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Industrial water benchmarking study for india

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Industrial Water
Benchmarking Study
for India

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F O R E W O R D
The introduction of The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has provided a new
dimension to the global gr...

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2
P R E F A C E
Global economy is in an interesting transformation phase, a phase characterized by razor-sharp focus on
su...

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Industrial water benchmarking study for india

  1. 1. Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
  2. 2. F O R E W O R D The introduction of The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has provided a new dimension to the global growth and transformation agenda. It is no longer sufficient to just grow; the imperative now is to grow in a way that helps address the world’s largest developmental challenges. As corporates, we are uniquely positioned to shape the developmental agenda envisaged by the SDGs for 2015-30. However, it may be critical to prioritize and address these goals in a phased manner. From India’s perspective, the risks related to water are imminent and merit immediate attention. In fact, 3 out of 17 goals included in the SDG framework relate to water risks (goal 6: clean water and sanitation; goal 12: responsible consumption; goal 14: life below water). ONGC recognizes the criticality of risks posed by water and the urgent need for organizations to better understand the resulting challenges as well as the best practices to mitigate the risks. The industrial water study represents a small yet significant first step that ONGC has taken in this direction. The study seeks to explore water related trends and challenges faced by the industrial sector in India. In its first phase, the study focuses on two industrial sectors in India – (i) Thermal Power Generation (which accounts for the largest share of industrial water consumption), and (ii) Iron & Steel (which poses a significant risk to the water bodies in the form of effluents and wastewater discharge). The study also highlights some of the best practices adopted by the leading performers in India as well as by global organizations. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the organizations that have contributed to this study in the form of leadership insights, survey responses and site visit permits. I would also like to commend Global Compact Network India and its knowledge partner Accenture Strategy for all their efforts in conducting this study. I genuinely believe this study can play a critical role in accelerating action on water challenge – an action that can only be realized through active collaboration at all levels and continual thrust on innovation. This alone would ensure that as a nation we shape a sustainable growth model, which allows us to sustain momentum in industrial growth in harmony with the requirements and constraints associated with one of the most critical natural resource – water. (Dinesh K Sarraf) Chairman and Managing Director, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited President, Global Compact Network India Dinesh K Sarraf 1 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
  3. 3. 2 P R E F A C E Global economy is in an interesting transformation phase, a phase characterized by razor-sharp focus on sustainable growth and development. There is a rising impetus on adopting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) launched by the United Nations, which are expected to shape the global transformation agenda during 2015-30. In this rapidly evolving global context, India faces its own set of opportunities and challenges. On one hand, we are marching towards becoming the third largest economy in the world by 2030 and on the other hand, we are grappling with critical resource constraints that could potentially impede our progress. Water represents one such major risk that the industry faces today. Given the recent spate of droughts, we have already witnessed how the risk of water can potentially disrupt industrial operations in high water stress areas. In this context, the Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India presents a strong forum for different stakeholders to understand the nuances related to industrial water usage in India. This is perhaps the first of its kind industrial water study in India. The study identifies the most pressing water related issues as viewed by the business leaders and water managers in India. It also illustrates interventions and global best practices that can help address the situation. The Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India has leveraged two key channels to generate insights - as a first step, it involved capturing insights and perspectives of business leaders through an online survey. Thereafter, these insights were validated through site visits to some of the prominent Iron & Steel and Thermal Power Plants in India. While the sample of survey responses and site visits may not be entirely representative of the focus industrial sectors in India, I do hope that it provides an authentic and reliable platform to understand the underlying challenges and drive informed actions. I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate my Global Compact Network India Team and Accenture Strategy for conducting this critical Industrial Water Benchmarking Study. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to all the stakeholders who have participated in this study. I am confident that the insights and perspectives captured through this study will help lay a sound foundation to address the looming water crisis that the industrial sector faces in India. (Desh Deepak Misra) Chair, Asia Pacific Resource Centre & Director - Human Resource Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India (FROM ONGC)
  4. 4. 3 P R E F A C E The introduction of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has provided a holistic framework to tackle world’s biggest development challenges, including challenges related to water. It is worth recognizing that the role of businesses in addressing these global challenges is more critical today than ever before. Accenture Sustainability Services is globally committed to the SDGs and has been one of the pioneering organizations supporting clients across the world in leveraging SDGs as a lens for sustainable growth and differentiation. Accenture is a knowledge partner of Global Compact through United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) as well as Global Compact Network India (GCNI). At the forefront of sustainability services, Accenture partners with UNGC to engage with global leaders and conducts the largest triennial CEO study on sustainability, the latest being in 2016. With GCNI, we have collaborated and produced path breaking publications such as the ‘India CEO Study on Sustainability’ in 2013 and ‘SDGs - Broadening the Horizon for India’s Growth and Transformation’ in 2016. This study is a unique opportunity to demystify water related challenges faced by the industrial sector in India. In particular, the study focuses on two industrial sectors in India (Thermal Power Generation and Iron & Steel) and highlights how improvements in productivity, often achievable through better technologies, could be critical to address the impending water crisis. We would like to express our sincerest gratitude to ONGC for sponsoring this study, to GCNI for their valuable support and contributions, and to all the participating organizations for their rich insights. Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India (FROM ACCENTURE) (Vishvesh Prabhakar) Managing Director, Sustainability Accenture Strategy, India (Sundeep Singh) Principal – Sustainability, Accenture Strategy
