Casting since about 4000 BC…
2
Ancient Greece; bronze
statue casting circa 450 BC
Iron works in early Europe,
e.g. cast ir...
Two Categories of Casting
Processes
1. Expendable mold processes - mold is sacrificed to
remove part
2. Permanent mold pro...
Casting Methods
• Sand Casting
High Temperature Alloy,
Complex Geometry,
Rough Surface Finish
• Investment Casting
High Te...
Sand Casting
 Uses sand to hold the desired shape to be cast
 Bonded with chemicals or clay with water or oil
 Many dif...
Sand Casting
Sand Casting
Steps
cope: top half
drag: bottom half
core: for internal
cavities
pattern: positive
funnel  sprue 
 runne...
Investment Casting
 A refractory material (investment) is poured around
or built up on a pattern
 The investment is hard...
Investment Casting
(a) Wax pattern
(injection molding)
(b) Multiple patterns
assembled to wax
sprue
(c) Shell built 
immerse into ceramic
sl...
Die Casting
 Huge numbers of small, light castings can be
produced with great accuracy.
 Little surface finishing is req...
Die Casting
Die
Casting
Steps
•Reference:
 Metal Casting book
 http://en.wikipedia.org
Casting 2012
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Casting 2012

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Casting 2012

  1. 1. Casting since about 4000 BC… 2 Ancient Greece; bronze statue casting circa 450 BC Iron works in early Europe, e.g. cast iron cannons from England circa 1543
  2. 2. Two Categories of Casting Processes 1. Expendable mold processes - mold is sacrificed to remove part 2. Permanent mold processes - mold is made of metal and can be used to make many castings
  3. 3. Casting Methods • Sand Casting High Temperature Alloy, Complex Geometry, Rough Surface Finish • Investment Casting High Temperature Alloy, Complex Geometry, Moderately Smooth Surface Finish • Die Casting High Temperature Alloy, Moderate Geometry, Smooth Surface
  4. 4. Sand Casting  Uses sand to hold the desired shape to be cast  Bonded with chemicals or clay with water or oil  Many different types of sand casting
  5. 5. Sand Casting
  6. 6. Sand Casting Steps cope: top half drag: bottom half core: for internal cavities pattern: positive funnel  sprue   runners  gate   cavity   {risers, vents}
  7. 7. Investment Casting  A refractory material (investment) is poured around or built up on a pattern  The investment is hardened by drying or heating  The pattern is removed by melting or burning  Metal is poured into the resulting cavity
  8. 8. Investment Casting
  9. 9. (a) Wax pattern (injection molding) (b) Multiple patterns assembled to wax sprue (c) Shell built  immerse into ceramic slurry  immerse into fine sand (few layers) (d) dry ceramic melt out the wax fire ceramic (burn wax) (e) Pour molten metal (gravity)  cool, solidify [Hollow casting: pouring excess metal before solidification (f) Break ceramic shell (vibration or water blasting) (g) Cut off parts (high-speed friction saw)  finishing (polish) Investment Casting Steps
  10. 10. Die Casting  Huge numbers of small, light castings can be produced with great accuracy.  Little surface finishing is required.  Permanent mold (dies can be used over and over)
  11. 11. Die Casting
  12. 12. Die Casting Steps
  13. 13. •Reference:  Metal Casting book  http://en.wikipedia.org

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