COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY :    An Analysis of Potential Benefits1   Group 4    MT5009 ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES
cog·ni·tive  /ˈkɒgnɪtɪv [kog-ni-tiv] –adjective                                                                           ...
CONTENTRadio-communication 101 andspectrum usage   Cognitive Radio – What‟s the big deal?       Cognitive Radio – Where ar...
41      Radio-communication 101 and        spectrum usage
CURRENT PARADIGM - SPECTRUMRadio waves can travel quite a distance and, are able to disturb othercommunications services r...
EVOLUTION OF RADIO 1.Hardware driven radios:      Transmit frequencies, modulation type and      other radio frequency (RF...
RADIO SPECTRUM: THE UNSEEN GOLD             Common Frequency Band                AM radio - 535 kHz to 1.7 kHz           ...
RADIO SPECTRUM PLAN    “Radio Spectrum Master Plan”, Annex 1, Page 14, IDA RSMP v2.1 April 2008, IDA Website              ...
EXISTING SPECTRUM UTILISATION                                                        I’m an                               ...
Ooopss...
SO WHAT IF….                                             All Available!  No        Lower cost      Lower phone            ...
122       Cognitive Radio – So what‟s the big deal?
VALUE PROPOSITION EfficientSpectrum Utilization Higher Accessibility Greater Ease of Use Better Adaptability Improved...
IMPROVEMENT IN ACCESSIBILITYUser uses single device to access various networks and services. Userindicates his needs and C...
IMPROVEMENT IN EASE OF USE   Device is aware of user‟s goals and priorities, and capable of    autonomously adjusting its...
IMPROVEMENT IN ADAPTABILITY   Device adapts automatically to local environment. When user    roams across borders, the de...
IMPROVEMENT IN INTERCONNECTIVITY   Cognitive radio enables ease of communications among multi-    terminal / multi-freque...
IMPROVEMENT IN SCALABILITY   Devices communicate in the form of collaboration among neighbor    devices via a series of h...
IMPROVEMENT IN RELIABILITY   CR‟s self-configuring mesh wireless networks avoid disruption or    failure by re-routing ar...
VALUE PROPOSITION                                                                        Improvement in                   ...
213       Cognitive Radio – Where are we today?
THE RADIO ARCHITECTURE TODAY                          Key                       ComponentTunable Antenna                  ...
COGNITIVE RADIO SOFTWARE                     CR Software Functions                                                  Adapti...
TECHNOLOGY ENABLER                  CR Software Functions                                  Security                       ...
CURRENT COGNITIVE RADIO PROTOTYPE                                                                                         ...
MOVING TOWARDS COMMERCIALIZATIONFPGA                   ASIC   • Field                • Application     Programmable       ...
COST ANALYSIS                              1                                                                              ...
SIZE DOES MATTER!                          Infineon                                                                       ...
TRADITIONAL PATCH ANTENNA   Microstrip antenna is a printed antenna, consists of a flat "patch" of    metal, mounted over...
TRADITIONAL ANTENNA OF MOBILE DEVICE     Characteristic – customizable, small size and effective integration with      tr...
KEY COMPONENT OF COGNITIVE RADIO -  ANTENNAS  Cognitive radio requires 2 antennas :     “Sensing antenna” – wide-band ant...
METHOD OF IMPROVEMENT FOR    COGNITIVE RADIO ANTENNAS   Microstrip antennas with both the sensing and    reconfigurable a...
SENSING ANTENNA –PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTSensing Antenna design contributes to improvement in the width ofsensing frequency...
RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA –    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT    Number of selectable frequency bands can be increased by having mor...
RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA –  PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT  Number of selectable frequency bands can be increased by having more  c...
POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE RADIO   Integrated Circuits    Reduction in scale of transistors increases speed, ...
HOWEVER... HERE ARE SOME POTENTIAL LIMITS       Integrated Circuits processor performance improvement may be unable      ...
384       Cognitive Radio – So what‟s next?
CRITERIA FOR CR OPPORTUNITY GENERATION                                        To makeIndustry             Abilities to    ...
THE CHALLENGES FOR CR                                          • Major revamp in                                          ...
CR STAKEHOLDERS                                         Software                          Software      Application       ...