  5. 5. C O N T E X T 4 Water is globally recognized as a critical risk and there are concerted efforts underway to address the situation Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented population growth coupled with rapid urbanization and industrialization. This has resulted in an increased consumption of natural resources, such as water. Although water is available in abundance on the surface of the earth, fresh water needed for human sustenance is a finite resource and represents only about 3 percent of the total water. This poses a risk that can negatively impact the growth and development of nations across the globe. The risk of water availability is recognized globally and several organized efforts are being undertaken to address it. For instance, in 2015 the United Nations (UN) launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) framework, which was formally adopted by 193 member nations of the UN. SDGs are a set of 17 development goals designed to address the world’s most critical developmental issues over the 2015-2030 timeframe. From India's perspective, these goals are also aligned to the development agenda set aside by the Indian Prime Minister to ensure sustainable growth and transformation of India. Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Figure 1: Water related goals captured in SDGs 1NO POVERTY1NO POVERTY 7AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY 13CLIMATE ACTION 14LIFE BELOW WATER 15LIFE ON LAND 16PEACE, JUSTICE AND STRONG INSTITUTIONS 17PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE GOALS 8DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH 9INDUSTRY,INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE 10REDUCED INEQUALITIES 11SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES 12RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION 2ZERO HUNGER 3GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING 4QUALITY EDUCATION 5GENDER EQUALITY 6CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION 0 0 1 0 0 1 Three out of the 17 development goals included in the SDG framework relate to water related issues. These include Goal 6 (“Clean Water and Sanitation”), Goal 12 (“Responsible Consumption”), and Goal 14 (“Life Below Water”). Together, these three goals seek to achieve universal access to clean drinking water and sanitation, curtail water pollution, promote water efficiency and protect marine and coastal ecosystems by 2030.
  6. 6. 5 The impending water crisis in India underpins the importance of water related SDGs and the need for urgent action Currently, India faces a severe water crisis in major parts of the country. In fact, 10 out of 29 states face drought-like conditions due to erratic monsoon patterns1 . The situation is further exacerbated by other water related challenges such as excessive water pollution and inadequate access to clean water, which are negatively impacting our communities, wildlife, and biodiversity on land and in water. Around 37 million people in India are affected by water borne diseases, resulting in a loss of about 73 million working days every year2 . Around 30 fish species in the Western Ghats have been added to the endangered species list, with 15 species identified as critically endangered species3 . What does this mean for the industrial sector? Contributing to this ongoing situation of water stress is the industrial use of water. The share of freshwater use for industrial purposes is set to rise. As per an estimate in 2010, India’s annual water demand was 813 billion cubic meter (BCM). This is expected to rise to 1,093 BCM by 2025 and 1,447 BCM by 20504 . It is noteworthy that supply is not expected to match the pace of increase in water demand. According to another research study, water supply in India is projected to meet only 50% of total demand by 20305 . This growing demand-supply imbalance could have significant implications from the perspective of water sharing across industrial sector, domestic sector and irrigation needs. How much is a BCM of water? One cubic meter is equal to a cube of 1 meter holding water equivalent to 1000 1-liter water bottles. One BCM of water is equivalent to a billion of such cubes. Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India SDG Illustrative targets (non-exhaustive) Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes Goal 12: Responsible consumption & production • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature Goal 14: Life below water • By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution • Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels Figure 2: Water related development goals and targets outlined in SDG framework 6CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION 12RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION 14LIFE BELOW WATER
  7. 7. Generation Sector and Iron & Steel Sector. The next two phases of the study will cover other sectors and seek to develop a comprehensive water index for the industrial sector in India. This study focuses on the following two industrial sectors in India: Thermal Power Generation sector: This sector accounts for over 70% of the total industrial water consumption in India. Aligning specific water consumption for thermal sector in India with global benchmarks would be critical to control the upsurge in quantity of water needed by the industrial sector. Iron & Steel sector: In India, around 2.3 BCM of untreated industrial wastewater is generated annually. The approximate cost of treating this industrial wastewater will be around INR 2,300 crores. Thermal Power and Steel plants are the major contributors to the annual industrial wastewater discharge8 . In particular, wastewater discharged by the Iron & Steel plants comprises of chemicals such as phenol, cyanide and ammonia, which are toxic for the receiving waterbodies when discharged untreated or partially treated9 . These effluents can adversely impact aquatic life as well as the entire food chain. These effluents can also render fresh sources of water as unusable for industrial or domestic purposes. 6 Our discussions with experts reveal that the growing demand-supply gap will significantly impact the industrial sector due to the relatively low priority accorded to industries for water allocation. This could potentially result in more stringent water use regulations and intensify water related challenges faced by the industry. Some of these challenges have already begun to surface, disrupting operations in high water stress areas7 . Industrial units facing water supply cuts due to scarcity In early 2016, due to water shortages, the civic bodies in several states imposed cuts on water supplied to industrial belts. In Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC), nearly 15,500 industrial units of various sizes suffered almost 50% water cut. Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India 2000 634 813 1,093 1,447 2010 2025E 2050E Share of industry:~19% Potential water savings that can be realized by improving productivity Share of industry:~8% Waterdemand(BCM) +78% CAGR: 2% Figure 3: India’s growing water demand6 Clearly, there is an urgent need to assess the industrial water usage pattern and identify potential mitigation measures to address the growing water concerns. This study is organized across three phases. The current phase (i.e. phase 1) includes the Thermal Power
