Introduction to biotechnology


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Introduction to biotechnology

  1. 1. Biotechnology
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. BIOTECHNOLOGY Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms. Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop micro- organisms for specific uses.
  4. 4. BIOTECHNOLOGY Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology. Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either.  Transferring them to another organism.  Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations.
  5. 5. Applications of Biotechnology Cell and Molecular biology. Microbiology. Genetics. Anatomy and Physiology. Biochemistry. Engineering. Computer Science.
  6. 6. Applications of Biotechnology Virus-resistant crop plants and livestock. Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases and acquired diseases. Therapies that use genes to cure diseases. Recombinant vaccines to prevent disease. Biotechnology can also aid the environment.
  7. 7. Computers in Biotechnology Computer simulations with virtual reality and other uses help in biotechnology. Computer modeling may be done before it is tested with animals.
  8. 8. Goals of Biotechnology To understand more about the processes of inherita nce and gene expression. To provide better understanding & treatment of vari ous diseases, particularly genetic disorders. To generate economic benefits, including improved plants and animals for agriculture and efficient production of valuable biological molecules.  Example: Vitamin A fortified engineered rice.
  9. 9. History
  10. 10. Biotechnology Development Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication. Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine. Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering.
  11. 11. Fermented food, 1500 BC Yeast - fruit juice wine. Brewing beer - CO2. Baking bread, alcohol. Egyptians used yeast in 1500 B.C. 1915-1920 Baker’s Yeast.
  12. 12. Classical Biotechnology Describes the development that fermentation has taken place from ancient times to the present Top fermentation - developed first, yeast rise to top 1833 - Bottom fermentation - yeast remain on bottom 1886 – Brewing equipment made by E.C. Hansen and still used today
  13. 13. Classical Biotechnology Advances Today many things are produced:  Pharmaceutical compounds such as antibiotics.  Amino Acids .  Many chemicals, hormones, and pigments.  Enzymes with a large variety of uses.  Biomass for commercial and animal consumption (such as single-cell protein).
  14. 14. Applications
  15. 15. ApplicationsAgriculture Plant breeding to improve resistance to pests, diseases, drought and salt conditions Mass propagation of plant clones Bioinsecticide development modification of plants to improve nutritional and processing characteristicsChemical Industry Production of bulk chemicals and solvents such as ethanol, citric acid, acetone and butanol Synthesis of fine specialty chemicals such as enzymes, amino acids, alkaloids and antibiotics
  16. 16. ApplicationsMedicine Development of novel therapeutic molecules for medical treatments Diagnostics Drug delivery systems Tissue engineering of replacement organs Gene therapy
  17. 17. ApplicationsFood Industry Production of bakers yeast, cheese, yogurt and fermented foods such as vinegar and soy sauce Brewing and wine making Production of flavors and coloring agentsVeterinary Practice Vaccine production Fertility control Livestock breeding
  18. 18. ApplicationsEnvironment Biological recovery of heavy metals from mine tailings and other industrial sources Bioremediation of soil and water polluted with toxic chemicals Sewage and other organic waste treatment
  19. 19. Future of Medicine Smart drugs for cancer and autoimmune diseases (arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes). Gene-based diagnostics and therapies. Pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine. Stem cells and regenerative medicine. Health and longevity.
  20. 20. the promise of biotech DNA proteindrugs are so complex they can only be synthesized in a living system
  21. 21. T H A N K Y O U