Wireless charging of smartphones

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These slides use ideas from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze when wireless charging might become economically feasible and the types of technological changes that impact on the timing of this economic feasibility. The slides show how the falling cost of power electronics, increases in the efficiency of wireless charging, and the rising demand for mobile phone usage are rapidly improving the economic feasibility of wireless charging. In particular, as the efficiencies of wireless charging over several meter distances improve, it is likely that wireless hot-spots can be used to charge phones, in addition to downloading data.

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Wireless charging of smartphones

  1. 1. Wireless Charging for Smartphone Kandan Jayaraj (A0028319E) Karthik TR (A0082036M) Sathish Narayanan (A0080102A) Jaskirat Kaur (A0077146B) Wong Wee Yap (A0077152H) Tonmoy Kundu (A0028202X)
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Smartphones  Current Trends – Impact on Power  Wireless Charging Products for the Smartphone  Charging your Smartphone – Current Technology ENERGY GAP in Smartphones  Value Proposition – Road to True Mobility Our Vision of Wireless Charging  Wireless Hotspots  Technology Progress  Cost Structure and Trends  Market Drivers Array of Opportunities Future of Wireless Charging2 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  3. 3. Current Trends in Smartphones – Impact onPower Convergence of More transistors and communication, migration to smaller, leakier entertainment and computing geometries High performance powerWhateverNeed for Speed New Apps , be the technological advancements, it hungry processors ends up asking for MORE POWER Memory consumes more Higher Memory power Increased talk time demand and craze for smaller, sleeker Higher battery capacity devices 3 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  4. 4. Wireless Charging Products for Smartphones SkinsInductive Coupling Cases / Covers IT IS CHEAP!! Charge Pads / Bundle KitsCost = $4.70 each (in USD) Cost = $3.60 each (in USD) 4 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  5. 5. Charging your Smarphone – Current technology  Wired  Li-ion technology  Equipment Portability  15+ years old  User Mobility  Simple energy storage, one cell system, minimized packing  Safety  Power and energy: well balanced5 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  6. 6. Relative performance improvements in LiBattery technology VS HDD / CPU6 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  7. 7. Energy Gap in Smartphones IMPLICATIONS TO CHARGING SYSTEM:  Battery Capacity – Fails to meet demand  Charging Interval – More frequent  Variance in System Charging Performance7 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  8. 8. Value Proposition – Road to True Mobility Problem • Battery is not sufficient to fulfill Smartphone power needs Solution • Use wireless technology to fill the energy gap • Wireless energy product that allows ‘recharging on the go’ -Value Proposition convenient and practical manner – True Mobility Wireless Charging8 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  9. 9. Our Vision forWIRELESS CHARGING
  10. 10. Wireless Charging Hotspots The mobile phone is Circuit Hotspot Source powered to tune to theAC Electricity same frequency as the hotspot source and in the process of resonant magnetic Oscillating Magnetic Field coupling, power is transferred.10 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  11. 11. Wireless Charging Hotspots11 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  12. 12. Intelligent Wireless Charging SystemPower Receiver Power Transmitter •Wireless power Detection •Wake up fromDetection •Wireless powerfromIDLE mode •Wake up IDLE mode •ID and Energy DemandAuthentication •ID •Power Receivers and Energy Demand •Power Receiver Authentication •Power Charge Complete •Power Transfer Off •Power Transfer according to communication •Power Transfer according to communication IDLE mode •Power Transmitter/IDLE •Switch to •Multiple Request for  Adaptive Energy Demands •Request for Charging Mode Energy Demand (optional) Charging Transfer Mode Power 12 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  13. 13. Technology Paradigm – Wireless charging Range Near Field Far Field Inductive Resonance RF / Coupling Coupling Microwave13 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  14. 14. RangeEM Resonance Coupling Near Field Far Field• Superior to inductive charging• Offer larger distances between the charged device Inductive Resonance Microwave Coupling Coupling / RFand the source• Easily charge multiple gadgets simultaneously,regardless of their position• Can transmit across barriers • Blue line: Magnetic Fields Created when the current flows through the coil • Yellow line: Flow of energy from the sources to Capture Coil Is it practical to develop this technology for the mass market?14 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  15. 15. Wireless Charging Hotspots: Road toMainstream Market Understanding the Roadmap from Labs to Market  R&D  Commercialization  Market Adoption 3 Major Factors:  Technology Progress – Efficiency vs Distance / Efficiency vs Size o Efficiency Improvement  Better Design  Better Materials  Cost Structure and Trends o Cost of Ownership vs Market Adoption  Market Drivers15 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  16. 16. Wireless Charging Hotspots Technology Progress