OPPORTUNITIES AT A GLANCETechnologyEnabler                                Operators and    TV White                    Man...
NEW MARKET SEGMENT    Smart Home                       Consumer Applications                                              ...
CONCLUSIONS   Today‟s spectrum management is still based on the same principles as set    out at the time of the crystal ...
THANK YOU45
BACKUP SLIDES46
MOBILE COMMUNICATION 101   Cell size vs Spectrum vs Mobile coverage                       possible radio coverage of the ...
COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY 101Under the current radio frequency paradigm model, it is very difficult tomake the unused spe...
MORE INFORMATION ON COGNITIVE RADIO The term Cognitive Radio was first suggested by Mitola  in 1999. He defines CR as a ...
COGNITIVE RADIO “SIMPLY”                           It   knows where it is                           Itknows what service...
THEN WHAT ARE SDRS?   Allows the adoption of new    communication technologies by means    of simple software upgrades, r...
GROWING INTEREST IN COGNITIVE RADIO                              Statistics of Google search                              ...
COGNITIVE RADIO COMPONENTSHardware                             Software                      Antenna                      ...
CHALLENGES – HW DEVELOPMENTKey Components        Main Objectives Challenges                      To provide a complex-conj...
CHALLENGES – SW COMPLEXITY                            Measuring which frequencies are used, estimating theWideband Frequen...
CHALLENGES – IMPLEMENTATIONCOMPLEXITY   Current implementation stage is the designers are able    to address the CR softw...
OUR FOCUS ON HW ANALYSISEmbedded Device                                             Characteristic       Application      ...
KEY CHALLENGE – MAJORPOLICY CHANGE                      Government                                    Policies   •Implemen...
CR: A SOLUTION TO MOBILE CONSUMPTION?
TV WHITE SPACE TECHNOLOGY                                       TV bands are sparsely used today and are                 ...
NORMADIC BROADBAND SERVICE               Sensor Network aided Cognitive Radio Services                                    ...
AMBIENT TECHNOLOGY
RESILIENT COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTUREDuring emergencies or when part of communicationsinfrastructure is damage, CR‟s self...
MARKET SEGMENT - RURAL Use of lower frequency range significantly improves the coverage. This reduces the cost of communic...
Souce: http://www.singularity.com/charts/page64.html
Souce: Virtex-6 FPGAs Push the Performance Envelope (2009).From http://www.pentek.com/pipeline/18_2/Virtex6.cfm
Cognitive Radio: When might it Become Economically and Technically Feasible?
Cognitive Radio: When might it Become Economically and Technically Feasible?
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Cognitive Radio: When might it Become Economically and Technically Feasible?

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My Master's students use ideas from my (Jeff Funk) forthcoming book (Technology Change and the Rise of New Industries) to analyze the economic and technical feasibility of cognitive radio. See my other slides for details on concepts, methodology, and other new industries.

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Cognitive Radio: When might it Become Economically and Technically Feasible?

  1. 1. COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY : An Analysis of Potential Benefits1 Group 4 MT5009 ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES
  2. 2. cog·ni·tive /ˈkɒgnɪtɪv [kog-ni-tiv] –adjective Albert Salim A0026151W1. of or pertaining to cognition.2. of or pertaining to the mental processes ofperception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, ascontrasted with emotional and volitional processes. Tan How Ho Kai Hong Boon, Jason A0076866L A0077139X Groupra·di·o Members /ˈreɪdiˌoʊ/ [rey-dee-oh] - noun1. wireless telegraphy or telephony: speechesbroadcast by radio.2. an apparatus for receiving or transmitting radiobroadcasts. Stefanus Wong Seong Yudanto Yin A0076858J A0076890R COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY 2
  3. 3. CONTENTRadio-communication 101 andspectrum usage Cognitive Radio – What‟s the big deal? Cognitive Radio – Where are we today? Cognitive Radio – So what‟s next? 3
  4. 4. 41  Radio-communication 101 and spectrum usage
  5. 5. CURRENT PARADIGM - SPECTRUMRadio waves can travel quite a distance and, are able to disturb othercommunications services resulting in interference This makes the radio spectrum a scarce natural resource  Provides us with technical standards,  Recommendations and procedures to solve the above mentioned problem.  Assign licenses to users.  Gives an exclusive right to operate on a specific frequency in a specific location or geographic area  Compliance of spectrum users with the license obligations is monitored and enforced. 5 Thus, avoiding interference seems to be a question of proper planning and coordination, and using the right equipment.