  8. 8. Water related risks & challenges in India To begin, we focus our attention on the different ways in which water related risks are perceived by the industrial sector. These risks can be organized in four broad categories. 7 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Figure 4: Water related risks Category Physical Financial Regulatory Reputational Brief description Water related risks* Risks that jeopardize the physical operations of a plant and can lead to temporary or permanent shutdowns 1. Water access and availability 2. Declining water quality 3. Climate severities Water risks that have a direct implication in terms of rising costs (and hence dropping profitability) 4. Rising water prices 5. Rising water treatment costs 6. Inefficiencies due to technology obsolescence 7. Need for sophisticated approach for water management Risks that can expose the organization to potential lawsuits, penalties and fines 8. License to operate 9. Rising Government scrutiny 10. Statutory water withdrawal limits Risks that can impact organization’s brand image and potentially erode consumer trust and loyalty 11. Impact of water discharge on environment 12. Rising stakeholder expectations 13. Impact on communities 14. Conflicts related to water sharing *Some of these risks are relevant across more than one category but are mapped to the category where they are expected to have the most significant impact
  9. 9. 8 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India License to operate Climate severities (floods and droughts) Rising stakeholder expectations Conflicts related to water sharing Need for sophisticated approach for water management Declining water quality Impact on communities High impact risks Impact Intensity Immediate risks Rising water prices/ treatment costs Rising government scrutiny Inefficiencies due to technology obsolescence Water access and availability Impact of water discharge on environment Statutory limits with respect to water withdrawal Timeframeforriskrelevance Figure 5: Water risk prioritization matrix Based on inputs from the leading Thermal Power Generation and Iron & Steel organizations in India, it is evident that these water risks vary in terms of their impact potential and impact time horizon.
  10. 10. Inadequate water supply making it tough for enterprises to secure permits In April 2016, three enterprises (which convert scrap into steel) had each indicated a need for at least two lakh litres of water per day for the proposed new factories in water stressed region of Jalna Industrial Park in Maharashtra. The State Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) deferred the three proposals citing lack of adequate water supply as the primary concern. Regulatory water related risks are potentially jeopardizing the license to operate Taking cognizance of the growing water stress condition in the country, the Government of India has introduced several policy measures to drive responsible water consumption in the industrial sector. Policy name Focus sectors Key features The National Manufacturing Policy, 201110 National Water Policy, 201211 National Steel Policy, 201212 National Water Mission13 Environmental (Protection) Act Amendment, 201514 • Mandates water audits and rainwater harvesting for all industrial units in National Investment & Manufacturing Zone (NIMZ) • Incentivizes water conservation • Introduces lower priority allocation for water supply to industries compared to domestic and agricultural needs • Limits industries in the water stress regions to withdraw only make-up water or return treated effluent to a specified standard • Mandates regular audits in industries with audit and conservation guidelines made available • Aims to make reuse of water a general norm • Encourages R&D in manufacturing processes to reduce water withdrawal and pollution load • Introduces penalty and reward system to bridge the gap between Indian standard and international best practices of water usage • Encourages initiation of water foot-printing and rainwater harvesting and frame strategies for zero effluent discharge • Encourages industries to engage in water conservation, augmentation and preservation as part of CSR • Incentivizes water positive technologies, recycling and zero effluent solutions Manufacturing sector Overall Industry Steel sector Overall Industry Overall Industry - specific clauses for thermal power generation companies • Mandates Thermal Power Plants using Once Through Cooling (OTC) technology to install cooling towers and limit specific water consumption to 4 m3 / kWh within 2 years • Mandates existing plants with cooling towers to limit specific water consumption to 3.5 m3 / kWh within 2 years • Mandates new plants installed after 1st Jan, 2017 to achieve zero wastewater discharge and specific water consumption of 2.5 m3 / kWh Figure 6: Illustrative policy measures introduced by Government of India to drive responsible water consumption While these policy measures provide a robust framework to drive responsible industrial water consumption, they also pose a compliance risk for the organizations involved. There are already instances of organizations facing challenges in securing operating licenses on account of water shortage15 . Our assessment of Iron & Steel and Thermal Power Generation companies reveals that business leaders view license to operate, rising government scrutiny and statutory limits with respect to water withdrawals as the most critical and immediate water related risks. 9 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
  11. 11. 10 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Industry is increasingly wary about the rising water prices and associated implications for the business and society Water is increasingly viewed as a scarce resource, which comes at a price and has financial implications. In particular, given the water stress, organizations are grappling with identifying cost effective and sustainable ways to source fresh water. Price of water as a resource Our discussion with a leading steel manufacturer with a plant capacity of about 10 MTPA revealed that the plant relies on a nearby fresh water source and pays around INR 8.3 per m3 of water withdrawn. This is a significant increase from INR 5.0 per m3 that the organization paid in 2011. While this example illustrates how a leading steel manufacturer is subject to rising price of water (i.e. price of water as a resource per se), there are significant variations in the way water is priced for different industrial units. Our study reveals that most organizations are only exposed to a nominal cess for their current water usage. This cess is usually miniscule and does not reflect the true cost of water. For instance, some steel manufacturers currently pay a cess of around 10 to 12 paisa per m3 of fresh water withdrawn. True cost of water Interestingly, even the organizations that are only exposed to nominal cess for their water usage are now recognizing the ‘true’ cost of water, which accounts for other associated costs (such as costs related to pumping, transportation, treatment etc.). Cost component Relevance Example Plants relying on water sources with varying degree of TDS Cost of treatment at source Cost of pumping and transportation Cost of water treatment for reuse • The operating cost of a brackish water desalination plant is INR 10 to 15 per m3 • The operating cost of a sea water desalination plant17,18 , is INR 2 m3 Plants pumping water from relatively far sources • A leading steel plant with annual production capacity of around 12 MTPA relies on sourcing water from a source that is over 150 km away. The organization has laid one of the largest pipeline for sourcing water in India and effectively incurs ~INR 25 per cubic meter of water withdrawn (including treatment costs) • The same plant incurs ~INR 8 per cubic meter for water withdrawn from another source located around 40 km from the plant Plants operating in water stress regions with high need for water reuse • Effluent treatment costs pegged are around INR 10 per cubic meter of treated water. Figure 7: True cost of water – an illustration16 It is evident that though fresh water is largely available at a nominal cess in India, the true cost of water after accounting for treatment and pumping costs is significant. It may vary anywhere between INR 10 to INR 30 per m3 of water withdrawn. What does this mean from the business and society perspective?
