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40+ YEARS AND 25,000,000FHWA, UNIVERSITY AND DOT RESEARCH
2ndREINFORCEDEARTH tmWALLIN THE U. S.Barrettand Ruckman
FULL TIMEINSTRUMENTATION    TEAM
1st FULLHEIGHTPANELREINFORCEDEARTHWALLBarrettRuckman
First Major U. S. Gabion WallBarrett 1969
U. S. Forest ServiceFirst use of geosynthetics----to stabilize loggingroads
U. S. Forest Service    John StewardFirst USA Fabric Wall
U. S. Forest ServiceFirst Use of Wood ChipsAs Backfill
Colorado DOTGCS® DemoBarrett and Ruckman1981
LARGESTGEOSYNTHETICALLYCONFINED SOIL (GCS®) DEMO WALLColorado DOT 1982BARRETT, RUCKMANAND BELL
MASSIVE SURCHARGE LOADING
Long Term Durability ResearchThese fabrics will last hundreds of years
FHWA GRS/GCS® ResearchAdams, Wu, Barrett, Ruckman1996
DirectShearTest BoxInterfaceFrictionTestingForGeosyntheticsAnd aVariety ofBackfillsSandClayWood ChipsShredded TiresGlass
CDOT/UC/DFull ScaleGCS®RetainingWall TestFrameBarrett,Wu,Ruckman
FHWA GRS/GCS® BRIDGE PIEREXCEEDS 10 TONS PER SQUARE FOOTBEARING CAPACITY              NCHRP REPORT 556FHWATHFRCRESEARCHCEN...
JapaneseDemoForMinimumFabricWidth(2 feet)
TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION                      Wall Type External                                            InternalTieback   ...
Weak Reinforcement? How about bedsheets and cheesecloth?3372 lbs/ft2           Tult = 20 lbs/in   Photo courtesy of M. Adams
Spacing Controls Performance….Not Strength of the Inclusion  BASED ON  NCHRP REPORT 556
THEOPTIMUMDESIGN…1.2.3.1. CMU2. GRANULAR   BACKFILL3. FABRIC
GCS®                       MSE1.Composite Structure      1.Reinforced Soil Structure2.Internally stable        2.Quasi-tie...
Thrust on Facing Elements                 Assuming a “yielding” facing, the loading is negligible.             1/3 σh     ...
COMPACTION                      AT THE FACE                 IS ROUTINE WITH GCS®A LIFT OFGRAVELBEHIND THEFACING BLOCKSISUN...
55 FOOT HIGH GCS® WALLBUILT BY COUNTY FORCESAND SUMMER HELPBarrett and Ruckman Presented with1998 IFAI International Desig...
• HALF THE  COSTOF THE BRIDGESCHEDULEDFOR THISCROSSING AND• HALF THE  TIME
SAVINGS COMPARED TO PILING $600,000 AND HALF THE TIME
GEOSYNTHETICALLY CONFINED SOIL (GCS®)                NCDOT EMPLOYEES                CONSTRUCTING GCS® WALL                ...
VDOTEMPLOYEES BUILDING  A GRS®RETAINING   WALL
INDIANA DOT GCS®
CITYEMPLOYEES’FIRST GCS® PROJECT1. CMU’S2. BACKFILL3. FABRIC
Istanbul GCS® WallBarrett, Ruckman,Guler
2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
Note there is no                                     minimum width -- and                                     note the lig...
