Pig feed pelletizing technology


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The advantages of feed pellets in pig farming are well documented so pig breeders are inclined to adopt pellets into feed and are interested in improving feed pellet quality. Research shows that there is a proportional relationship between factors which determine pig feed pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts for 40 percent, raw material granularity 20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring die specification 15 percent, cooling 5 percent and other factors 5 percent.

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Pig feed pelletizing technology

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - July | August 2013 Pig feed pelletizing technology www.gfmt.co.uk Grain & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
  2. 2. T he advantages of feed pellets in pig farming are well documented so pig breeders are inclined to adopt pellets into feed and are interested in improving feed pellet quality. Research shows that there is a proportional relationship between factors which determine pig feed pellet quality. Feed formulation accounts for 40 percent, raw material granularity 20 percent, modulating 20 percent, ring die specification 15 percent, cooling 5 percent and other factors 5 percent. So in the case of determined feed formu- lation, feed pelleting technology is crucial to pig feed quality. Feed pellets are produced through a serious of processes such as crush- ing feed ingredients, mixing raw materials, pelleting, cooling, spraying and packing. Each procedure is obligatory. Crushing and mixing The sequence of crushing and mixing feed ingredients affects pellet quality. Mixing feed ingredients after crushing has been universally adopted in America, China and other countries. Raw materials which have different shapes and thicknesses should be ground before mixing otherwise it will not be possible achieve the optimal mixing effect. Different sized ingredients are difficult to mix evenly and the nutritional content of the feed will be inconsistent. The mixing uniformity is also affected by the grinding fineness of feed ingredients. The closer the physical properties of each component of feed pellet (including particle size), the more even the mixing. Pig feed pelleting Pelleting is the most crucial procedure in the feed pellet process. Modulation is the critical factor, which affects the end result. Modulation can gelatinize starch, sterilize and increase pellet quality (particle hardness and durability), which is related to feed intake. The moisture and temperature factors mainly affect modulation. Supplying moisture by steam can lubricate materials and reduce energy consumption. However, the amount of steam added should be restricted. Higher or lower modulating temperature makes pellet structure loose, increases pellet break- age ratio and pulverulent ratio and loses nutritional content. So discharge tempera- ture of pig feed pellet should be controlled between 76 and 92 degrees Celsius. Feed pellet cooling The pelleting follow-up processes such as cooling and spraying should also be valued. Pelleted feed has a high moisture content and temperature. In this case, feed pellets have a soft texture and are prone to mildew during storage so the cooling process is nec- essary. The cooling airflow and cooling time should be controlled strictly. During the pel- leting process some nutritional ingredients are damaged or lost by the high temperature and friction force, in order to ensure pig feed pellet quality, some liquid nutrition should be reintroduced to increase the energy level and help prevent diseases. Feed formulation for pigs at different stages Pigs at different growth stages have different physiological characteristics which should be considered when choosing feed ingredients and designing feed formulas. If pigs are well fed they can generate immune tolerance to the anti-pathogenic substances of feeds and protect the digestive tract. The feed pellet ingredients should fit their digestive ability and make preparation for weaned pigs feeding. The feed ingredients should have substances like milk residue powder, added sugar, grease and also a certain of vegetable protein. Piglet feed pellets should mainly consider the energy and protein level. The level is between 20 - 25 percent and the coarse fibre content is under 4 percent. The feed pellets for piglets should contain balanced nutrition, with a soft texture and good palatability. The amount of digestive enzymes and their activity are radically reduced so the weaned piglets cannot entirely digest the vegetable protein which causes diarrhea. The increased PH value, which inhibits lacto- bacillus growth and stimulates the colon bacillus production also causes diarrhea. So feed pellets for weaned pigs should reduce diarrhea and increase survival rate and daily weight gain. Feeds should incorporate high-energy ingredients