  12. 12. 11 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India 90 mn Tonnes Industry’s annual production capacity 3.5 m3 / tonne Average specific water consumption 297 mn m3 Annual water withdrawal 10% saving Conservative water saving target ~30 mn m3 Quantity of water saved in the year ~INR 30 Crore Monetary saving assuming INR 10/m3 price ~0.5 mn individuals No. of individuals supported through saved water (assuming 150 litres per day per capita requirement) 973 mn MWh Industry’s annual production capacity 4.5 m3 / MWh Average specific water consumption 4378.5 mn m3 Annual water withdrawal 10% saving Conservative water saving target ~440 mn m3 Quantity of water saved in the year ~INR 440 Crore Monetary saving assuming INR 10/m3 price ~8 mn individuals No. of individuals supported through saved water (assuming 150 litres per day per capita requirement) Figure 8: Potential financial and society impact from modest water savings for the Steel Sector Figure 9: Potential financial and society impact from modest water savings for Thermal Power Generation sector
  13. 13. 12 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Presently, around 2.3 BCM of untreated industrial wastewater is generated every year with thermal and steel plants being the major contributors. An idea about the magnitude of the untreated water volume can be had from the fact that over 9 lakh Olympic-sized20 swimming pools may be required to accommodate India’s annual untreated industrial water discharge. This untreated waste could cost an approximately INR 2,300 crore for effluent treatment21 . The consensus amongst the water experts in India is that the industry currently lacks sustainable mechanisms for wastewater discharge. This is an area where the industry is looking for breakthrough, innovative solutions and merits focused R&D efforts from the leading steel manufacturers. Figure 10: Typical wastewater handling practices in India Waste discharge mechanism Pros Cons Bio-remediation Concentration and dumping in secure landfill Concentration and transfer to chemicals industry to be used as inputs Dumping in sea water Dumping in waste land Naturally occurring bacteria feed on waste (such as RO reject from steel industry) to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic substances A natural process that uses non-toxic chemicals and hence environment friendly Relatively slow process and somewhat difficult to deploy at a large commercial scale Involves concentrating and crystallizing the RO reject which can be dumped in secure landfills with impermeable liners Compact waste requires less disposal area Building secure landfills is very expensive and requires sizeable capital investments Involves crystallizing the concentrated reject which can be used as an input by chemical industry like fertilizer plants Promotes circular economy principles as waste from one industry goes as input into another. It can also act as an additional revenue stream Currently, very few chemical companies are able to absorb the waste water reject as an input Involves dumping the waste water and effluents around 50+ kilometers into seawater Potentially infinite sink with limited impact on TDS of sink at significant depth The toxic metals (especially from steel industry) adversely impact life below water and fishery operations Involves dumping the waste into an open landfill few kilometers away from the plant Relatively low waste processing cost (with minimal capital investments) Infeasible at large scale due to limited land availability; during rainy season waste tends to‘flow’into the food chain Dumping in river water Involves dumping waste water and effluents into the nearby river water source or on the river banks Relatively low investments and costs TDS level of river increases over time rendering it unsafe for communities and also increasing fresh water treatment costs for the plant Organizations view discharge of waste water as a serious challenge – experts recognize the need for innovation as critical to develop sustainable discharge mechanisms It is important to note that around 2% of water saving can be achieved by saving about 1m3 of water per hour through the year and also simply by regular monitoring and tracking of water use19 .
