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L’Open Access dans les carrières académiques - Cinquante nuances d'Open par Bruno J. Strasser & Paul N. Edwards

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Conférence de la Bibliothèque de l'Université de Genève, vendredi 11 novembre 2016 à Uni Dufour, Genève, Suisse

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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L’Open Access dans les carrières académiques - Cinquante nuances d'Open par Bruno J. Strasser & Paul N. Edwards

  1. 1. Cinquante nuances d’Open Bruno J. Strasser University of Geneva & Yale University & Paul N. Edwards University of Michigan
  2. 2. 1. définitions 2. économie morale 3. économie politique 4. transitions
  3. 3. “open access” “open data”
  4. 4. 1. définitions
  5. 5. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  6. 6. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  7. 7. 1) les chercheurs ne touchent pas de droits d’auteur
  8. 8. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  9. 9. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  10. 10. 2) la duplication de contenus digitaux ne coûte rien
  11. 11. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  12. 12. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  13. 13. 3) “online” garantit un accès potentiellement universel
  14. 14. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  15. 15. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  16. 16. 4) “free of charge” enlève les barrières financières
  17. 17. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  18. 18. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  19. 19. 5) l’absence de copyright garantit la réutilisation (traduction, text mining, etc.)
  20. 20. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  21. 21. “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” P. Suber, 2012, Open Access, MIT Press.
  22. 22. 6) l’attribution de l’auteur reste nécessaire.
  23. 23. l’ “open access” garantit : > l’accès > l’usage
  24. 24. l’open access n’est pas: > non-commercial > gratuit pour tous > incompatible avec les éditeurs
  25. 25. 2. l’économie morale des sciences
  26. 26. pour le chercheur un système d’échange: accréditation contre divulgation
  27. 27. “The organization of science consists of an exchange of social recognition for information.” Warren O. Hagstrom, The Scientific Community, 1965
  28. 28. > la publication crée l’auteur > pas d’auteur pour les données
  29. 29. pour le chercheur un système de valorisation: la réutilisation (citation) produit la réputation
  30. 30. “In order to promote the success of their ideas, and hence themselves, scientists must adopt a strategy of both competition and collaboration, of altruism and selfishness. Each must balance his or her behaviour, in relation … to sharing information.” Lewis Wolpert, The Unnatural Nature of Science, 1992
  31. 31. pour le chercheur accréditation + réutilisation = crédit maximiser l’accès, maximise la réutilisation potentielle et la valeur de l’accréditation
  32. 32. “impact factor”; “h-index” mesure pas la qualité, mais la réutilisation Nature (IF: 42.351) Journal of Avian and Poultry Biology (IF: 0)
  33. 33. pour la science: la publication permet la validation et l’accumulation du savoir
  34. 34. validation par les pairs avant et après
  35. 35. maximiser l’accès, maximise la validation potentielle
  36. 36. “open science”
  37. 37. pour la société: > responsabilité publique > justice sociale > solidarité
  38. 38. l’éditeur scientifique contrôle: l’accréditation des personnes + la validation des savoirs
  39. 39. 3. l’économie politique
  40. 40. Au XIXe siècle l’édition scientifique devient commerciale (Springer-Verlag, 1842)
  41. 41. concentration Elsevier; Wiley; Kluwer; Thomson Reuters; Taylor & Francis; Springer- Nature = 65% des profits Michel Vajou,“Résultats financiers 2015 de l’édition scientifique”, EPRIST, 30.3.2016
  42. 42. rentabilité Elsevier: profit 36% ExxonMobile: profit 28% P. Super, Open Access, 2013
  43. 43. monopole un seul mode l’accès
  44. 44. publisher government stakeholders libraryreviewerauthor editor scientific community Strasser & Edwards, 2015
  45. 45. 1. “serials crisis”
  46. 46. > hausse des prix (décroissance des coûts) > concentration > “bundling” > absence de transparence (chercheurs et institutions) origines
  47. 47. conséquences: > diminution de l’accès > pression sur les ressources
  48. 48. 2. digitalisation + internet
  49. 49. 3. “big data”
  50. 50. Open Access
  51. 51. maximiser l’accès
  52. 52. PLoS Petition pour une archive ouverte Public Library of Science (PLoS) Patrick O. Brown; Michael Eisen PubMed Central (2000) PLOS Biology (2003)
  53. 53. GOLD open GREEN closed archive Strasser & Edwards, 2015
  54. 54. green OA: nouveau modèle de diffusion
  55. 55. green OA: archives disciplinaires (arXiv; PubMed Central; etc.) ou institutionnelles (archives ouvertes UNIGE)
  56. 56. accepté par 100% des éditeurs (NIH Open Access policy, PubMed Central) délais (6-12 mois)
  57. 57. gold OA: nouveau modèle économique
  58. 58. closed government institutional library scholars publisher Strasser & Edwards, 2015 open scholars publisher government
  59. 59. gold OA: éditeurs non-commerciaux (PLOS, eLife) et éditeurs commerciaux (BMC, Indawi, Springer, Elsevier)
  60. 60. Neylon, Cameron; OASPA (2013): Growth of Open Access - Major Publishers. figshare.
  61. 61. > accès “universel” > “impact” journaux comparable > augmentation des citations > modeste diminution des coûts > rachat des journaux open access par des éditeurs commerciaux gold OA: impact
  62. 62. non profitfor profit closed open closed open Strasser & Edwards, 2015
  63. 63. > coût pour les auteurs > bibliothèques sont contournées > journaux se désintègrent gold OA: impact
  64. 64. Corbyn, Z.. “Price Doesn't Always Buy Prestige in Open Access.” Nature, January 22, 2013.
  65. 65. 0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2014 % of OA articles in PubMed Source: http://www.michaeleisen.org, 2014
  66. 66. 4. transition
  67. 67. governmentacademia peers law researcher
  68. 68. > subside pour les auteurs incitation à l’open access 1
  69. 69. > sensibiliser incitation à l’open access 2
  70. 70. > OA “obligatoire” (“mandate” / contrat) > par les chercheurs ou les agences > contrôle (rétention de subsides, 2014 NIH Wellcome) incitation à l’open access 3
  71. 71. > évaluation des chercheurs incitation à l’open access 4
  72. 72. > soutien aux archives disciplinaires augmenter l’accessibilité 1
  73. 73. > retenir le copyright ou cc augmenter l’accessibilité 2
  74. 74. > clarifier le droit d’auteur augmenter l’accessibilité 3
  75. 75. > soutenir les journaux non-commerciaux diminuer les coûts 1
  76. 76. > exiger la transparence du marché diminuer les coûts 2
  77. 77. > annuler des abonnements diminuer les coûts 3
  78. 78. > inciter la qualité au lieu de la quantité maintenir la qualité 1
  79. 79. > attention au review pre- et post- publication maintenir la qualité 2
  80. 80. > pas ignorer la valeur du contenu éditorial maintenir la qualité 3
  81. 81. Cinquante nuances d’Open Bruno J. Strasser University of Geneva & Yale University & Paul N. Edwards University of Michigan

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