 22. Summary of Classification Results 10JUNE24 DigitalGlobe 11AUGUST23 12MAY241 3AUGUST14 DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 22
  23. 23. Conclusions: • Ponderosa Pines within White Ranch Park have shown signs of accumulated stress: Mistletoe, Pine Beetle Drought (Fa11 2011-Spring 2013) Tree stress was severe enough to be visible in natural color imagery in many instances. - Through time, the total number of trees has been reduced by remediation activities - • DG Classification results were more reliable than NDVI Change Detection: - Performed at > 90% accuracy except in the case of the 2013, where some of the ground truth had been removed by mistletoe remediation. DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 23
  24. 24. Conclusions: • This Study lays the foundation for continuing forestry studies across the Foot Hills region, using satellite imagery: - Identify additional areas to be examined for mistletoe infestation and remediation - Can identify potential Pine Beetle attacks early IF we can capture imagery during the proper stages of the Life Cycle (need March snow free imagery) DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 24
  25. 25. Acknowledgments: JCOS: Keith Bol, Barbara Morey • Project Sponsor: Kumar Navulur, NGP Director • My Manager: Giovanni Marchisio, Data Mining Director • DG Classification Training: Rachana Ravi, Kris Koperski • Data Pre-Processing: Chuck Chaapel, Donnie Marino • DigitalGlobe DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential 25
  26. 26. Thank You Questions/Discussion DigitalGlobe Proprietary and Business Confidential

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