such as grains, fat and lactose. The grains must be ripened because they can improve digestion and absorption rate and reduce diarrhea. The easily digestible proteins such as bean pulp, whey powder and soybean concentrate protein are ideal protein sauces. Some antigen substances within soybean concentrate protein like glycinin and polymerization globulin cause brief allergic reaction in the early growth stage of weaned piglets. Even so, the feed ingredients must contain soybean protein to make piglets produce antiallergic ability. Pig fattening stage Increasing feed intake is the main factor to improve growth rate during the fattening stage. Feed pellet ingredients are mainly made up of corn and bean cake. The feed ingre- dients for fattening pigs should be reason- ably collocated so as to ensure the weight Pig feed pelletizing technology by Joyce Li, service centre manager, Amisy Machinery, China Grain&feed millinG technoloGy16 | July - august 2013 FEATURE
  3. 3. Innovations for a better world. Built by feed millers for feed millers. Equipped with the industry‘s most efficient drive system, the new Bühler pellet mill Kubex™ T saves up to 30% of energy – while boosting line capacity to up to 80 tons per hour. With the Kubex™ T you save costs, reduce the release of CO2 and make your operation even more productive. Gaining competitive advantages has never been easier. For more information please visit www.buhlergroup.com/kubex-t Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com Kubex™ T pellet mill. Developed in close cooperation with leading feed millers. Direct drive concept. Saves up to 30% of energy compared to conventional drive systems. Variable die speed. Formulation- specific optimization of production process and pellet quality. Up to 585 kW motor power. Boosts line capacity to up to 80 t/h. Belt- and gearless drive system. For minimum maintenance and ultimate machine availability. ABS control for press rolls. Prevents roll slippage and protects machine against blockages. 360° accessibility. Wide-opening sliding doors on both sides. The world’s most compact design. Fits anywhere and everywhere. Almost double capacity with same footprint as conventional pellet mills.
  4. 4. gain rate and meat quality. The proteins and amino acids of feed ingredients are used to stimulate the production of lean body mass. Research shows that greater energy intakes directly improve pigs’ pro- tein and lean meat accumulation, the daily weight gain, feed utilization rate and the fat content. However, when the daily weight gain hits a certain degree, greater energy intake does not ensure an increase in lean meat. Greater or fewer trace elements may lead to metabolic disorders, slow weight gain speed, more feeds consumption and diseas- es or death. So the amount and proportion of amino acids, energy level, protein level and mineral elements should be considered. Sow feeding Figure 1 shows the energy needs distribu- tion for pregnant sows. From the table we know most of the feed is used as energy. During this period, it is important that the feed ingredients are not mouldy or degenerative as poor quality feed can cause miscarriage. Dried fat and soybean oil should be added to the feed to improve the birth weight and survival rate of piglets. Sows at different pregnancy stages need different nutrition and feed intakes. Research shows that in the early pregnancy sows need about 6 g lysine while in the later stages the lysine intake is 15 g. Figure 2 shows the is the daily feed intakes of pregnant sows. From the table we know that the daily feed intake for pregnant sows should be reduced to 2.5 kg during the first 30 days so as to maintain the energy levels and reduce feed waste. Then feed intake is adopted according to the body conditions. In the later gestation stage, feed intake is increased to expand stomach capacity and meet piglet nutrition needs. In the last stages of preg- nancy, feed intake reduced to 1.5 kg so as to prevent constipation before parturition. During the lactation period, sows may eat less which causes weight loss and influences lactation. So lysine should be added to the feed pellets so as to reduce weight loss of lactating sows, improve piglet weight gain rate, provide sufficient milk for piglets and Figure 1: Energy needs distribution for pregnant sows Figure 2: Daily feed intake for pregnant sows Grain&feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 17 www.oj-hojtryk.dk Die and roll re-working machines O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail: info@oj-hojtryk.dk AD_o&j.indd 1 21/11/2012 15:08 Deep Processing Grains A Russian Milling Conference February 4-7, 2014 GFMT has been engaged by the Cereals-Mixed Feed-Veterinary Exposition 2014, which will be held in the All-Rusia Exhibition Centre (VVC) in Moscow from February 4-7, 2014, to deliver a one-and-a- half-day conference on milling for feed manufacturers. It will be called the ‘Deep Processing Grains Conference’ and