  14. 14. 13 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India The recent drought situation faced by India highlights how the production process for thermal and steel plants is adversely impacted due to water shortage23,24 . This is further exacerbated by the fact that many industrial plants are located in the water stressed regions of the country. More than 70% of India’s existing and planned thermal and hydropower capacity are located or expected in water- scarce or water-stressed areas25 . Given the relatively high water requirements, Thermal and Steel Plants are highly susceptible to the vagaries of nature. In the event of climate severities like droughts, industries suffer the most due to the low priority accorded in water allocation (as compared to agriculture and households). For instance, India faced a drought situation in 10 states in the last fiscal year. In Maharashtra, the situation led to a 10% cut in water supply to industrial units in the Aurangabad district22 . To address the challenge related to water droughts, leading steel and thermal plants have invested in building back-up reservoirs and are undertaking initiatives to increase reuse of water. For example, Tata Steel plant in Jamshedpur has a man-made lake that can provide water to suffice for upto 20 to 25 days of operations. Figure 11: Location of plants across India Impact of droughts on thermal and steel plants production – an illustration Coal based thermal power plants have already lost around 8.7 billion units of electricity generation because of shut- downs due to water shortages this year. A major steel plant in India is facing a shortage of 10 million gallons per day (MGD) water leading to a shutdown of 3 units. Climate severities such as droughts and floods exacerbate the already stressed water situation in India
  15. 15. How are leading organizations responding to water challenges? Leading performers are responding to water related challenges at multiple levels. At a strategic level, there is growing evidence of industries viewing water availability as a strategic issue that impacts expansion and growth. The organizations also place equal importance on operational excellence by adhering to water guidelines, improved monitoring, and R&D to drive innovation. In the business-as-usual scenario, the specific water consumption for the steel industry is expected to increase from 297 million m3 (current) to 1,500 million m3 (2030). Similarly, for the Thermal Sector, it is expected to increase from 4,380 million m3 (current) to 7,402 million m3 (2030). This expected rise in water demand is not sustainable given the water constraint in India. Therefore, it is critical for the industry to identify potential interventions to improve productivity and rationalize water demand. 14 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
  16. 16. 15 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Water utilization in thermal power plants ~70% of the total industrial water usage in India is accounted for by thermal power plants Of the total industrial water requirement of ~69 BCM, thermal power plants account for ~47 BCM ~98% of waste water from thermal plants is reusable Going ‘Business-as-usual’ will need additional 3.3 BCM water by 2030 Business as usual (i.e. continue at current specific water consumption of 4.5 m3 /MWh). This would increase absolute water consumption by around 69%, thereby aggravating water stress. Specific Water Consumption (m3 per MWh) 7.5 4.8 4.3 4.0 3.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.6Global best - Thermal power plants USA - Thermal power plants China - Thermal power plants India target - Plants installed after 1st Jan 2017 India target (Apr 2017) - Cooling tower based plants India target (Apr 2017) - OTC based plants India - 660 MW plants India -200 MW plants India -110 MW old plants Typical specific water consumption in India India targets - till FY17 and beyond Global benchmarks Specific water consumption – benchmarking Coal-based thermal power plants in India have a specific water consumption of ~4.5 m3 /MWh. Global best benchmark of ~1.6 m3 /MWh represents a significant opportunity for India-based plants. Future outlook Currently, India generates around 973 mn MWh units from coal-based plants. This is likely to increase to 1,377 mn MWh by 2025 and 1,645 mn MWh by 2030 What does this mean from water utilization perspective? Scenario A: Business as usual (i.e. continue at current specific water consumption of ~4.5 m3 /MWh). This would increase specific water consumption by around 69%, thereby aggravating water stress. Scenario B: Achieve national target of ~3.0 m3 /MWh by 2030. This can help to hold specific water consumption in 2030 at current levels (despite capacity expansion). Scenario C: Achieve global benchmark of ~1.6 m3 /MWh by 2030. This can help save enough water to support annual water needs of 87 mn people (total population of 4 major metros today is ~48 mn!) Water saving: 3,290 mn m3 (water needs of ~60 mn people) Water saving: 1,480 mn m3 (water needs of ~27 mn people) Current BAU National Target Global best 2025 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 Millionm3 8,000 2030 Water Consumption @ Thermal Power Generation Sector – A closer look Annual Water Consumption in million m3 Additional consumption of: 3,290 mn m3 (water needs of ~60 mn people) Current 2025 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 2030
  17. 17. 16 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Water utilization in iron and steel plants Annual water consumptionby is 0.3 BCM and is expected to increase as production grows by over five times in the next decade and a half. Over 80-85% freshwater consumed in the sector is discharged as effluent26 . Going ‘Business-as-usual’ will need additional 1.2 BCM water by 2030 Business as usual (i.e. continue to use water at specific water consumption of 3.3 m3 /tcs). This would increase the industry’s total water consumption by almost 5 times, possibly affecting close to 22 million people in term of their water needs. Specific Water Consumption (m3 per tonne of crude steel) 5.0 3.3 3.3 2.1 2.0 1.0 1.6 Global Best-Based on CSE report Indis’s target-specific water consumption by 2025 India’s best-Based on CSE report India’s average-Based on CSE report India’s worst-Based on CSE report Range of specific water consumption given by World Steel association Typical specific water consumption in Indian steel plants India targets- to be achieved till FY 25 Global benchmarks Specific water consumption – benchmarking Iron and steel plants in India have a specific water consumption of ~3.3 m3 /tonne of crude steel (tcs) Global best benchmark of ~1.0 m3 / tcs represents a significant opportunity for water conservation27 . Future outlook India is the third largest producer of steel in the world with a capacity of 90 million tonnes28 . The government aims to increase production to 300 MT by 2025 and the capacity is further projected to increase to 500 MT by 203029 . 