GCS® IN JAMAICA
2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
2007CANADA’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
NATIVE STONE CAN BE USED FOR FACINGMORTAR IS NOT REQUIRED
A 275,000 POUND LOCOMOTIVE ON A GCS® WALL
DRY STACKED GCS® ROCK WALL ON   SOIL NAILED FOUNDATION
BRIDGES ON GRS/GCS® ABUTMENTS      DEFIANCE COUNTY, OHIODESIGNED WITH CRITERIA PROVIDED IN    NCHRP REPORT 556
CDOT GCS® BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND PIER DEMONSTRATION
DEFIANCECOUNTYOHIOGRS/GCS®ABUTMENTS
BRIDGES ON GCS® COST LESS, LAST LONGER, CANBE CONSTUCTED IN A DAY, AND NO “BUMP”
2007CANADIANGCS®ABUTMENTSCALVIN VANBUSIRKTERRATECH
191 FOOT LONG SINGLE SPAN ON GCS®       BIG SKY, MONTANA
JAPANESE NEGATIVE BATTER DEMONSTRATION    60 DEGREES NEGATIVE AND NO FACING     GCS® IS INDEED AN EXCEPTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
NEGATIVEBATTERSAFEANDUSEFUL
GCS ROCKFALLPROTECTIONON I-70This WallProvides a30 Foot WideBench AboveLook at the nextPhoto…….
15 millionfoot pounds onto thisGCS Wall!!!
THE DAMAGE WAS EASILY REPAIRED
A GCS® wall or abutment can withstandthe most severe credible earthquake.     Dr. J.T.H. Wu and NCHRP 12-59
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
GCS Research and Case Histories
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GCS Research and Case Histories

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Geosynthetically Confined Soil (GCS) Research and Case Histories.

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GCS Research and Case Histories

  1. 1. 40+ YEARS AND 25,000,000FHWA, UNIVERSITY AND DOT RESEARCH
  2. 2. 2ndREINFORCEDEARTH tmWALLIN THE U. S.Barrettand Ruckman
  3. 3. FULL TIMEINSTRUMENTATION TEAM
  4. 4. 1st FULLHEIGHTPANELREINFORCEDEARTHWALLBarrettRuckman
  5. 5. First Major U. S. Gabion WallBarrett 1969
  6. 6. U. S. Forest ServiceFirst use of geosynthetics----to stabilize loggingroads
  7. 7. U. S. Forest Service John StewardFirst USA Fabric Wall
  8. 8. U. S. Forest ServiceFirst Use of Wood ChipsAs Backfill
  9. 9. Colorado DOTGCS® DemoBarrett and Ruckman1981
  10. 10. LARGESTGEOSYNTHETICALLYCONFINED SOIL (GCS®) DEMO WALLColorado DOT 1982BARRETT, RUCKMANAND BELL
  11. 11. MASSIVE SURCHARGE LOADING
  12. 12. Long Term Durability ResearchThese fabrics will last hundreds of years
  13. 13. FHWA GRS/GCS® ResearchAdams, Wu, Barrett, Ruckman1996
  14. 14. DirectShearTest BoxInterfaceFrictionTestingForGeosyntheticsAnd aVariety ofBackfillsSandClayWood ChipsShredded TiresGlass
  15. 15. CDOT/UC/DFull ScaleGCS®RetainingWall TestFrameBarrett,Wu,Ruckman
  16. 16. FHWA GRS/GCS® BRIDGE PIEREXCEEDS 10 TONS PER SQUARE FOOTBEARING CAPACITY NCHRP REPORT 556FHWATHFRCRESEARCHCENTER
  17. 17. JapaneseDemoForMinimumFabricWidth(2 feet)
  18. 18. TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION Wall Type External InternalTieback Soil Nails MSE GCS® metallic geosynthetic Strips Wire Grids 0.8m 0.6m 0.4m 0.2m Increased Reinforcement Frequency
  19. 19. Weak Reinforcement? How about bedsheets and cheesecloth?3372 lbs/ft2 Tult = 20 lbs/in Photo courtesy of M. Adams
