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A rights-based approach to delivering on the MDGs



               Governance Workshop

                      Cairo

    ...
Purpose of Presentation
           1                                   2

        Synergy
  between Human Rights
  and emp...
Progress on MDGs…

    Like a Tango Dance
Deprivations and Disparities in MDGs



“Most countries are off track to meet most MDGs”
                       World Bank...
Good Governance:
              A crucial element for attaining the MDGs

End Poverty &        Primary
hunger              ...
The role of human rights in governance
          assessments of MDGs


                         Moral language of our time...
Basic challenge to make governments
accountable for insufficient progress in MDGs
  Deprivations and disparities in progre...
Focus of human rights approach: avoidable
                deprivations

  Calls attention to the fact that widespread depr...
3-step Methodological framework



                     #1 Identifying
                     deprivations and
             ...
Step #1 - Identifying deprivations and
          disparities in MDGs
                      Pattern of Massive Deprivation
...
Step #1 - Identifying deprivations and
   disparities in MDGs (continued)
                      A pattern of Marginalizati...
Step #2 -
Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants


                            A. Sector related...
Step #2 -
Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants
(continued)

                            B. Non...
Step #2 -
Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants
(illustration)
                                ...
Step #3 – Structural
                causes behind inadequacy of
government efforts

                                     ...
Addressing unequal power relations

“The overly technocratic nature of the MDGs and closely associated
institutions has be...
Some illustrations
Determinants of MDGs-related                                                 Structural causes behind
                    ...
Determinants of MDGs-related                                                                                              ...
Structural causes behind
Determinants of MDGs-related     Inadequacy of policy efforts
                                   ...
A rights-based approach to delivering on the MDGs
                     Governance Workshop

                            Ca...
The Right to Education in
Guatemala
Determinants of MDGs-related                                                                                              ...
Determinants of MDGs-related                                      Structural causes behind
                               ...
Determinants of MDGs-related                                                                                              ...
Inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants –
                                       Comparing needs with resourc...
Inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants –
         Assessing whether marginalized children are being taught b...
Analysing resource allocation for core
obligations: UNDP social priority spending ratios

     Public expenditure       So...
Social priority spending
                 Public expenditure ratio                                            Social alloc...
Basic education expenditure ratio
Basic health expenditure ratio
Why human rights can help hold gov’t
          accountable?
Why human rights can help hold gov’t
          accountable?
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A Rights-Based Approach to Delivering on the MDGs

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In this power point presentation, Eitan Felner, consultant for the UNDP, at the Cairo Workshop on Assessing Governance in Sectors, looks at synergies between Human Rights and empirically-based socio-eocnomic analysis.

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A Rights-Based Approach to Delivering on the MDGs