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 Millionm3 AnnualWaterconsumptionin Water saving: 500 mn m3 (water needs of ~9 mn people) Water saving: 500 mn m3 (water needs of ~9 mn people) BAU National Target Global best practice Current 2025 2030 Water Consumption @ Iron & Steel Sector – A closer look What does this mean from water utilization perspective? Scenario A: Business as usual (i.e. continue to use water at specific water consumption of 3.3 m3 /tcs). This would increase the industry’s total water consumption by almost 5 times. Scenario B: Achieve national target of ~2.0 m3 /tcs by 2030. This can help to curtail rise in water consumption at about 3.3 times saving 500 million m3 of water per annum. Scenario C: Achieve global benchmark of ~1.0 m3 /tcs by 2030. This can help save enough water to support annual water needs of 18 mn people as total water consumption goes up by only 68% while production increases to 5 times of current production compared to BAU. Annual Water Consumption in million m3 Additional consumption of: 1,203 mn m3 (water needs of ~22 mn people) Current 2025 0 200 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 400 1,600 2030
  18. 18. Water - a strategic priority for JSW With a specific water consumption target (for FY 2016-17) of 2.94 m3 per tonne of crude steel, JSW is one of the most efficient steel manufacturers in India. The organization includes responsible utilization of natural resources as a part of its vision statement and has formed a core water team led by an appointed management representative. Additionally, the highest level of ownership and accountability for water performance rests at JSW’s board level. “ …Thermal power plants require huge amount of freshwater withdrawals for electricity generation and therefore have a significant impact on the ecosystem and the water resources. We at OTPC are committed to sustainable practices including efficient and economic utilization of water and in this respect we have deployed combined cycle technology, use natural gas as fuel and have employed recirculation of water for cooling system. The specific water consumption of our plant should typically be about 30-35% of that being required for a coal based power plant thereby saving huge amount of water for every unit of electricity generated…” - Mr Satyajit Ganguly - MD, OTPC Limited Most of the Thermal Power and Iron & Steel organizations in India have put in place guidelines to drive desired behaviors and actions related to water conservation. In fact, 9 out of 11 participating companies indicated that they have basic water related guidelines in place. Interestingly, an executive in the water department of a leading steel company in India explained that business-as-usual outlook for the industry is under severe water risk and these guidelines represent a critical first step towards addressing the situation. Leading organizations also demonstrate willingness to adopt water as a strategic business issue with significant attention from the senior leadership. Based on the responses received from the leading Thermal Power Generation and Iron & Steel companies, it is evident that there are two overarching themes for the water related targets. These relate to reducing specific water consumption and reducing discharge. This may partly be due to organizations’ response to regulatory guidelines. For instance, in the Iron & Steel industry the water consumption is around 3 to 5 m3 / tonne of crude steel while the government has set a target of 2 m3 / tonne of crude steel production by 2025. 17 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Figure 12: Key themes for water related targets – consumption and discharge Type of target Thermal power generation Iron & Steel NTPC: Reduce specific water consumption by 2.5% over previous year by March 2017; Reduce specific water consumption for all stations to less than 3.5 L / unit by December 2017 Maharashtra Power Generation Company: Reduce specific water consumption for BSL. St. to 5.0 L / unit by 2018 – 19 Water consumption targets Discharge reduction targets JSW: Achieve specific water consumption of 2.94 m3 /ton crude steel by the end of FY17 Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited: Maintain annual specific water consumption to less than 2.6 m3 /ton crude steel Tata Steel: Reduce specific water consumption from 5.54 m3 /ton crude steel in FY15 to 2.79 m3 /ton crude steel by FY20 NTPC: Achieve zero liquid discharge across all stations over the next five years Tata Steel: Reduce treated effluent discharge to near zero (0.5 MGD) by FY20 JSW: Achieve zero specific water discharge (FY2016 – 17) Organizations are looking to drive improvements in water efficiency through well-defined water guidelines backed with time-bound targets and senior leadership’s oversight
  19. 19. “…Water is the elixir of life and fundamental for the existence of both flora and fauna on Earth. However, rising levels of water pollution and declining availability of fresh water sources puts a major risk on long-term availability of this vital resource. Hence, water features in two of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. An integrated and collaborative approach from Industry is essential to address the concerns related to water for ensuring long term sustainability of the business we operate…” -Mr TV Narendran - MD, TATA Steel 18 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India What do these targets imply for the industry? Our discussion with global experts, specifically related to water and SDGs, indicates that the nature of targets adopted by the Indian industry represents a significant first step towards driving water efficiency improvements. However, there is an opportunity to strategically align water targets to the global transformation agenda for 2015-2030, as outlined by the SDGs. This would require expanding the scope of water targets adopted by the Iron & Steel and Thermal Power sectors in India. SDG Illustrative targets (non-exhaustive) Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation • By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies • By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes Goal 12: Responsible consumption & production • By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources • By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature Goal 14: Life below water • By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution • Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels Figure 13: Water related development goals and targets outlined in SDG framework 6CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION 12RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION 14LIFE BELOW WATER