  20. 20. Spacing Controls Performance….Not Strength of the Inclusion BASED ON NCHRP REPORT 556
  21. 21. THEOPTIMUMDESIGN…1.2.3.1. CMU2. GRANULAR BACKFILL3. FABRIC
  22. 22. GCS® MSE1.Composite Structure 1.Reinforced Soil Structure2.Internally stable 2.Quasi-tieback3.Friction Connections 3.Pin Connections4.Lightweight Inclusions 4.Strong reinforcement5.Close spacing 5.Wide Spacing6.High Safety Factor 6. 2-10% Failure Rate
  23. 23. Thrust on Facing Elements Assuming a “yielding” facing, the loading is negligible. 1/3 σh ReinforcementS 7/10 S Granular Backfill 3/10 S (φ = 34°) 2/3 σh (γ = 125 lbs/ft2) σh = γ S Ka = γ S tan2 (45°- 34°/2) = 125 S (0.283) = 35.4 S (lbs/ft2) F = 2/3 σh (7/10 S) + 5/6 σh (3/10 S) = 43/60 σh S = 25.4 S2 lbs/ft Wu, McMullen, and Ruckman
  24. 24. COMPACTION AT THE FACE IS ROUTINE WITH GCS®A LIFT OFGRAVELBEHIND THEFACING BLOCKSISUNWARRANTEDCONCRETEFOOTERSARECOUNTER-PRODUCTIVE Turkey, 1995 Barrett, Ruckman, Guler
  25. 25. 55 FOOT HIGH GCS® WALLBUILT BY COUNTY FORCESAND SUMMER HELPBarrett and Ruckman Presented with1998 IFAI International Design Award Mike Adams FHWA
  26. 26. • HALF THE COSTOF THE BRIDGESCHEDULEDFOR THISCROSSING AND• HALF THE TIME
  27. 27. SAVINGS COMPARED TO PILING $600,000 AND HALF THE TIME
  28. 28. GEOSYNTHETICALLY CONFINED SOIL (GCS®) NCDOT EMPLOYEES CONSTRUCTING GCS® WALL 1. 2. 3.
  29. 29. VDOTEMPLOYEES BUILDING A GRS®RETAINING WALL
  30. 30. INDIANA DOT GCS®
  31. 31. CITYEMPLOYEES’FIRST GCS® PROJECT1. CMU’S2. BACKFILL3. FABRIC
  32. 32. Istanbul GCS® WallBarrett, Ruckman,Guler
  33. 33. 2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  34. 34. Note there is no minimum width -- and note the light weight2008 Inclusions for the GCS®NEWZEALANDGCS®VARIATIONWITHSHOTRODS™(LAUNCHEDNAILS™) http://www.hiwaystab.co.nz/
  35. 35. GCS® IN JAMAICA
  36. 36. 2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  37. 37. 2007CANADA’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  38. 38. NATIVE STONE CAN BE USED FOR FACINGMORTAR IS NOT REQUIRED
  39. 39. A 275,000 POUND LOCOMOTIVE ON A GCS® WALL
  40. 40. DRY STACKED GCS® ROCK WALL ON SOIL NAILED FOUNDATION
  41. 41. BRIDGES ON GRS/GCS® ABUTMENTS DEFIANCE COUNTY, OHIODESIGNED WITH CRITERIA PROVIDED IN NCHRP REPORT 556
  42. 42. CDOT GCS® BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND PIER DEMONSTRATION
  43. 43. DEFIANCECOUNTYOHIOGRS/GCS®ABUTMENTS
  44. 44. BRIDGES ON GCS® COST LESS, LAST LONGER, CANBE CONSTUCTED IN A DAY, AND NO “BUMP”
  45. 45. 2007CANADIANGCS®ABUTMENTSCALVIN VANBUSIRKTERRATECH
  46. 46. 191 FOOT LONG SINGLE SPAN ON GCS® BIG SKY, MONTANA
  47. 47. JAPANESE NEGATIVE BATTER DEMONSTRATION 60 DEGREES NEGATIVE AND NO FACING GCS® IS INDEED AN EXCEPTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
  48. 48. NEGATIVEBATTERSAFEANDUSEFUL
  49. 49. GCS ROCKFALLPROTECTIONON I-70This WallProvides a30 Foot WideBench AboveLook at the nextPhoto…….
  50. 50. 15 millionfoot pounds onto thisGCS Wall!!!
  51. 51. THE DAMAGE WAS EASILY REPAIRED
  52. 52. A GCS® wall or abutment can withstandthe most severe credible earthquake. Dr. J.T.H. Wu and NCHRP 12-59

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