  17. 17. Efficiency Break-down: Wired vs Wireless ~1% cable loss 99% Connector AC->DC DC->AC AC->DC Charge EnergyWired storage 50Hz HiFreq control efficiency Charger Smartphone 99% 70% 90% XX% Magnetic field AC->DC DC->AC AC->DC Charge EnergyWireless storage 50Hz Hi-Freq control efficiency Transmitter / Charger Up to 80% Smartphone 17 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  18. 18. Near Field Wireless Charging: Distance vs Efficiency Proximity coupling Vicinity coupling 2 10 High Power (100 W) Transferred power [W] 1 10 Magnetic coupled (10 W) Resonance, +60% 10 0 efficiency (1 W) Inductive Pad -1 10 Solutions 10-2 High Low Power Efficiency 10-3 10-2 10-1 0 10 (1 meter) 1 10 (10 meters) Distance [m] 18 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  19. 19. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Pushing the Mid-Range Efficiency Curve Outwards Inductive coupling to Resonant Kurs, Moffat and Soljačić — Inductive found that powering two 1.0 Coupling devices at once led to higher 0.9 efficiency than one device alone. 0.8 0.7Efficiency 0.6 Team from MIT, 0.5 wirelessly power a 60W light bulb 0.4 with 40% 0.3 efficiency at a 2 metres 0.2 0.1 VISION 0.0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Distance (m) 19 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  20. 20. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Technology Driven by Mass Adoption The two receiving coils resonate with each other as well as with the transmitting coil, and help to reinforce the strength of the magnetic field.Source: Simultaneous mid-range power transfer to multiple devicesAndré Kurs, Robert Moffatt, and Marin Soljačić The efficiency should continue to rise as more devices are added, climbing toward a theoretical limit of 100 percent. 20 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  21. 21. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Technology Driven by Mass Adoption 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 Source: JiWire Mobile Audience Insights Report 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 We anticipate the market for Wireless Charging Hotspot trend will follow that of the Wi-Fi adoption Trend and the scaling effect driving efficiency up.21 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  22. 22. Near Field Wireless Charging: Size vs Efficiency Transmitter Receiver • The Coils offer inductance for resonance at desired frequency. • Size - Bigger the coil, higher the efficiency • Higher coil Q factor offer longer range  Q = Quality factor of Transmitter / Receiver coil22 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  23. 23. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Reducing Receiver Coil Size Source: Limitation of inductive power transfer for consumer applicationEberhard Waffenschmidt, Philips Research 1. A large size difference of the coils reduces efficiency – Problem for Mobile Charging with Hotspots Typical arrangement of a wireless inductive power 2. A higher Quality Factor of coils pushes transmission system. the efficiency curve up 23 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  24. 24. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Reducing Receiver Coil Size – How do we improve Efficiency ? Improving K, Q1 or Q2K – coupling coefficientQ1 – Quality Factor of Transmitter coilQ2 – Quality Factor of Receiver Coil Better Better Design Materials Improving K,Q1 or Q2 will drive efficiency of resonant magnetic coupling and performance despite limitations created by varying coil sizes24 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  25. 25. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Reducing Receiver Coil Size – How do we improve Efficiency ? Research conducted to improve Q2 – through Better Design Source: Watt-Level Wireless Power Transfer Based on Stacked Flex Circuit Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA *National Semiconductor Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USAThe multi-layer design incorporating lamination of four layers together with widthvariation exhibited a Q-factor improvement of 150% in comparison to the single-layer inductor.25 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  26. 26. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Reducing Receiver Coil Size – How do we improve Efficiency ? Research conducted to improve k – through Better Design Source: Optimization of Near Field Coupling for Efficient Power Transfer Utilizing Multiple Coupling Structures , Devin Wells WilliamsAs the spacing decreases between the elements, the magnitude of the couplingbetween that structure and the receiving element increases  Coupling coefficient(k) increases26 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  27. 27. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Reducing Receiver Coil Size – How do we improve Efficiency ? Research conducted to improve k – through Better Materials Source: Wireless Power Transmission Efficiency Enhancement With Metamaterials, MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC RESEARCH LABORATORIESThe use of negative-index Metamaterials to enhances coupling coefficient (k) oftwo resonators and improves efficiency.27 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  28. 28. Overcoming Barriers: Push for Efficiency Recent Research Breakthrough on Wireless Power TransferMarch 14, 2012 28 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  29. 29. Wireless Charging Hotspots Cost Structure & Trends
