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Stable
Identifiers
and then

Quickly Beyond
(towards
Linked Open Data)

Gregor
Hagedorn
© U.Kils, CC BY-SA 3.0; from Wikim...
Work supported by

All slides published under Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 (unless marked otherwise)
Identifiers
Classical Identifiers
Specimen
Collection

Botanical
Nomenclatural
Classical Identifiers
Specimen
Collection

Botanical
Nomenclatural
Literatur

Taxon =
Abies alba Mill.

Taxon =
Abies alba...
Newer Identifiers
Specimen
Collection
Database

Botanical
Nomenclatural
Database

Taxon =
6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a...
Newer Identifiers
Specimen
Collection
Database

Botanical
Nomenclatural
Database

Taxon = urn:uuid:
6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-9669...
If
this
found:

Not actionable ___________
Specimen
Collection
Database

Botanical
Nomenclatural
Database

Taxon = urn:uui...
If
this
found:

Not actionable ___________
And
Specimen
Collection
Database

Taxon = urn:uuid:
6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-966908002...
If
this
found:

Not actionable ___________
And
Specimen
Collection
Database

Taxon = urn:uuid:
6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-966908002...
This is already
useful!
But „linking“
(dereferencing)
would also be
useful
Solution 1:
LSIDs
= building a proprietary
Biodiversity-derefencing
service
Solution 2:
Semantic Web /
Linked Open Data
If
this
found:

Semantic Web
Specimen
Collection
Database

Taxon = http://
id.pesi.org/tax/6
e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c...
Semantic Web
Specimen
Collection
Database
Taxon = http://
id.pesi.org/tax/6
e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66

Botanical
N...
Semantic Web
uses
http URIs
The Simple Rules
1. Use URIs as names for things
2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look
up those names.
3. When someone ...
Stable URI Identifier Patterns?
1. Anything goes!!!
2. It is just more or less difficult to keep stable
3. Google for: “Be...
Respect your
resources.
Be selective.
Stability is a
management
decision!
Beyond:
Linked Open Data
Linked Open Data Cloud (LOD 2011)
Linked Open Data Cloud (LOD 2011)
Why Linked Open Data?
– Distributed Web Model
• using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl)
• Machine usable data (automatic analy...
Why Linked Open Data?
– Distributed Web Model
• using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl)
• Machine usable data (automatic analy...
Why Linked Open Data?
– Distributed Web Model
• using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl)
• Machine usable data (automatic analy...
Why Linked Open Data?
– Distributed Web Model
• using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl)
• Machine usable data (automatic analy...
Strategy:
1. Stable Identifiers Now
(Semantic Web compatible,
http-dereferenceable)

2. Semantic Web Later ...
LSID, ARK, DOI,
etc.?
DOI as an
example
DOI Resolution Provider
DOI
Resolver

Content
Data
RDF
(Meta)data

ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
...
DOI Resolution Provider
DOI
Resolver

Content
Data
RDF
(Meta)data

ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
...
Community-owned DOI infrastructure:
1. Loads on central redirect (handling all global
taxon-related knowledge discovery!)
...
DOI Provider
DOI
Resolver

ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss
ssssssssss

Content Provider
Web server
redirection...
Take home message:

Implementing stable
SemWeb/LOD-compliant
URI identifiers NOW is not
a waste of resources should
we all...
Hagedorn 2013: Beyond Darwin Core - Stable Identifiers and then quickly beyond towards linked open data (TDWG 2013, Floren...
Hagedorn 2013: Beyond Darwin Core - Stable Identifiers and then quickly beyond towards linked open data (TDWG 2013, Floren...
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Hagedorn 2013: Beyond Darwin Core - Stable Identifiers and then quickly beyond towards linked open data (TDWG 2013, Florence, Italy)

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A brief discussion where to use Linked Open Data http-identifiers and where DOIs are more appropriate. And beyond: what do we really want? Where can we get more, if we use resolvable identifiers? What distinguishes a web from a database?

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Hagedorn 2013: Beyond Darwin Core - Stable Identifiers and then quickly beyond towards linked open data (TDWG 2013, Florence, Italy)