  20. 20. 100% water monitoring and tracking coverage - Tata Steel Tata Steel recently made an investment of around INR 3.2 crores to strengthen its water monitoring infrastructure. The company achieved 100% monitoring coverage of its water lines through a network of flow meters and remote monitoring system. This resulted in a direct water saving of 3.3 million m3 / year. Based on the true cost of water of around INR 11.5 per m3 (which includes water tariff, pumping costs etc.), this represents a financial saving of around INR 3.8 crores (i.e. exceeding investment within the first year). R&D to drive innovation related to water management – Arcelor Mittal Arcelor Mittal, world’s largest steel manufacturer, actively identifies opportunities to recycle and re-use water with the support of their global R&D division. The organization also has a dedicated water treatment lab located in Spain that investigates the application of green technologies to minimise pollutants and increase the life of equipment. 19 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Despite the significant improvements in water related processes and technology interventions, experts believe that there is a growing need for increased R&D to identify innovative and sustainable water solutions. In particular, our discussions with experts indicate following as some of the key areas that merit innovation31,32,33 Energy efficient treatment technologies Use of bio-based/ green technologies for effluent treatment Expanding the universe of wastewater reuse options Real-time monitoring and control on a wide scale enabled by intelligent water metering Closed water systems Innovative heat recovery technologies (for thermal power generation companies) Research indicates that at least 2% of water savings can be achieved by just actively measuring and tracking water use in an industrial plant30 . Some of the leading organizations in India have already taken active measures to build rigor in their water monitoring and tracking through an extensive network of water flow meters backed by state-of-the-art real time remote monitoring systems based on digital technology. From a financial feasibility perspective, these interventions tend to be easily funded with the savings realized in the first 1-2 years exceeding the required investments. Thermal Power Generation Companies such as NTPC and OTPC and Iron & Steel companies such as Tata Steel and JSW have already undertaken active measures to strengthen their water monitoring and tracking infrastructure. Industrial flowmeters have witnessed many technological advancements. For new and upcoming plants, there are options to install intrusive flowmeters. Alternatively, for the existing plants there is the option of retrofitting pipelines with non-intrusive or external flowmeters (which are based on doppler or ultrasonic principles) without disrupting the operations. The cost of these flowmeters ranges between INR 75,000 to INR 4 lakhs. Additionally, water quality measurement devices like TDS meters help organizations meet regulations for quality of effluent discharged apart from ensuring that water used in different parts during the operations conform to the standard quality requirements. There is a shift towards rigorous water monitoring and tracking mechanisms Investing in R&D to develop innovative water management solutions could be the next big opportunity for the Indian industry
  21. 21. 20 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India Leading performers are augmenting strategic planning and monitoring with tangible operational initiatives to drive improvements in water efficiency Figure 14: Illustrative operational best practices deployed by Iron & Steel and Thermal Power companies Initiative Brief description Remarks Cooling towers account for significant water losses. These can be minimized by circulating water multiple times in a closed loop before being eventually discharged. Increased cycles can lead to an increase in salt concentration and may require appropriate investments to prevent equipment corrosion. Case study Arcelor Mittal: At some of the steel plants, each cubic meter of water is recycled as many as 75 times before being discharged34 . Increased cycles of concentration In direct dry cooling, turbine exhaust steam is condensed inside finned tubes that are externally cooled by ambient air powered by motor-driven fans35 . Capital costs for dry cooling are 3 to 5 times higher than wet cooling, but it results in about 80% water saving36 . NTPC: NTPC’s North Karanpura Super Thermal Power Project in Jharkhand will be equipped with air cooled condensers to reduce the water requirement by 80%37 . Direct dry cooling / Air condensers Coke is cooled using an inert gas in dry cooling plant, instead of cooling by sprayed water in iron and steel plants. Retrofitting dry coke quenching system can cost ~$109.5/ton coke38 ;A typical steel mill can save ~4 million tons of water annually by installing two dry quenching systems. Tata Steel: Jamshedpur plant implemented coke dry quenching in FY13 with an investment of INR 100 crore and achieved water savings of 876 ML/year. Coke dry quenching Water discharged with low TDS could be recirculated after primary treatment. It can be used for purposes such as gardening, green belt development, and dust suppression, thereby minimizing net discharge. A ZLD plant operating at 5 ML per day will incur between INR 50- 60 crores in CAPEX and spend INR 15,000-25,000 as OPEX per day39 . JSW: Vijaynagar plant has implemented a membrane bio-reactor followed by reverse osmosis ZLD plant and reuses more than 95 per cent of process waste40 . Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system WPA is a technique for reducing water consumption and wastewater generation through integration of water-using activities or processes. Research indicates that WPA can result in about 15 to 40% fresh water saving and 25 to 40% reduction in waste water41 . Tehran Oil Refinery: A study done on Tehran oil refinery found that re-design of water allocation in the networks led to freshwater savings of almost 44%42 . Water pinch analysis (WPA) Given the practically infinite supply of sea-water, it is an attractive option for cooling applications in industries in the coastal plants. However, it requires investments in overcoming corrosion challenges. Corrosion problems associated with sea-water usage can be avoided by using appropriate corrosion resistant material, which increases costs by about 35 – 50% (compared to fresh water towers of same capability43 ). Tata Power: Tata’s 4,000 MW power plant at Mundra draws water from Arabian sea for cooling purposes. This allows them to meet cooling water needs despite heavy competition for water resources44 . Use of seawater for cooling This involves using technology to settle the ash particles and pumping ash water to the ash water recovery system, where ash water is treated with chemicals to separate it from ash sludge45 . Upto 70% of ash pond water can be recovered and reused in ash handling plant . Capital cost for setting up a 60-MLD ash recirculation plant46 is INR 13 crore and the annual O&M cost is INR 1.7 crore47 . Jindal Power Limited: In their Tamnar plant, make-up water is added to bottom ash, and then it is treated and recycled back to the main plant for further ash disposal cycles. This has led to water savings worth 432,000 m3 per month48 . Ash water recirculation