  1. 1. A rights-based approach to delivering on the MDGs Governance Workshop Cairo June 2009 Eitan Felner Independent Consultant
  2. 2. Purpose of Presentation 1 2 Synergy between Human Rights and empirically-based Socioeconomic Analysis High deprivation and inequality In HD outcomes Assessing governance-related issues on MDGs Gov’t public policies Root causes Lack of political will
  3. 3. Progress on MDGs… Like a Tango Dance
  4. 4. Deprivations and Disparities in MDGs “Most countries are off track to meet most MDGs” World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2008 “Many countries with good average performance on the Goals contain population groups — and sometimes entire areas — being left behind. UNDP, Human Development Report 2003
  5. 5. Good Governance: A crucial element for attaining the MDGs End Poverty & Primary hunger Education Gender Child Equality Health GOVERNANCE MDGs Maternal Combat health HIV/AIDS Environmental Global Sustainability Partnership
  6. 6. The role of human rights in governance assessments of MDGs Moral language of our times Normative Foundations Universal legal obligations Source of Political legitimacy
  7. 7. Basic challenge to make governments accountable for insufficient progress in MDGs Deprivations and disparities in progress in MDGs are result of multiple reasons, only some of which can be attributed to government actions or inactions “Health” […] is influenced by a range of factors – including health-related behaviour, prenatal factors, early childhood, social status, support, living conditions, education, health services, nutrition, and stress.” WHO and UNFPA, National-level monitoring of the Achievement of universal access to reproductive health, 2008
  8. 8. Focus of human rights approach: avoidable deprivations Calls attention to the fact that widespread deprivations and disparities are all too often not inevitable Rather: frequently generated, perpetuated or exacerbated by lack of political will of governments What is needed… Simple tools to assess to what extent deprivations, disparities and lack of progress in MDGs can be traced back to failures of government policy
  9. 9. 3-step Methodological framework #1 Identifying deprivations and disparities #2 Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address obstacles to MDGs #3 (OPTIONAL) Structural causes behind inadequacy of policy efforts
  10. 10. Step #1 - Identifying deprivations and disparities in MDGs Pattern of Massive Deprivation 100 80 Niger (1998) 60 Chad (2004) 40 Bangladesh (2004) 20 0 Quintille 1 Quintille 2 Quintille 3 Quintille 4 Quintille 5 (lowest) (highest) WHO 2008, based on data from Gwatkin et al, 2007
  11. 11. Step #1 - Identifying deprivations and disparities in MDGs (continued) A pattern of Marginalization 100 Nigaragua (2001) 80 Colombia (2005) 60 Turkey (1998) 40 20 0 Quintille 1 Quintille 2 Quintille 3 Quintille 4 Quintille 5 (lowest) (highest) WHO 2008, based on data from Gwatkin et al, 2007
  12. 12. Step #2 - Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants A. Sector related policies Supply Factors Demand Factors Inadequate Provision of Inadequate services Programs to tackle obstacles in use of services Insufficient Poor Unaffordability Culturally Insufficient Unfair Underfunded availability Quality of services Inappropriate Coverage Distribution Programs Resource allocation
  13. 13. Step #2 - Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants (continued) B. Non-sector related policies Policies addressing Inadequate underlying Programs to tackle determinants obstacles in use of services Supply Factors Factors Unequal Underfunding Poverty Fiscal Land Physical of nutritional Reduction Policies Reform accessibility Programs Strategies
  14. 14. Step #2 - Identifying inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants (illustration) Supply High incidence of girls out of primary school Demand Factors outside sector Parents refusal to send girls to school Gov’t forbids School too Poor quality Cultural Parents Teachers girls to attend far away of teaching belief and can’t afford are often school practices school fees absent Government’s responsibility
  15. 15. Step #3 – Structural causes behind inadequacy of government efforts Corruption Insufficient resources for MDGs (in education, health, nutrition, etc) Elite Capture Ethnic Discrimination Inequity between regions in allocation of resources for MDG programs Political Clientelism Discriminatory beliefs and traditional Women’s lack of access to basic practices condones or social services promoted by government
  16. 16. Addressing unequal power relations “The overly technocratic nature of the MDGs and closely associated institutions has been questioned. The MDG project places great emphasis on the mobilization of financial resources and technical solutions, but less on transforming power relations that are partly responsible for current levels of poverty in developing, and developed, countries.” UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Claiming the MDGs: A Human Rights Approach “Inequity in education is linked to wider disparities in the distribution of power, wealth and opportunity. And it is perpetuated by policies that either tolerate or actively exacerbate an unfair distribution of life chances – policies that fuel the transmission of poverty across generations.” UNESCO, Education For All Report 2009
  17. 17. Some illustrations
  18. 18. Determinants of MDGs-related Structural causes behind Inadequacy of policy efforts deprivations and inequalities inadequacy of to address determinants government efforts Poverty’s grip keeps children out of school Primary school net attendance ratio in Reasons for dropping out of primary Developing countries, richest and poorest school, selected African countries, Quintile, 2000/2006 (percentage) various years (percentage) 100 Richest 20% Country Could not pay 90 School 80 Poorest Cameroon 45.4 70 20% 60 Kenya 47.6 50 40 Nigeria 33.9 30 20 Uganda 75.3 10 Zambia 43.7 0 1 Zimbabwe 73 UN – The Millenium Development Goals Report 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys
  19. 19. Determinants of MDGs-related Structural causes behind Inadequacy of policy efforts deprivations and inequalities inadequacy of to address determinants government efforts Public expenditure on education – skewed against the poor Gap in public spending on education between richest and poorest quintile selected developing countries, various years (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Armenia Cote d'Ivoire Ecuador Ghana Guinea Kazakhistan Madagascar Malaw i Morocco Nepal Nicaragua Pakistan Peru Tanzania Vietnam Poorest Quintile Richest Quintile World Bank, World Development Report 2000/2001
