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Use of computer programming in animal diet formulation

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Objective of animal diet formulation is to provide a palatable ration at minimum cost to meet nutritional and energy requirements of the animal. To achieve this objective, it is important to have knowledge about the requirements of specific nutrient ingredients and the nutrient composition of feeds, which are used to formulate the animal diet.

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Use of computer programming in animal diet formulation

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - January | February 2013Use of computer programming in animal diet formulation Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk
  2. 2. FEATURE Use of computer programming in animal diet formulation by Dr Pratiksha Saxena, assistant professor, Department of Mathematics, Gautam Buddha University, IndiaO bjective of animal diet formulation rated during the process of feed formulation. various functions within the animal that is to provide a palatable ration at defines the needs of nutrient ingredients. minimum cost to meet nutrition- Preliminary stages Nutritionists generally use both approaches;al and energy requirements of the animal. The first step in diet formulation is to the factorial method is dominant due to theTo achieve this objective, it is important to define the objective of diet formulation. need to define requirements under diversehave knowledge about the requirements Depending on the objective of diet formula- conditions but experiments are used toof specific nutrient ingredients and the tion (such as reproduction, lactation, live- confirm the accuracy of results.nutrient composition of feeds, which are stock etc.), requirements for nutrient ingre-used to formulate the animal diet. dients are established. This step includes Ingredient selection and diet individual units and overall requirement for formulation Diet formulation is an important aspect diet ingredients. Once requirements for nutrient ingredi-to meet production and financial goals in After defining the objective of study and ents are established, the ingredients can bethe most economical way. A diet is called diet formulation, requirements of nutrient selected and nutrient contents calculated.balanced if it provides energy to meet lacta- intake are defined to achieve that objective. After identifying the nutrient ingredients, diettion, production and specific level of health While defining the requirement, social envi- is formulated by using existing methods andrequirement. Economic as well as nutritional ronment, internal, external and economical different mathematical techniques.aspects should be considered while optimis- conditions should be taken into considera- There are different methods to formu-ing nutrient ingredients. tion. late animal diet. Diet formulation includes These three factors are so intimately Nutrient requirements can be estab- balance mixture of ingredients which arerelated to each other that cannot be sepa- lished by the empirical method and facto- economically sustainable and provides nutri- rial method. ent and energy requirements of a given The empiri- species for a given response. Different kind Figure 1: Nutrient levels, the limit of the nutrient ingredients and cal method of conventional methods to formulate the price of the feed are three important factors for diet formulation. is based on diets include: experimen- • Trial-and-error method tal studies • Two by two matrix method Limit of the whereas • Square method Price of the Nutrient Level nutrient the facto- • Simultaneous equation method ration ingredients rial method • Least cost formulation identifies the • Linear programming method34 | January - february 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
  3. 3. FIAAP:ad 5/2/13 10:37 Page 1 FEATURE FEATURE i- Figure 2: t.asnt Define Establish Select Formulation of Evaluation of i- e Objective Requirements Ingredients diet diet 8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand e e d Asia’s foremost exhibition andnt conferences for the ingredients objective of least cost rationing. To Initially, feed manufacturers for animal the E, Gelein R. 2005.), potentially affecting hc, and additives used in the hand cal programming have been used. For feed formulation used the trial and error achieve this, different kinds of mathemati- method but this included tedious research outcomes. n production of animal feeds, example, linear programming, non-linear calculations Computer-aided feedus aquafeeds and petfoods programming, stochastic programming, formulation r Diet analysis and evaluation sensitivity analysis, parametric cost and A study was conducted for animal feed n After formulation, the diet is evaluated to nutrient ranging, optimum-density formu- formulation based on internet remote and t. check the efficiency of diet. Chemical analysis lation, multi-blending, and risk analysis. interaction by XiongBen-hai, LuoQing-yao is done to check whether the diet is mixed Chance constrained programming is used and PangZhi-hong in 2002. This program o correctly or not. These five steps of diet to formulate commercial feeds for animals is based on linear programming, with SQL e formulation are shown in Figure 2. (Britt, J. S; Thomas, R. C; Speer, N. C; Hall, Server 2000 database and ASP Web-page e By employing the correct formulation M. B., 2003). The linear programming model language Windows 2000 Advanced Server. h skills and techniques, animal performance can be solved for a complicated set of nutri- The most important feature of this system d can be improved. These are two important ent requirements to give a relatively well- FIAAP Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for feed ingredients, is that it has set up one whole calculating d additivesaspects, which the dynamica huge impactSouth and South East Asia. and formulation within make and growing region of on the balanced ration (VandeHaar and Black, M. platform to design all kinds formulas based l- overall profitability. Whether diet is