focus on feed manufacturing developments both in the mechanical and nutritional areas. So as to compliment the exposition rather than compete with it, we intend to break this conference into three separate blocks so that delegates can maximise their time in the exhibition halls while still managing to glean developmental information from conference speakers, says Roger Gilbert of Perendale Publishers Limited, publishers of Grain and Feed Milling Technology magazine. “This is an honour for us to be invited to join with the Cereals-Mixed Feed-Veterinary Exposition to organise this innovative program for Russian feed millers and nutritionists.We are calling on exhibitors to consider proposing topics that they are specialists in and which they would like to share with the audience. “The conference itself with be in both English and Russian and will have a period of questions and answers at the end of each session,” he adds. Delegates will be asked to register prior to the event in order to ensure sufficient facilities are made available. Each of the three sessions will comprise three speakers each and will be organised into themes by species and processing by feed type. Companies interested in proposing speakers for the program should contact Roger Gilbert directly (rogerg@perendale.co.uk) or Elena Belserova (elenaida-57@mail.ru) FEATURE A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 Get the industry’s longest standing title delivered direct to your door,six times a year with a GFMT subscription A subsc riptio n maga zine for the globa l flour & feed millin g indus tries - first publi shed in 1891 In this issue: • Mycotoxins an overview • Database for animal diet form ulation techniques: A glance to last decade • Food safety in the grain milling industry • Recent advances in rapid grain testing Nove mber - Dece mber 2011 • African advances Animal feed millin g is one of the most buoyant activities in the agri related field • Optical sorting Optical sorting has come of age and should be considered as a serious option for inclusion in any modern whea t clean ing plant • Get in line Process analysis solutions open new opportunities for improved profit and quality GFMT11 .06.indd 1 30/11/201 1 17:28 INPRINT A subscr iption magaz ine for the global flour & feed milling industr ies - first publish ed in 1891 In this issue: • Increasing storage capacity • Digital microwave moisture measurement • Global grain & feed markets January - Februa ry 2012 • Bulk storage & handling • Preservatives Preservatives are a recurring topic in public discussions • Efficiency Energy saving in flour milling GFMT12.01 .indd 1 02/02/2012 10:12 A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 In this issue: • Improving supply from farm to fork • Victam Asia Product Showcase • Global grain & feed markets March - April 2012 • Assessing cereal quality parameters • Controlling Insects with heat • Grinding by a proven concept makes your choice simple GFMT12.02.indd 1 17/04/2012 13:05 See all of our magazines online. You will also find a full archive of back issues, as well as downloadable features ONLINE THEGlobal Miller For more information about our other publications and services visit: www.perendale.com
  5. 5. shorten the weaning-estrous interval. When the piglets are weaned, the nutrition level of feed pellets for sows should be sufficient so as to improve pregnancy rate. Pellet size and pig health Pig gastric ulcers are a recurrent problem which often occurs on intensive pig farms. The gastric ulcer refers to the erosion or necrosis of gastric mucosa tissues caused by acute indigestion and stomach bleeding thus forming the round ulcer surface and even gastric perforation. It causes anorexia, abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea and gastrorrhagia. The feed is a main pathogenic factor in pig gastric ulcers. Feed factors relate to feed formulation, feed ingredient quality, feed pellet process technology and feed pellet utilization technology. Feeds containing too much corn will cause fibre shortage and induce gastric ulcers. Adding coarse-fibre raw materials such as grass meal or bran will ensure a healthy fibre content. A shortage of vitamin A, B1, E and sele- nium can also cause the disease. The solution is to ensure the vitamin content is sufficient. In order to reduce costs, some breeders use poor-quality feeds. Low-quality fishmeals which contain a lot of coarse impurities can cause gastric trauma and even produce histamine which induces the gastric ulcers. Breeders should use top-quality feed ingre- dients which free from moisture and mildew so as to prevent the increase of unsaturated fatty acid content and the occurrence of gastric ulcers. Tests carried out by Kansas State University, USA show that the particle size of corns is reduced with 100 µm each time the pigs’ weight gain can increase by 1.3 per- cent. This is because when the comminuting fineness is reduced, the anti-nutritional factor can be