  6. 6. EVOLUTION OF RADIO 1.Hardware driven radios: Transmit frequencies, modulation type and other radio frequency (RF) parameters are determined by hardware and cannot be changed without hardware changes. 2. Digital radios: A digital radio performs part of the signal processing or transmission digitally, but is not programmable in the field3. Software Defined Radios: All functions, modes and applications can 6 be configured and reconfigured by software
  7. 7. RADIO SPECTRUM: THE UNSEEN GOLD Common Frequency Band  AM radio - 535 kHz to 1.7 kHz  Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 to 26.1 MHz  Television stations - 54 to 88 MHz for channels 2 - 6  FM radio - 88 to 108 MHz  Television stations - 174 to 220 MHz for channels 7 - 13 Other Frequency Uses • Garage door openers - Around 40 MHz • Standard cordless phones: Bands from 40 to 50 MHz • Baby monitors: 49 MHz • Radio controlled airplanes: Around 72 MHz • Radio controlled cars: Around 75 MHz • Wildlife tracking collars: 215 to 220 MHz • Cell phones: 800 to 900 MHz • Air traffic control radar: 960 to 1,215 MHz • GPS: 1.227 & 1.575 GHz • Deep space radio communications: 2.290 to 2.3 GHz 7
  8. 8. RADIO SPECTRUM PLAN “Radio Spectrum Master Plan”, Annex 1, Page 14, IDA RSMP v2.1 April 2008, IDA Website Broadcasting Mobile Services Fixed Services Short Range Devices Services • Public Cellular Mobile • Point to point fixed • Digital Broadcast • Radio Local Area • Public Radio Paging links • Analog Broadcast Networks 8 • Mobile Data • Fixed wireless access • Ultra wideband • Trunked Radio • High Altitude Platform • Wireless Broadband Stations • Other fixed services
  9. 9. EXISTING SPECTRUM UTILISATION I’m an M1 user... Your Operator pays BUT SGD 20 million for 10 MHz of 9“Spectrum-Sharing Research and Policy Formulation in Asia-Pacific”, Presentation by IDA CTO Dr Tan 3G Spectrum!Geok Leng
  10. 10. Ooopss...
  11. 11. SO WHAT IF…. All Available! No Lower cost Lower phone 11Scarcity for operators bills for you??
  12. 12. 122  Cognitive Radio – So what‟s the big deal?
  13. 13. VALUE PROPOSITION EfficientSpectrum Utilization Higher Accessibility Greater Ease of Use Better Adaptability Improved Interconnectivity Increased Scalability Improved Reliability
  14. 14. IMPROVEMENT IN ACCESSIBILITYUser uses single device to access various networks and services. Userindicates his needs and CR scans for the services available and presentsthe options to the user. Would you like mobileTV ? Would you like SatTV ? Would you like InternetTV ? Cellular services Satellite services WiFi services Broadcasting services other services I wish to watch a Would you like 14 movie BroadcastTV ?