formu- J., 1991). Alteration in the diet formulation on web technique, which can share informa- New for 2014 Supported by e Now including the first feed milers or integrators, maximi- lated for The Thailand Convention can change undefined nutrient or dietary tion of feed science and animal nutrition to ASEAN Feed Summit n sation of animal production is and Exhibitionhuman components, such as fatty acids (Sabbatini Products no longer intended for important. Bureau Feed Materials Assurance Scheme (FEMAS) help directly designing feed-formulas. sis. Over recent years HACCP has become a Specialist conferences Co-located with e The exhibition will be the end of the 1960s, destined for By supported consumption, which may beVICTAM Asia 2014 widespread ME, 2006), phytoestrogensfeeds are NM, standard ensuring that all (Brown fully centralcomputer program called feed safety A requirement of food and APOLLO by its own specialist conferences. www.victam.comn- use of linearfeeding, must be kept separate Setchell DR. 2001), to supply giving both farm animal programming had been start- traceable from source (Thigpen JE 2009), They will include: was developed by A. Ahmadi, J. R. Dunbar legislation. The FIAAP Conference 2014 Contact details n ed fortransport,diet formulation. To take (Thigpen JE 2004)service and products. PJD. during animal storage and dispatch to and quality controlled phytosterols (Bouic The Petfood Forum Asia 2014 For visitor, exhibition stand and H. A. Johnson for formulation and space and conference i- from a supermarket returns depot nutrient 1999.), is based on Hazard Analysis Critical Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2014 the complexityinformationor food into account and please visit: scheme nitrosamines (Kaput J, Rodriguez The logistics – from food analysis of ration for swine. It was based The Thai Feed Conference 2014 www.fiaap.com i- variability, different kinds of mathematical RL. 2004.), (Rao GN, Knapka JJ. 1987), and manufacturing plant. Control Point (HACCP) principles, an inter- production to the feed industry on the National Research Council Bulletin,r- programming05/02/2013fully accredited towith methylmercury (Weiss B, Stern hazard analy- Our services are into the picture the nationally recognised system of S, Cernichiari Untitled-1 3 came 17:15:31 Nutrient food productionof site has differ- Each Requirements Swine, Ninthst h d g M N t ec LA ow h Performance, w olo ith gor flexibility and stability n g’ yatm-b- d al Annual Feed Conference IN MAKASSAR N MAKASSAR A S 14 - 17 March 2013 25 th 26 t h June 2013 C See our previous editions online for free The following papers have already been confirmed: M RUMINANT S Low protein diets for dairy cows Y -­‐ Kevin Sinclair, University of Nottingham May - June 2012 Raise your standards of performance with March - April 2012 January - February 2012 November - December 2011 October 2011 e CM Econase ® XT and Mixer Liquid Application. In this issue: • Mycotoxins In this issue: Nutrition, health and fertility in dairy cows -­‐ John Mee, Teagasc • LC-MS/MS: • Assessing • Bulk storage & • African an overview • Producing Flaked The New Reference cereal quality handling advances breakfast Cerealses Method for Mycotoxin parameters Animal feed milling • Database for • Sample Looking for improved profitability in uncertain times? Analysis is one of the most animal diet preparation buoyant activities in formulation MY of feeds and In this issue: the agri related field techniques: forage for NIR A glance to last analysis • Mould control • Grinding by a proven • Efficiency • Increasing • Get in line decade • Milling Technology storager- Energy saving in flour milling Process analysis solutions open Redefined in grain and feed preservation concept makes your • Food safety • Mineral requirements and supply on dairy farms capacity new opportunities for improved 15-Year In this issue: choice simple In this issue: profit and quality in the grain Celebration: • Digital milling Fortifying with Econase ® XT Mixer Liquid Application technology optimises microwave industry • NIR in • Improving moisture folic acid prevents practice supply from • Recent 22,000 birth CY -­‐ Liam Sinclair, Harper Adams University College farm to fork measurement advances in defects annually • Rice and d • Fast, reliable contract • Controlling Insects • Victam Asia • Preservatives • Global grain & • Optical sorting rapid grain • Direct Cold Plasma: and flexible: with heat Preservatives are a recurring feed markets Optical sorting has come of testing The innovative answer to odour • Global Feed terms Product topic in public discussions age and should be considered Markets: production and feed efficiency, offering you significant the world of modern bulk control in the food and feed Showcase as a serious option for inclusion Wheat supply • -­‐ Nigel Kendall, University of Nottingham weighing New weighing industry in any modern wheat cleaning grows and grows software • Global plant as corn crop for UK grain & feed shrinksat co-operative markets CMY cost savings. A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 GFMT12.01.indd 1 02/02/2012 10:12 GFMT11.06.indd 1 30/11/2011 17:28 GFMT11.05.indd 1 05/10/2011 09:49 GFMT12.03.indd 1 22/06/2012 08:48 GFMT12.02.indd 1 17/04/2012 13:05 f- Global milk and feed price trends and influences K The only liquid NSP enzyme stable enough to add prior to pelleting. -­‐ John Allen, Kite Consulting n oat www.gfmt.co.uk/archive.php • Improved FCR • Consistent in-feed homogeneity NON-RUM INANT S Environmental impact from poultry operations: influence of • Can reduce power consumption when pelleting nutritional inputs s. -­‐ Ilias Kyriazakis, Newcastle University e Econase ® Are you Vista – the leaders in enzyme innovation. XT from AB social? Keep up to date with us in-between issues by Home grown proteins in pig and poultry diets n Find out more: E: econasext@abvista.com -­‐ Jos Houdijk, SRuC i- T: +44 (0)1672 517664 on any of our social platforms following us W: abvista.com Nutritional quality of soya products for non-ruminants. e Take a :look at our newly re-vamped Facebook page, Organizer Supported by: -­‐ Julian Wiseman, University of Nottingham; Mick Hazzledine,of that Mutiara Taman Palem Blok A6 no 32 from GFMT as well as all of Ruko now covers updates PT. SINAR EXHIBITIONS INDONESIA. Premier Nutrition Phone +62 21 54352165 44474226 n the +62 21 54352165 of The Global Miller’s news Fax very best A S P E R A P I Email : info@sinarexhibitions.com RAISING STANDARDS For further details visit: www.nottingham.ac.uk/feedconf y http://www.facebook.com/GrainFeedMillingTechnology Website : www.sinarexhibitions.com s. Grain &feed millinG technoloGy January - february 2013 | 19 January - february 2013 | 35 13