destroyed and feed nutrients can fully contact with digestive enzyme so as to increase the feed utilization rate. However, when the comminuting fine- ness is reduced, the gastric ulcer rate and keratinization degree is increased. Fine feed pellets increase the feed and water intake which strengthen the materials’ flow-ability in pig’s stomach. Therefore, pepsin and gastric acid are constantly in contact with the mucous membrane of the cardia which is easy to produce stomach ulcer. As gastric ulcers in pigs are generally related to fine feeds, the size of feed pellets is a question worth considering. In production, the comminuting fine- ness should make appropriate adjustments according to pigs’ productivity at different growth ages. Research shows that commi- nuting fineness of feed ingredients for piglets is optimal between 300 µm and 500 µm. Appropriate granularity can increase feed intake and digestive rate so particle size for sow feeds is best between 400 µm and 500 µm. It is optimal between 500 µm and 600 µm for fattening pigs. Other factors such as irregular feeding time, frequent feeds change or feeding interruption can also lead to stomach ulcers. So pigs should be scientifi- cally fed. Bacterial infection During the pelleting process, feeds are modulated by high temperature which can kill the harmful substance of feed ingredients such as Salmonella, corona virus and coliba- cillus. Bacterial infection can cause damage to pigs. Helicobacter pylori can cause ulcers and cystic gastritis. The corona virus causes vomiting and can damage stomach ganglion which results in the lost control of stomach muscle contraction and the gastric disten- sion. Most breeders use antibiotics to increase the animal’s immune system and prevent disease but the continuous usage causes resistance to drugs, destroys the intestinal flora balance and affects human health. The oligosaccharide additive has the antibiotics function but it has no pollution and residue. It is considered as the ideal replacement of antibiotics and can be added to the feeds pellet. Feed and the environment Now consumers not only require nutri- tious, safe and healthy pork but also want pig feed pellets that are ecological and the whole rearing process is environmen- tally sound. However, foul gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, skatole, trimethyl ammonia and the nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metal in pig excrement result in envi- ronment pollution. The root of this pollution is in the feed. Nitrogen and phosphorus content which can not be well utilized by pigs are the main pollution sources. Feed ingredients with higher digestion rates and less nutritional variation can reduce the nitrogen emissions by 5 percent. So feed ingredients should be reasonably selected. Pigs at different stages have different nutrition needs. Research shows that adapt- ing the amino acids levels according to pigs’ growth stages and physiological state can effectively reduce the nitrogen and phospho- rus emissions. Studies indicate that pig emissions are related to the composition of pigs’ feed pellet. Every 1 percent reduction in protein content will reduce the nitrogen excretion by 8.4 percent. And when the coarse protein content is reduced from 18 - 15 percent the nitrogen emission is decreased by 25 percent. So reducing the protein content and improving the protein digestion rate are important measures to reduce the nitrogen pollution of pigs manure. Pig feed pellets are produced based on the nutritional needs of pigs, the nutritional value of feed composition and by adopting a scientific formula so pigs can fully exploit the nutritional benefits and reduce nitrogen emissions. Considering the side effects of antibiotics and drugs, breeders are more inclined to add safe and ecological feed addi- tives to treat disease, improve feed utilization rate and pigs’ production property, reduce pollution to environment. For example, add- ing a certain amount of vegetable acid, protease and probiotics can maintain the balance of pigs’ intestinal flora, improve feed pellets’ utilization rate, significantly reduce the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus and protect the environment. More InforMatIon: Email: service@feed-pellet-mill.com Website: www.feed-pellet-mill.com Grain&feed millinG technoloGy18 | July - august 2013 FEATURE
  6. 6. www.gfmt.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the GFMT website • Contact the GFMT Team • Subscribe to GFMT A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION In this issue: • Pig feed pelletizing technology • Feed focus Cattle • Exploring the challenge of single versus multi- enzyme dosing comparisons July-August2013 • Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics • Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? • Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement first published in 1891 This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints