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Basic electrical comp upload1

  2. 2. Agenda
  3. 3. FUSE A safety device that protects an electric circuit from becoming overloaded.
  4. 4. FUSE <ul><li>Fuse - is a type of over current protection device. </li></ul><ul><li>Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. </li></ul><ul><li>Short circuit, overload or device failure is often the reason for excessive current </li></ul><ul><li>A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. </li></ul>
  5. 5. MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB) An automatic switch that stops the flow of electric current in a suddenly overloaded or otherwise abnormally stressed electric circuit
  6. 6. <ul><li>when excessive current develops, a circuit breaker opens to protect equipment . </li></ul><ul><li>These abnormal currents are usually the result of short circuits created by lightning, accidents, deterioration of equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>A protective device that opens a circuit upon sensing a current overload. Unlike a fuse, it can be reset. </li></ul>MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB)
  7. 7. MCB WORKING <ul><li>Able to protect the wiring and the loads of electrical circuits . </li></ul><ul><li>MCB’s are a Thermal-Magnetic type circuit breaker . </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal part loads (motors, heaters, power supplies, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>will be protected from short circuits by its magnetic parts. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MCB APPLN <ul><li>These are manufactured for fault level of up to 10KA. </li></ul><ul><li>Only with operating current range of 0.5 to 63 Amps . </li></ul><ul><li>Available types are single, double and three pole version. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used for control voltage protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling unit. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Type B devices are generally suitable for domestic applications. They may also be used in light commercial applications where switching surges are low or non-existent. Type C devices are the normal choice for commercial and industrial applications where fluorescent lighting, motors etc. are in use. Type D devices have more limited applications, normally in industrial use where high inrush currents may be expected. Examples include large battery charging systems, winding motors, transformers, X-ray machines and some types of discharge lighting. Type B devices are designed to trip at fault currents of 3-5 times rated current (In). For example a 10A device will trip at 30-50A. Type C devices are designed to trip at 5-10 times In (50-100A for a 10A device). Type D devices are designed to trip at 10-20 times In (100-200A for a 10A device). MCB TRIPPING
  10. 10. Curve Graph
  11. 11. MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCCB) An automatic switch that stops the flow of electric current in a suddenly overloaded or otherwise abnormally stressed electric circuit for high SC production .
  12. 12. MCCB (Mould case circuit breakers) <ul><li>MCCB’s are Moulded case Circuit breakers, with protection facilities of over current, earth fault. </li></ul><ul><li>They are manufactured for fault levels of 16KA to 50KA and operating current range of 25A to 630Amps . </li></ul><ul><li>They are used for application related with larger power flow requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>In machines it is used for main supply connection. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MOTOR PROTECTION CIRCUIT BREAKER (MPCB) An automatic switch that stops the flow of electric current in a suddenly overloaded or Short circuit protection.
  14. 14. MPCB (MOTOR PROTECTION CIRCUIT BREAKER) <ul><li>Motor Protection Circuit Breakers may provide the following protective and control functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect for Motor Branch Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Branch-Circuit, Short-Circuit Protection (Magnetic Protection) </li></ul><ul><li>Overload Protection (Thermal Protection) </li></ul><ul><li>High Current Limiting </li></ul><ul><li>High Switching Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Current Range 0.1…630 A </li></ul>
  15. 15. Slide A relay is an electrically operated switch. Relay <ul><li>TYPES OF RELAY: </li></ul><ul><li>Latching relay. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid state relay. </li></ul><ul><li>Over load protection relay. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Slide <ul><li>Electrical device such that current flowing through it in one circuit can switch on and off a current in a second circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. </li></ul><ul><li>A relay is used to isolate one electrical circuit from another. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows a low current control circuit to make or break an electrically isolated high current circuit path. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive </li></ul>Relay Operation
  17. 17. CONTACTOR A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings .
  18. 18. CONTACTOR <ul><li>A contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike a circuit breaker, a contactor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. </li></ul><ul><li>A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. </li></ul><ul><li>Contactors typically have multiple contacts, and those contacts are usually normally-open, so that power to the load is shut off when the coil is de-energized. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common industrial use for contactors is the control of electric motors. </li></ul>
  19. 19. PUSH BUTTONS Actuating any function in the machine can be done by Push Buttons.
  20. 20. <ul><li>It is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process . </li></ul><ul><li>Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal </li></ul><ul><li>Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the operator will not push the wrong button in error . </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used colors are RED for stopping the machine or process and GREEN for starting the machine or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Secured operations can be done by Key Switch. </li></ul>PUSH BUTTON
  21. 21. EMO Switch Emergency Machine Off.
  22. 22. EMO Switch
  23. 23. CONNECTORS & CRIMPS Connector is an Electro-Mechanical device for joining Electrical Circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly.
  24. 24. <ul><li>A D-sub contains two or more parallel rows of pins or sockets usually surrounded by a D-shaped metal shield that provides mechanical support . </li></ul><ul><li>The part containing pin contacts is called the male connector or plug , while that containing socket contacts is called the female connector or socket . </li></ul>D-Sub CONNECTORS
  25. 25. <ul><li>Communications Ports ( RS-232 serial communications ) </li></ul><ul><li>Network Ports. ( Ethernet , network interface cards , ) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Video Port. (VGA Adapters) </li></ul><ul><li>Game Controller Port. </li></ul>D-Sub CONNECTORS Appln Click
  26. 26. <ul><li>Circular Plastic Connectors (CPC). </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight, all-plastic connectors and metal-shell versions available. </li></ul><ul><li>CPC connectors are UL 94V-0 rated stabilized, heat resistant, self-extinguishing thermoplastic material . </li></ul><ul><li>Operating temperature range: -55° C - 105° C </li></ul><ul><li>Unique contact pattern for each position size helps prevent accidental mating with other position sizes </li></ul>CPC CONNECTORS
  27. 27. CABLES A device for connecting electrical devices together.
  28. 28. CABLES <ul><li>Cable Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the metals commonly used for conductors, copper has a high conductivity. Silver is more conductive, but due to cost it is not practical in most cases. Aluminum has been used as a conductor in housing applications for cost reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Wires are either solid or stranded Conductors. &quot;Solid Conductors&quot; are exactly that, one solid Wire. &quot;Stranded Conductors&quot; consist of a Wire made of a number of smaller Wire strands wrapped around each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice between solid or stranded depends on the need for flexibility in handling and working with the Wire. Smaller electrical Wire Sizes are generally made of solid Conductors; while Wires larger than Number 6 AWG are generally stranded. </li></ul>
  29. 29. CABLES <ul><li>Insulation separates conductors electrically and physically within a cable. </li></ul><ul><li>The jacket physically protects the internal components of a cable, improves the cable’s appearance and provides flame redundancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drain Wire Metallic conductor frequently used in contact with foil-type signal-cable shielding to provide a low-resistance ground return at any point along the shield. </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  30. 30. AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE(AWG) <ul><li>American wire gauge (AWG) is a standardized wire gauge system used predominantly in the United States and Canada for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is an important factor for determining its current-carrying capacity </li></ul>
  31. 31. AWG TABLE
  32. 32. SHRINK TUBING Shrink tubing - is a sleeve ordinarily made of nylon or polyolefin, which shrinks in diameter when heated.
  33. 33. Slide <ul><li>Its diameter and thickness can vary. Heat shrink tubing is rated by its expansion ratio, a comparative of the differences in expansion and recovery rate . </li></ul><ul><li>Heat shrink is used to insulate wires offering abrasion resistance and environmental protection for stranded and solid wire conductors, connections, joints and terminals in electrical engineering . </li></ul><ul><li>To protect wires or small parts from minor abrasion, and to create cable entry seals . </li></ul><ul><li>Common shrink ratio is 2:1, while high-grade polyolefin heat shrink is available in 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Heat shrink tubing is available in a variety of colors to allow easier color coding of wires and connections </li></ul>Heat Shrink Tubing
  34. 34. Heat Shrink Tubing
  35. 35. SHIELDING Shielding - Contains electrical energy so that the signal on the cable does not radiate and interfere with signals in other nearby cables and circuitry.
  36. 36. <ul><li>It is the process of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive and/or magnetic materials . </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding is typically applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) to enclosures to isolate electrical devices from the 'outside world' and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) to cables to isolate wires from the environment through which the cable runs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cable shielding and its termination must provide a low-impedance path to ground. . </li></ul><ul><li>A shielded cable that is not grounded does not work effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the equipment that the cable is connected is properly grounded. </li></ul>SHIELDING
  37. 37. SHIELDING <ul><li>• Protects the signal from external interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding materials- </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic foil </li></ul><ul><li>Braid </li></ul><ul><li>French braid™ </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral (serve) </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-conductive </li></ul>
  38. 38. GROUNDING Ground or Earth may be the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured
  39. 39. <ul><li>In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent contact with a dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails . </li></ul><ul><li>An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability in order to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level . </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Ground is a reference point from which that </li></ul><ul><li>signal is measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Chassis ground is the box or frame in which </li></ul><ul><li>a circuit is built. </li></ul>GROUNDING
  40. 40. TERMINALS A device for joining electrical circuits together
  41. 41. <ul><li>A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits . </li></ul><ul><li>A screw terminal is a type of electrical connector where a wire is clamped down to metal by a screw . </li></ul>TERMINALS
  42. 42. BusBar/ShortBar A device used for Making Multi- Connection
  43. 43. <ul><li>In electrical power distribution, a busbar is a thick strip of copper or aluminum that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation or other electrical apparatus . </li></ul><ul><li>Busbars are used to carry very large currents, or to distribute current to multiple devices within switchgear or equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Busbars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to cross-sectional area ratio. </li></ul>BusBar
  44. 44. PD overview