  20. 20. Structural causes behind Determinants of MDGs-related Inadequacy of policy efforts inadequacy of deprivations and inequalities to address determinants government efforts Why is so little spend on educating the Poor? Elite capture “The underlying cause of unequal public spending is the patron-client relationship—between the affluent elite and the government—that prevails in many countries. Economic power and the wealth associated with it enable the affluent to buy favourable policies from politicians. In contrast, the poor lack the resources with which to lobby and they are less organized...They are, therefore, in many cases unable to influence the government in their favour.” Tony Addison et al, ‘Why is so Little Spent on Educating the Poor?” 2001 “The ruling elites found it convenient to perpetuate low literacy rates. The lower the proportion of literate people, the lower the probability that the ruling elite could be replaced” Ishrat Husain, Pakistan: The Economy of an Elitist State
  21. 21. A rights-based approach to delivering on the MDGs Governance Workshop Cairo June 2009 End of Presentation Eitan Felner Independent Consultant
  22. 22. The Right to Education in Guatemala
  23. 23. Determinants of MDGs-related Structural causes behind Inadequacy of policy efforts deprivations and inequalities inadequacy of to address determinants government efforts Education for All Development Index (EDI) and GDP pc, LAC 2005 1 0.98 Argentina Chile 0.96 Uruguay Mexico Education for All Development Index 0.94 Peru Panama Venezuela 0.92 Bolivia Ecuador Colombia 0.9 Paraguay Brazil Dominican Rep. Jamaica 0.88 0.86 El Salvador Honduras 0.84 0.82 Guatemala Nicaragua 0.8 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $) Source: WDI 2008 and UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008
  24. 24. Determinants of MDGs-related Structural causes behind Inadequacy of policy efforts deprivations and inequalities inadequacy of to address determinants government efforts Secondary Net Primary Enrollment Rate Completion Adult Literacy 2005 Rate 2005 Rates* 100% LAC 98% 90 LAC 90% 80 70 Guatemala 74% LAC 69% Guatemala 69% 60 SS Africa 61% SS Africa 59% 50 40 30 Guatemala 35.4% Method SS Africa 25.3% Comparing one 20 country with 10 different regions helps flag 0% underperformance Source: UNESCO Source: W DI Source: W DI *LAC and SS Africa: 2005. Guatemala: 2002
  25. 25. Determinants of MDGs-related Structural causes behind Inadequacy of policy efforts deprivations and inequalities inadequacy of to address determinants government efforts Exposing Chronic Underfunding and Insufficient Coverage of Aid Programs for Poor Children Food Programme Money Spent Annually per Student and % of Underweight Children, LAC 50 Guatemala 45 % o f p re-p rim ary an d p rim ary stu d en ts u n d erw eig h t 40 35 30 Honduras Method Bolivia Ecuador Cross- 25 Peru country 20 Nicaragua comparison Panama Mexico of resource 15 Colombia Venezuela allocation for Argentina 10 Brazil specific aid 5 Costa Rica Uruguay programs Chile 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Food programme US$ spent annually per student Source: Barros 2005
  26. 26. Inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants – Comparing needs with resource allocation Becas and Deserters per Municipality 3500 3000 2500 2000 Number of Deserters after 1st Grade per Municipality, Girls 2006 1500 Number of Becas per Municipality 1000 500 Method Distributional analysis 0 of aid program to identify mismatch ez o es j ia co ba ng nc qu at ul ya na le Am m pe Jo Pa te ju between needs and te Ta as s ca Lo ic Sa ch hi resource distribution an C Ju as n m Sa To Source: Mineduc statistics 2005 and 2006. n Sa "Initial Enrollment, girls, rural, all sectors, per grade"
  27. 27. Inadequacy of policy efforts to address determinants – Assessing whether marginalized children are being taught by the least qualified teachers Teachers’ Reading Concentration of Poverty Incidence Test Scores Indigenous People Dept. Poverty Dept. Score Dept. % Pop. Indigenous Quiché 81 Sacatepéquez 72.6 Totonicapán 98% Alta Verapaz 78.8 Guatemala 66.5 Sololá 96% Sololá 74.6 Chimaltenango 66 Alta Verapaz 93% Totonicapán 71.9 El Progreso 61.4 Quiché 89% Huehuetenango 71.3 Retalhuleu 60.5 Chimaltenango 79% Baja Verapaz 70.4 Petén 60.5 Huehuetenango 65% San Marcos 65.5 San Marcos 60.2 Baja Verapaz 59% Jalapa 61.2 Zacapa 59.9 Quetzaltenango 54% Chimaltenango 60.5 Jalapa 59.8 Suchitepéquez 52% Chiquimula 59.5 Chiquimula 59.3 Sacatepéquez 42% Santa Rosa 57.9 Escuintla 58.8 San Marcos 31% Petén 57 Suchitepéquez 57.4 Petén 31% Suchitepéquez 54.7 Quetzaltenango 56.8 Retalhuleu 23% Zacapa 53.9 Baja Verapaz 56.2 Jalapa 19% Retalhuleu 50.4 Jutiapa 55.6 Chiquimula 17% Jutiapa 47.3 Totonicapán 54.2 Guatemala 14% Method Quetzaltenango 44 Huehuetenango 53.5 Escuintla 7% Comparing El Progreso 41.8 Santa Rosa 52.5 Jutiapa 3% Escuintla 41.4 Sololá 51.4 Santa Rosa 3% multiple Sacatepéquez 36.5 Quiché 51.2 El Progreso 1% data sets Guatemala 16.3 Alta Verapaz 50.9 Zacapa 1% Sources: ENCOVI 2006, Rubio and Salanic (2005) and UNDP Guatemala 2005
  28. 28. Analysing resource allocation for core obligations: UNDP social priority spending ratios Public expenditure Social Allocation Social Priority Human ratio ratio ratio expenditure ratio Government share of GDP Social services share of Basic social services Basic social services Government spending share of social spending share of GDP Human expenditure ratio: The product of the previous three ratios: (PE/GDP)x(SS/PE)x(BSS/SS) The macroeconomic priority assigned to basic social services. Source: UNDP 1991
  29. 29. Social priority spending Public expenditure ratio Social allocation ratio Social priority ratio Zambia Lebanon Moroccoo Guatemala 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Human expenditure ratio Zambia Lebanon Moroccoo Source: Harrington Guatemala et al., ‘Financing basic social services’ 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0%
  30. 30. Basic education expenditure ratio
  31. 31. Basic health expenditure ratio
  32. 32. Why human rights can help hold gov’t accountable?
  33. 33. Why human rights can help hold gov’t accountable?

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