  1. 1. Stable Identifiers and then Quickly Beyond (towards Linked Open Data) Gregor Hagedorn © U.Kils, CC BY-SA 3.0; from Wikimedia Commons
  2. 2. Work supported by All slides published under Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 (unless marked otherwise)
  3. 3. Identifiers
  4. 4. Classical Identifiers Specimen Collection Botanical Nomenclatural
  5. 5. Classical Identifiers Specimen Collection Botanical Nomenclatural Literatur Taxon = Abies alba Mill. Taxon = Abies alba Mill.
  6. 6. Newer Identifiers Specimen Collection Database Botanical Nomenclatural Database Taxon = 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 Taxon = 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  7. 7. Newer Identifiers Specimen Collection Database Botanical Nomenclatural Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  8. 8. If this found: Not actionable ___________ Specimen Collection Database Botanical Nomenclatural Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  9. 9. If this found: Not actionable ___________ And Specimen Collection Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 this found: Botanical Nomenclatural Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  10. 10. If this found: Not actionable ___________ And Specimen Collection Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 this found: Then relation detected: Botanical Nomenclatural Database Taxon = urn:uuid: 6e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  11. 11. This is already useful!
  12. 12. But „linking“ (dereferencing) would also be useful
  13. 13. Solution 1: LSIDs = building a proprietary Biodiversity-derefencing service
  14. 14. Solution 2: Semantic Web / Linked Open Data
  15. 15. If this found: Semantic Web Specimen Collection Database Taxon = http:// id.pesi.org/tax/6 e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 Then relation derefenced Botanical Nomenclatural Database @ http:// id.pesi.org/tax/6 e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66
  16. 16. Semantic Web Specimen Collection Database Taxon = http:// id.pesi.org/tax/6 e8bc430-9c3a11d9-96690800200c9a66 Botanical Nomenclatural Database Micro@ http:// citation id.pesi.org/tax/6 e8bc430-9c3aof data! 11d9-96690800200c9a66
  17. 17. Semantic Web uses http URIs
  18. 18. The Simple Rules 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. (Tim Berners-Lee , 2006, http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html)
  19. 19. Stable URI Identifier Patterns? 1. Anything goes!!! 2. It is just more or less difficult to keep stable 3. Google for: “Best practices for stable URIs” (pro-iBiosphere paper) – http://objects. myorg.edu/id/1C4EDC178 AD79DD7F1A5AB856E8C5BCA – http://concepts.myorg.edu/id/123 – http://id.plazi.org/specimen/123
  20. 20. Respect your resources. Be selective.
  21. 21. Stability is a management decision!
  22. 22. Beyond: Linked Open Data
  23. 23. Linked Open Data Cloud (LOD 2011)
  24. 24. Linked Open Data Cloud (LOD 2011)
  25. 25. Why Linked Open Data? – Distributed Web Model • using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl) • Machine usable data (automatic analysis & reasoning) • Physical object, RDF, HTML linked (content negotiation)
  26. 26. Why Linked Open Data? – Distributed Web Model • using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl) • Machine usable data (automatic analysis & reasoning) • Physical object, RDF, HTML linked (content negotiation) – Anyone can say anything about anything, anywhere • Usages that the data providers never anticipated • Third parties connect concepts between data sets • Particular needs contribute to global achievement
  27. 27. Why Linked Open Data? – Distributed Web Model • using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl) • Machine usable data (automatic analysis & reasoning) • Physical object, RDF, HTML linked (content negotiation) – Anyone can say anything about anything, anywhere • Usages that the data providers never anticipated • Third parties connect concepts between data sets • Particular needs contribute to global achievement – Flexible to adapt to almost any form of data – Information managed at source plus annotated globally
  28. 28. Why Linked Open Data? – Distributed Web Model • using w3c standards (xml, rdf, owl) • Machine usable data (automatic analysis & reasoning) • Physical object, RDF, HTML linked (content negotiation) – Anyone can say anything about anything, anywhere • Usages that the data providers never anticipated • Third parties connect concepts between data sets • Particular needs contribute to global achievement – Flexible to adapt to almost any form of data – Information managed at source plus annotated globally – Queries and other analysis can combine arbitrary sets of data, anywhere and owned by anyone – Common and diverse vocabularies can be used together and related to each other (creativity, science!)
  29. 29. Strategy: 1. Stable Identifiers Now (Semantic Web compatible, http-dereferenceable) 2. Semantic Web Later ...
  30. 30. LSID, ARK, DOI, etc.?
  31. 31. DOI as an example
  32. 32. DOI Resolution Provider DOI Resolver Content Data RDF (Meta)data ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss Content Provider Global Stability Mapping Legend: Human use Machine use
  33. 33. DOI Resolution Provider DOI Resolver Content Data RDF (Meta)data ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss Content Provider Global Stability Mapping HTTP Content Provider Web server redirection Legend: Human use Machine use Content Data/Html ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss Local Stability Mapping RDF Data Web-server-based content negotiation (MIME-type request based) © G. Hagedorn, CC BY 3.0ff
  34. 34. Community-owned DOI infrastructure: 1. Loads on central redirect (handling all global taxon-related knowledge discovery!) 2. GBIF-DOI is single point of failure when used for Semantic Web (where doi-resolver must be included) Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider Content Provider Content Provider Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider DOI Resolver Infrastructure ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss 3. Human resources required to manage the huge global list of redirection rules Content Provider Content Provider Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider Content Provider Content Provider Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider Content Provider Content Provider Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider Content Provider Content Provider Content Data Content Data Content Data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data RDF (Meta)data Content Provider Content Provider Content Provider © G. Hagedorn, CC BY 3.0ff
  35. 35. DOI Provider DOI Resolver ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss Content Provider Web server redirection Content Data/Html ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss ssssssssss RDF Data © G. Hagedorn, CC BY 3.0ff
  36. 36. Take home message: Implementing stable SemWeb/LOD-compliant URI identifiers NOW is not a waste of resources should we all decide to do DOIs!

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