Social Media Use in Public Sector: A comparative study of Korean and US government agencies Authors: Gohar Feroz Khan, Ho Young Yoon, Han Woo Park Presenter: Gohar Feroz Khan School of Industrial Management Korea University of Technology & Education (KoreaTECH), 1600 Chungjol-ro Byungcheon-myun Cheonan city, 330-708, South Korea Gohar.firstname.lastname@example.org /email@example.comPrepared for: ATHS panel during the 8th International Conference on Webometrics,Informatics and Scientometrics & 13th COLLNET Meeting, 23-26 October 2012,Seoul,South Korea
Table of ContentsIntroduction Web 2.0 & Social Media S-governmentCultural PerspectiveResearch QuestionMethodResultsDiscussion
IntroductionSocial Media Based on Web 2.0 ConceptHelps to maintain social and professional ties e.g., Facebook and LinkedIn facilitate knowledge sharing e.g., Wikipedia and blogs create awareness e.g., Twitter
Social Media & Web 2.0One way Web 1.0communication All SNS Web 2.0 are webEnforce Two waycommunication 2.0, but not Social Media all web 2.0 are SNS!Enforce social context SNS, blogs, wikis (Khan, working paper)
ICT based government full picturePaper-Based Traditional GovernmentStatic ICTs & Web E-Government1.0 Based Mobile ICTs BasedWeb 2.0 & SocialMedia Based Government 2.0 S-government M- governmentKhan, working paper
Social Government studiesMany studies in mono-cultural settings the U.S. (Golbeck et al., 2010; Whalen, 2012) Korea (Cho & Park, 2012) and the Netherlands (Effing et al., 2011) But, limited studies in cross-cultural settings
Cultural DimensionsCross-cultural use of social media in public sector Collectivist V.S Individualistic (Hofstede, 1984) use of social mediaSocial Media use patterns and strategies in East V.S West?
Korea V.S. the USAKorea is a hierarchical, collectivistic, and feminine society that avoids uncertainty and emphasizes collectivismthe U.S. is a non-hierarchical, individualistic, and masculine society that accepts uncertainty and emphasizes individualism
Research Questions (RQs) What is the nature of social media use in the public sector in Western (USA) and Asian (Korean) cultures? What are the social media strategies of government agencies in Western (USA) and Asian (Korean) cultures?
MethodData We obtained the data (Tweets) from Twitter accounts maintained by government agencies in Korea (40 agencies) and the U.S. (32 agencies). We collected the data between February and August 2011 Tweets Profile information (the numbers of followings, followers, lists, and Tweets)
MethodAnalysis Webometrics and Social Network Analysis Key word analysis Out-link analysisTools Webometrics Analyst NodeXL
Results Follow-Following Network Social media are not yet a preferred medium of inter- country communicationsFigure 1: Follow-following network diagram of Korean and US public sector organizations
ResultsFollow-Following Network PropertiesTable 1. Network Level Properties of Korean Twitter Networks No. of No. of Density Average Average Average Clustering Nodes Links Geodesic Degree Centrality Coefficient Distance 40 1348 0.86 1.0 33 3.6 0.86Table 2. Network Level Properties of US Twitter Networks No. of No. of Density Average Average Average Clustering Nodes Links Geodesic Degree Centrality Coefficient Distance 32 255 0.26 1.45 7.9 12 0.50
Table 3. Correlation analysis Correlations USA Korea (1) Followings-followers -0.104 0.996** Korean government institutions (2) Followings-tweets 0.07 0.356* strategically pursued reciprocal (3) Followers-tweets 0.524** 0.339* relationships with their followers (4) Followings-listed -0.097 0.865** (5) Followers-listed 0.956** 0.877** (6) Tweets-listed 699** 0.202 Followings-Favorites 0.348 0.204 Followers-Favorites -0.111 0.183 Tweets-Favorites 0.37 0.245 Listed-Favorites -0.094 0.069 Descriptive Statistics Reciprocity Ratio 3.96% 80.98%*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
ConclusionDifferent usage patterns observed in Collectivist V.S Individualistic settingsKorean ministries Well connected Re-enforce collective agenda E.g. through re-tweeting common contents Avoid uncertainty E.g. mostly link government sources of information Return Favor E.g. if you follow me, I will follow you
ConclusionUS Ministries Sparsely connected Individualist Use e.g. retweeted messages that specifically fit the purpose of each department Embrace uncertainty e.g. Link private sources of information to inform the public of its activities Do not Return Favor e.g. if you follow me, I may not follow you
ConclusionOther findings Interactions based on social media in the public sector appear to be informational in nature • e.g. social media is used to provide links to other sources of information, including news sites, blogs, and government websites, and to raise awareness of public policies. However, future research should investigate the potential use of social media beyond its informational use (e.g., for transactions).
Thank You (Manana)Comments & suggestions are welcomed
References Cho, S. and H. Park (2012). "Government organizations’ innovative use of the Internet: The case of the Twitter activity of South Korea’s Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries." Scientometrics 90(1): 1-15. Effing, R., J. van Hillegersberg, et al. (2011). Social Media and Political Participation: Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems? Electronic Participation. E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh and H. de Bruijn, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. 6847: 25-35. Golbeck, J., J. M. Grimes, et al. (2010). "Twitter use by the U.S. Congress." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61(8): 1612-1621. Khan, G.F, working paper. Govt. 2.0 explained: implementation scenarios, model, relationships, and more. Whalen, R. (2012). Organizational Structure as a Multiplex Network: The case of the US federal government. International Communication Association (ICA)-2012 Communication and Community. Phoenix, AZ.