  4. 4. FEATURERevised Edition, 1988. This program runs on a mathematical model is formulated which because of its easily applicable features. AIBM PC compatible computers with 512K should be nutritionally adequate at lowest programming technique is developed forof memory. After feeding the input nutrient cost. When formulating this mathemati- animal diet formulation using non-linear pro-ingredients, this program formulates the cal model, availability of feedstuffs, physical gramming and C language with the objec-ration using the linear programming primal palatability, toxicological properties of feed, tive of maximum animal weight gain. Thedual algorithm. This algorithm is efficient in logistics of obtaining feed ingredients and technique presented formulates and solvetime and space because it does not require storage limit should be considered. After a non-linear program with optimum use ofadditional columns and rows for artificial creating the mathematical model, computer nutrient ingredients. It explores the use ofvariables. The output consists of five parts: programming is to be chosen for this pur- mathematical and computerised program-cost and performance, ration composition, pose. A number of programming languages ming in the field of animal nutrition and canprice ranges, nutrient analysis of the ration, have been used for this purpose as C, C++, be investigated in future for more variablesand nutrient analysis of feeds in the ration Java and MATLAB. (Saxena Pratiksha et al, 2012).which, in turn, consists of eight parts. Using C for feed formulation The advantages of MATLABPractical and economic One of the most basic and important MATLAB is another tool for matriximplications programming languages is referred as ‘C’. manipulations, and interfacing with programs In the 1980s, the first computer program Dennis Ritchie developed this programing written in other languages, including C andwas presented for animal diet formulation. language at Bell Laboratories in 1972. Many Java. It is a high-level language for numeri-Since then, a number of computer programs of its principles and ideas were based on the cal computation, visualization, and applica-have been developed for the purpose of ani- earlier language B and Bs earlier ancestors, tion development. Animal feed is formu-mal diet formulation which discusses specific BCPL and CPL. lated using MATLAB with the objective offeed formulation techniques in terms of their The main features of this language are its maximum animal weight gain. In the firstpractical applications and economic implica- flexibility that provides fast program execu- step, this technique involves formulation oftions. The use of computer programming tion and the lack of constraints it imposes objective function using non-linear program-lessened the time and effort required to on the programmer. It allows low level ming. MATLAB is used as a tool for thisprovide affordable feed formulations for the access to information and commands while purpose. In the second step, the solutionfeed industry. A wide variety of computer still retaining the portability and syntax of of formulation is given and is compared toprograms are available for ration formulation. a high level language. It is useful for both existing techniques. Use of non-linear pro- Moreover, computer programming for systems programming and general purpose gramming overcomes the drawback of linearanimal diet formulation, is easy, convenient programs. approximation of objective function (Saxenaand saves time. A number of nutrient ingre- Due to this quality of C language, the Pratiksha et al, 2012).dients and constraints can be added to a diet Unix operating system, which was originally In the present era of technology, itin easier manner. It is also possible to check written in assembly language, was almost is convenient, time and money saving tothe impact of different nutrient ingredients immediately re-written in C. C includes bit- take benefits of computer programmingon animal production without actually apply- wise operators along with powerful pointer for this purpose. Using this technology,ing it with the help of a computer program. manipulation capabilities and modularity is animal diet formulation can be simulated and another important feature of this language. experiments can be done with the help ofThe language of programming Sections of code can be stored in libraries computer programs, without hampering the To initiate the process of computer for re-use in future programs. This language existing system of feeding to the animal andprogramming for animal diet formulation, is very useful for animal diet formulation could reach to better results.36 | January - february 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
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  6. 6. Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full LINKS This digital Re-print is part of the January | February 2013 edition of Grain & Feed online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. January - February 2013 first published in 1891 • See the full issue • Controlling the explosion risks within hammer mills • Visit the GFMT website • • Contact the GFMT Team Recycling surplus factory food In this issue: into quality animal feeds • Efficient barge unloading technology • Use of computer • Feed • Subscribe to GFMT programming enzymes in animal diet in animal formulation nutrition INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints www.gfmt.co.uk

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