3D LAND USE AND DOWNTOWN PARKING:
CREATING A DEMAND INDEX

William J. Gribb
Department of Geography
University of Wyoming
DOWNTOWN REVITALIZATION
Downtowns have the highest employment
density
 Downtowns create the highest sales tax per
acre
 ...
DOWNTOWN DEVELOPMENT
The Laramie Downtown is composed of:
 40 blocks, approximately 71 acres
 616 parcels
 383 business...
PROJECT OBJECTIVES
Inventory and Create On-Street Database
 Inventory and Create Off-Street Database
 Inventory and Crea...
ON-STREET DATABASE
Geo-reference each on-street parking space
 List:


 Parking

Dimension: 20’ x 9’
 Location, Block,...
41.312500

41.312000

41.311500

41.311000

41.310500

-105.596500

-105.596000

-105.595500

-105.595000

-105.594500

-1...
OFF-STREET DATABASE
Geo-referenced each off-street parking space
 Variables:


 Parking

Dimension: 20’ x 9’
 Location...
LAND USE DATABASE
Parcel ID
 Parcel Ownership
 Address
 Business Name
 Modified NAICS Code, included residential,
park...
PARKING INVENTORY
Geo-referenced all parking spaces, on- and offstreet
 Data collection for databases
 Conducted vacancy...
TRADITIONAL PARKING DEMAND
Based on Zoning
 Parking Assigned to Each Land Use
 Residential by Dwelling Units or Bedrooms...
TABLE 15.14.040-3: OFF STREET PARKING STANDARDS
DU – Dwelling Unit Sq. Ft. – Square Feet GFA – Gross Floor Area
Use Catego...
Retail
12.4/1000s.f.
12.4

3.5

5.5

1.2
12.4

35.0
PARKING DEMAND MODEL
Parking Space Location
 3D Land Use Parking Demand
 Parking Characteristics


 Parking

Time
 Wa...
PARKING DEMAND MODEL
On Street
Database

Off Street
Database

Land Use
Inventory

Parking
Survey

Parking
Demand
Model

Pa...
30

25

20

15

10

5

-5

0

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30
CONCLUSION
Mixed Land Use Influences Parking Demand
 Residential Creates Problems for Off-Street
Parking
 Time Limits Ca...
2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb
2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb
2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb
2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb
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2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb

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Downtown Laramie parking is a limited commodity and the demand for on-street parking is a function of land use. This study examined land use in 3-D space and its demand on individual parking spaces using a demand bubble. Three different types of geo-referenced data were collected: land use on every floor of every building in the Downtown Laramie district; the location and type of parking spaces in the Downtown Laramie district; and, a random survey questionnaire of parking use and destinations. Thirty-six different land uses were recorded in the 506 activity spaces in Downtown Laramie. Overall, there are 829 on-street parking spaces varying from 15 minute to unlimited parking times. From survey data parking patrons average 37.5m to their first destination after parking and a 2.1hr average parking time. A parking catchment bubble can be created using the average distance as the bubble radii. By combining the three data sets, the total demand for each parking space can be calculated based on parking space position, adjacent land uses and the parking patron profile. Using a demand model, an index of parking demand was calculated for each parking space using GIS. The patterns created provide a different perspective then the traditional land use parking demand without taking into consideration adjacent land uses and their demands for parking. Parking policy options were created based on the new parking demand index.

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2013 ASPRS Track, 3-D Land Use and Downtown Parking: Creating Demand Index by William Gribb

