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Data Analytics and the Legal Landscape: Intellectual Property and Data Protection



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Data Analytics and the Legal Landscape: Intellectual Property and Data Protection

  1. 1. OpenDataMonitor Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action GARRI-3-2014 Scientific Information in the Digital Age: Text and Data Mining (TDM) Project number: 665940 Dealing with the legal bumps on the road to further TDM uptake FutureTDM Reducing Barriers and Increasing Uptake of Text and Data Mining for Research Environments using a Collaborative Knowledge and Open Information Approach FutureTDM Symposium, Salzburg June 13th, 2017
  2. 2. Outline Introduction ▪ Sorts of contents ▪ Applicable regimes (IP or Data Protection) Intellectual Property ▪ rules ▪ impact ▪ recommendations Data protection ▪ rules ▪ impact ▪ recommendations
  3. 3. What am I mining? Low-level data ▪ common idea of ‘data’ ▪ ’raw’ data ▪ no human intervention High-level data ▪ processed or enriched data ▪ human intervention ▪ interpreted data
  4. 4. Low-level data • GPS coordinates • ZIP codes • measuring points • [etc]
  5. 5. High-level data • texts (articles, papers, blogs) • (moving) images • sounds and music • aggregated data (e.g. graphs, diagrams) • [etc]
  6. 6. Applicable regimes Low-level data ▪ data protection law ▪ personal data (whereabouts, address, IP) ▪ sui generis database rights ▪ collection of data ▪ copyright ▪ unlikely High-level data ▪ copyright ▪ texts, images, films, music, data collection ▪ database rights ▪ collections of data or works ▪ data protection law ▪ occasionally
  7. 7. IP: rules Exclusive rights ▪ reproduction | extraction ▪ communication to the public | re-utilisation Exceptions ▪ EU: research | transient copies | private ▪ TDM: UK | France (no decree) ▪ pending proposal in Germany
  8. 8. IP: impact • Main rules bring TDM under rightholders’ monopoly • Fragmentary landscape of exceptions • Narrow application of existing (TDM) exceptions • Uncertain scope of exceptions Uncertainty | Fragmentation | Restrictiveness
  9. 9. IP: recommendations EU lawmaker ▪ TDM exception ▪ for anyone with lawful access to content ▪ no restrictions on beneficiaries, or nature or purpose of research ▪ no TPMs ▪ integrity and security measures may not render exception useless Research funders: ▪ publicly funded research TDM’able ▪ part of grant agreements/conditions Right holders | content creators | content providers ▪ User-friendly TDM conditions in licensing ▪ both legally and technically (TPMs/security measures)
  10. 10. Data Protection: rules Legal ground for personal data processing ▪ Consent from data subjects for specified purposes ▪ Necessary to perform contract to which data subject is party ▪ Necessary for legitimate interests of data controller (subject to fundamental rights and interests of data subject) Principles of processing ▪ Data minimisation & purpose limitation: processing and storage no more or longer than necessary for specified purposes (purpose limitation) Security of data ▪ integrity and confidentiality ▪ secure storage ▪ access limited to certain people
  11. 11. Data Protection: impact TDM = re-use from many sources ▪ probably not covered by consent ▪ huge amount of data and, hence, data subjects −practically impossible to obtain consent Data minimisation (law) vs data maximisation ▪ Minimal processing allowed, while added value of Big Data and TDM lies in maximised processing ▪ More data = more and better insights ▪ Retain data just for the sake it becomes valuable in the future Some leeway for “historical, statistical and scientific purposes” ▪ presumed to be compatible with purposes of collection ▪ no need to inform all subjects when impossible or disproportionate effort ▪ no right to be “forgotten"
  12. 12. Data Protection: recommendations EU lawmaker ▪ explanatory documents on “historical, statistical and scientific purposes” European Data Protection Board | National data protection authorities ▪ provide general guidelines on TDM to help practitioners comply ▪ certification of data research | self-regulation | codes of conduct ▪ guidelines on meaning of “historical, statistical and scientific purposes” Professional associations ▪ draft self-regulation or codes of conduct to clarify how and ensure that members – companies & research org’s – can comply
  13. 13. Seriously think about the legal Future of TDM Calling on the European lawmaker ▪ To think of the positive impact a broad TDM exception will have on the spread of new knowledge and innovative ideas Calling on (representative) stakeholders, users and rightholders ▪ To draft policies, code of conducts or self-regulation that stimulate to extract economic and societal value from big data, while complying with IP and data protection rules and principles Calling on data protection authorities ▪ To stimulate innovative TDM projecs and activities by providing guidance and help in complying with data protection law when mining (anonymised) personal data 13FutureTDM
  14. 14. Contact: On behalf of Marco Caspers 14