  22. 22. Water intensive industries such as Thermal Power and Iron & Steel are located in some of the most water stressed areas across the nation. This is animminent risk not only to the industry’s license to operate but also to the water security for communities thriving in those regions. Hence, it is imperative that industries understand the impact of water to their respective eco-systems and make water management decisions accordingly. Three key takeaways emerge from this study. Firstly, there is a need to evaluate the true cost of water to industries. This will improve the decision making process and provide a holistic view of the water value chain. Secondly, fresh water is a limited resource and maximizing its life cycle within an industry is a key priority. Introducing circularity in water usage both from a process and business perspective can help industries make a giant leap in that direction. Thirdly, the need to engage right stakeholders to manage water usage is very important. Be it communities, regulatory agencies or expert groups – involving a diverse set of stakeholders can promote innovation and scale up solutions through customization and standardization. Lastly, the time to act and enable change is “now” and not in the distant future. C A L L F O R A C T I O N 21 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
  23. 23. Study Leads Pooran C. Pandey Vishvesh Prabhakar Lead Authors Sundeep Singh Winsley Peter Amanpreet Talwar Nazneen Shaikh The authors would like to thank the following people and companies for their insights and assistance Ritesh Kapoor, Jay Thakkar, Palak Kapoor and Pranshu Gupta JSW Steel Limited Tata Steel Limited National Mineral Development Corporation NTPC Limited Tata Power Company Limited ONGC Tripura Power Company Limited Damodar Valley Corporation Maharashtra Power Generation Company Tata Sponge Iron Limited Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited NMDC Limited Avant Garde Innovations For further information, please contact: Vishvesh Prabhakar Managing Director Sustainability, Accenture Strategy, India vishvesh.prabhakar@accenture.com Sundeep Singh Principal, Sustainability, Accenture Strategy sundeep.singh@accenture.com Pooran Chandra Pandey Executive Director UN Global Compact Network India gcnindia@globalcompact.in ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 22 Industrial Water Benchmarking Study for India
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  26. 26. Copyright © 2016 Accenture All rights reserved. Accenture, its logo, and High Performance Delivered are trademarks of Accenture. About Accenture Accenture is a leading global professional services company, providing a broad range of services and solutions in strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations. Combining unmatched experience and specialized skills across more than 40 industries and all business functions—underpinned by the world’s largest delivery network—Accenture works at the intersection of business and technology to help clients improve their performance and create sustainable value for their stakeholders. With approximately 373,000 people serving clients in more than 120 countries, Accenture drives innovation to improve the way the world works and lives. Visit us at www.accenture.com. About Global Compact Network India Global Compact Network India (GCNI), formed in November 2000, was registered in 2003 as a non-profit society to function as the Indian Local Network of the UN Global Compact, New York. It is the first Local Network in the world to be established with full legal recognition. It, also as a country level platform for businesses, civil organisations, public and private sector, aids in aligning stakeholders’ responsible practices towards the Ten Universally Accepted Principles of UNGC in the areas of Human Rights, Labour, Environment and Anti-corruption, broad UN goals including Sustainable Development Goals and other key sister initiatives of the United Nations and its systems. At present, the India Network ranks among the top 10, out of more than 90 Local Networks in the world. It has also emerged as the largest corporate sustainability initiative in India and globally with a pan India membership of 230 leading business and non-business participants and 341 signatories, strengthening their commitment to the UN Global Compact Principles by becoming proud members of the Local Network in India. For more details, please visit www.globalcompact.in About Accenture Strategy Accenture Strategy operates at the intersection of business and technology. We bring together our capabilities in business, technology, operations and function strategy to help our clients envision and execute industry-specific strategies that support enterprise wide transformation. Our focus on issues related to digital disruption, competitiveness, global operating models, talent and leadership help drive both efficiencies and growth. For more information, follow @AccentureStrat or visit www.accenture.com/strategy. Disclaimer This Report has been published for information and illustrative purposes only and is not intended to serve as advice of any nature whatsoever. The information contained and the references made in this Report is in good faith and neither Accenture nor any its directors, agents or employees give any warranty of accuracy (whether expressed or implied), nor accepts any liability as a result of reliance upon the content including (but not limited) information, advice, statement or opinion contained in this Report. All quotations included in this Report represents the views of the respective originators and Accenture does not in any way imply or advocate their endorsements. This Report also contains certain information available in public domain, created and maintained by private and public organizations. Accenture does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timelines or completeness of such information. Accenture does not warrant or solicit any kind of act or omission based on this Report. The Report is the property of Accenture and its affiliates and Accenture be the holder of the copyright or any intellectual property over the Report. No part of this document may be reproduced in any manner without the written permission of Accenture. Opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

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