  1. 1. 3D LAND USE AND DOWNTOWN PARKING: CREATING A DEMAND INDEX William J. Gribb Department of Geography University of Wyoming
  2. 2. DOWNTOWN REVITALIZATION Downtowns have the highest employment density  Downtowns create the highest sales tax per acre  Downtowns are the “sense of place” for a community 
  3. 3. DOWNTOWN DEVELOPMENT The Laramie Downtown is composed of:  40 blocks, approximately 71 acres  616 parcels  383 businesses and residential units  1,767 On-Street Parking Spaces  1,945 Off-Street Parking Spaces  Average Parking Time-1.1 hrs  Average Walking Distance to 1st Destination-34m 
  4. 4. PROJECT OBJECTIVES Inventory and Create On-Street Database  Inventory and Create Off-Street Database  Inventory and Create 3D Land Use Database  Create Spatial Model to Determine Parking Demand by Parking Space  Establish Parking Policy for Downtown Laramie to Maximize Parking Efficiency 
  5. 5. ON-STREET DATABASE Geo-reference each on-street parking space  List:   Parking Dimension: 20’ x 9’  Location, Block, Block-Face, Address  Orientation: Parallel, Diagonal  Parking Restriction: No Parking, Handicapped, Loading Zone, 15 min., 1hr, 2hr, All Day
  6. 6. 41.312500 41.312000 41.311500 41.311000 41.310500 -105.596500 -105.596000 -105.595500 -105.595000 -105.594500 -105.594000 41.310000 -105.593500 -105.593000
  7. 7. OFF-STREET DATABASE Geo-referenced each off-street parking space  Variables:   Parking Dimension: 20’ x 9’  Location, Block, Block Face, Street Address  Type: Private, Public  Parking Restrictions: Permit, Customer, 1hr, 2hr, All Day
  8. 8. LAND USE DATABASE Parcel ID  Parcel Ownership  Address  Business Name  Modified NAICS Code, included residential, parks, parking lot, churches, vacant  Stories  Geo-referenced land use activity center 
  9. 9. PARKING INVENTORY Geo-referenced all parking spaces, on- and offstreet  Data collection for databases  Conducted vacancy rate inventory  Survey Questionnaire   Random Days and Times  279 responses
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL PARKING DEMAND Based on Zoning  Parking Assigned to Each Land Use  Residential by Dwelling Units or Bedrooms  Commercial Based on Square Footage or Number of Employees  Restaurants Based on Number of Tables, etc.  Parking Generator, ITE, Standard   Retail, 1 per 200 sq.ft GFA
  11. 11. TABLE 15.14.040-3: OFF STREET PARKING STANDARDS DU – Dwelling Unit Sq. Ft. – Square Feet GFA – Gross Floor Area Use Category Use Type Required Spaces RESIDENTIAL USES Household Living Dwelling, Single-Family Detached 1 per DU Dwelling, Single-Family Attached 1 per DU Dwelling, IBC/IRC Modular Home 1 per DU Dwelling, HUD Modular Home 1 per DU Dwelling, Mobile Home 1 per DU Dwelling, Two-Family 1 for each efficiency or 1 bedroom unit, 1.5 for each two bedroom unit, and 2 for each unit in excess of 2 bedrooms. In addition, 1 visitor parking space per structure. Dwelling, Multi-Family 1 for each efficiency or 1 bedroom unit, 1.5 for each two bedroom unit, and 2 for each unit in excess of 2 bedrooms. In addition, 1 space for every 5 units for visitor parking. Dwelling, Townhouse 1 per DU Dwelling, Live/Work 1 per DU Dwelling, Commercial 1 per DU HUD Modular Home 1 per DU
  12. 12. Retail 12.4/1000s.f.
  13. 13. 12.4 3.5 5.5 1.2 12.4 35.0
  14. 14. PARKING DEMAND MODEL Parking Space Location  3D Land Use Parking Demand  Parking Characteristics   Parking Time  Walking Distance-34m – 68m  1st Destination, 2nd Destination  Probability of Parking Space Occupation Time of Day
  15. 15. PARKING DEMAND MODEL On Street Database Off Street Database Land Use Inventory Parking Survey Parking Demand Model Parking Demand
  16. 16. 30 25 20 15 10 5 -5 0 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
  17. 17. CONCLUSION Mixed Land Use Influences Parking Demand  Residential Creates Problems for Off-Street Parking  Time Limits Can Control High Demand Parking Spaces  Parking Meters Can Be Adjusted for Demand, Either Time or Cost 

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