  30. 30. Efficiency Vs Cost Increasing Efficiency– Impact on Cost Increasing the number of stacks Adding Material Reducing space between coils30 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  31. 31. Cost Analysis for Wireless Charging – BOM LevelPowdered-iron-based, wirelesscharging receiving coilCost = USD $5.48 TI’s bq500210 Transmitter IC Cost = USD $3.95TI’s bq51013 Receiver ICCost = USD $3.50 31 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  32. 32. Cost Analysis for Wireless Charging: ReducingCost – In the footsteps of Integrated Circuits ??? 1] Increasing the number of stacks 2] Adding Material 3] Reducing space 1] More process steps overtime between coils 2] Increasing number of layers with technology node 3] Smaller and smaller feature Size overtime Cost Reduction in IC manufacturing had been possible with advances in science enabled by research, better manufacturing equipment with benefits from reduction in scale.32 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  33. 33. Improvements in System Integration - Size & CostPath to delivering Power on to the IC directlySystem Integration  3D IC and SiP  Power delivery from coil/inductor to the Die 33 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  34. 34. WIFI vs Wireless Power Transfer Data Transfer Rate declines with distance True Mobility attained from shifting to Wireless Efficiency Push Wireless Adapter Transmits Radio Signal. Router Receives the Signal.34 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  35. 35. Cost Reductions in Wireless Power Integrated Circuit (IC) Wireless Power Chip Set Pricing Forecast (Anticipated) (in dollars) 2011 - Texas Instruments Incorporated introduced its next-generation bqTESLA™ wireless power transmitter integrated circuit (IC). The IC lowers the 9.10 transmitter bill of materials cost by more than 50 percent, compared to existing solutions, by integrating the transmitter and supporting components into aThe price of wireless routers fell from single chip.$1,000 in 2000 to just $59 in 2004.- Dean Takahashi, San Jose Mercury News. 4.50 Market Adoption Latest reports suggest the inclusion of the "revolutionary" wireless charging feature in Galaxy S3. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 – International Business Times, March 22,2012. 35 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  36. 36. Mobile Apps for Intelligent Wireless Charging Apps will help to  Increase efficiency of wireless charging  Control the cost of charging for consumers  Make the product more economically feasible and commercially viable Wireless Hotspot Detected: - NUS Hspot ))))))) Excellent - McD Hspot ))) Average Estimated cost for full charge: $0.10 Amount in account: $10.32 Top-up account Share power mode36 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  37. 37. Wireless Charging Hotspots Market Drivers
  38. 38. Market Drivers for Wireless Charging Road to True Mobility User Expectation Limits to Competing Technologies Efficiency Improvements Rapid Market Growth38 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  39. 39. Wireless Charging System Scenarios39 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  40. 40. Advantages of Wireless charging Universal wireless charging environment Convenient & Simple to use Safe, Reliable & Efficient Low Maintenance Cost Environmentally Protective More Energy Savings Reduction of Electronic Waste40 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  41. 41. Array of OpportunitiesConsumer Electronics Industrial Applications• Laptops • Automated Material Handling• Digital Cameras • Industrial Micro- Robots• Television / Media Remotes / Gaming controls Wireless Charging SolutionsBiomedical Devices Other Applications• Implants • Electric Vehicles• Pacemakers • LED Lighting• Defibrillators • Military Applications41 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  42. 42. Future of Wireless Power - Consumer Electronics Wireless Power will change our world… IN THE AIR AT WORK AT THE HOTEL AT HOME AT THE CAFE ON THE GO42 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  43. 43. AT WORKDigital Camera Coffee Mug Laptop Cell Phone 43 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  44. 44. IN THE AIR Laptop Cell Phone / Kindle44 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  45. 45. AT THE HOTEL Laptop Digital Camera Cell Phone Kindle45 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  46. 46. AT THE CAFÉ Blender Cell Phone Coffee Mug Laptop Kindle46 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  47. 47. ON THE GO Parking Lot GPS Tracking System Media Player Cell Phone / Bluetooth Device Charging Car Battery47 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  48. 48. AT HOME Blender Laptop Electric Pan Cell Phone48 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  49. 49. AT HOME49 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  50. 50. Conclusion Wireless Charging is Smart Charging Wireless Charging would be extremely beneficial to society  Efficient & much better than conventional wired power  Freedom of movement in charging area In near future, the world will be completely  Eliminates tangled cords  GREEN & Universal WIRELESS! It is a universal, interoperable solution that meets and anticipates immediate and future consumer needs50 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone
  51. 51. Are you Still Wired ??51 MT5009: Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities – Group Project Wireless Charging of Smartphone

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