  15. 15. IMPROVEMENT IN EASE OF USE Device is aware of user‟s goals and priorities, and capable of autonomously adjusting its operation to simplify the tasks and relieve user from burden of manual intervention. Cellular services WiFi services A home Wifi network is now available, I‟d switch over since this is „lower cost / higher user preference‟ 15
  16. 16. IMPROVEMENT IN ADAPTABILITY Device adapts automatically to local environment. When user roams across borders, the device performs self-adjustment to stay in compliance with local radio operations and emissions regulations. 16
  17. 17. IMPROVEMENT IN INTERCONNECTIVITY Cognitive radio enables ease of communications among multi- terminal / multi-frequency communication devices. 17
  18. 18. IMPROVEMENT IN SCALABILITY Devices communicate in the form of collaboration among neighbor devices via a series of hops. The network can potentially scale to large numbers of users. Hello CR enables users to communicate Hi with each other directly without transmitting over infrastructure Hi CR enables users to communicate with each 18 other in the form of collaboration among neighbor devices via a series of hops
  19. 19. IMPROVEMENT IN RELIABILITY CR‟s self-configuring mesh wireless networks avoid disruption or failure by re-routing around node failures or congestion areas, thereby enabling more robust and reliable communications. 19
  20. 20. VALUE PROPOSITION Improvement in key components Spectrum (Integrated Circuit Utilization High & Antenna) Diffusion Accessibility Cognitive Ease of Use Radio Adaptability Value Interconnectivity Scalability Traditional Reliability Radio Low Price, Performance, Size • Declining Price • Increasing Performance • Reducing Size 20Sources:S.Wang, L.Xie, H.Liu, B.Zhang, H.Zhao. ACRA: An Autonomic and Expandable Architecture for Cognitive Radio Nodes 978-1-4244-7555-1/10 2010 IEEEI.Filippini, E.Ekici, M.Cesana - Minimum Maintenance Cost Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks 978-1-4244-5113-5/09 2009 IEEEP.Carbonne, T.Hain, Market Assessment Report On selected Cognitive Radio Systems value propositions ICT-2007-216248 2009 End-to-End EfficiencyCognitive Radio Definitions and Nomenclature Approved Document SDRF-06-P-0009-V1.0.0 2008 SDR Forum
  21. 21. 213  Cognitive Radio – Where are we today?
  22. 22. THE RADIO ARCHITECTURE TODAY Key ComponentTunable Antenna Antenna Control Signal 1 Impedance Power Coupler Amplifier DAC Synthesizer 0 Antenna Control Unit 1 (ACU) ADC 0 Impedance Synthesizer Control Signal Key 22 Component
  23. 23. COGNITIVE RADIO SOFTWARE CR Software Functions Adaptive Self- algorithms configuration Wideband Distributed Mission-oriented Frequency collaboration configuration Sensing Policy and configuration databases Security 23 Source “Future Directions for Cognitive Radio”, P Pawełczak, Cognitive radio defying Spectrum Management, 2008 W. Lemstra & V. Hayes
  24. 24. TECHNOLOGY ENABLER CR Software Functions Security Policy and configuration databasesWidebandFrequency Adaptive Self-configuration Sensing algorithms Mission-oriented Distributed configuration collaboration IC Chip 1 Development Power Up Coupler Amplifi Con. Antenna Improvement criteria er 0 Control Unit • Performance AD (ACU) • Price C Feedback Information • Size 24 Source “Future Directions for Cognitive Radio”, P Pawełczak, Cognitive radio defying Spectrum Management, 2008 W. Lemstra & V. Hayes
  25. 25. CURRENT COGNITIVE RADIO PROTOTYPE 2.75 billion transistors XILINX® ® VIRTEX - 6 TM XC6VLX240T DTX01975842837 57628485789 240,000 reconfigurable logic cells Wideband Self Adaptive Frequency 25 Configuration Algorithm Sensing 25Souce: Harnessing FPGAs for Beamforming Software Radio Systems. Rodger Hosking (February 2011).From http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/9204?start=1
  26. 26. MOVING TOWARDS COMMERCIALIZATIONFPGA ASIC • Field • Application Programmable Specific Gate Array Integrated • Designed to be Circuit configured by • Customized for the customer or a specific use designer • Cost effective • Flexibility in complex design
  27. 27. COST ANALYSIS 1 1E+11 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Estimated chip 0.1 1E+10 price (2010): 1E+09 0.01 $ 110 Transistor Price (US$) 2.75 billion 100000000 0.001 transistors 10000000 0.0001 1000000 2010 transistor 1E-05 cost: 100000 1E-06 $4 x 10^-8 10000 1E-07 Average chip 1000 price in 1E-08 100 commercial Transistor Count Approx. 2017 1E-09 transistor: 10 wireless device $9.1 x 10^-9 1E-10 1 (2010): Average transistor price Forecast Average Transistor Price $25 Transistor Count Forecast Transistor Count 2017 27Sources:• The Singularity is Near. Ray Kurzweil, (2005) Min. threshold of performance• .http://www.xilinx.com/• http://www.altera.com/ Max. threshold of price• http://www.isuppli.com/
  28. 28. SIZE DOES MATTER! Infineon Future CR Device X-Gold 618 Concept 35 mm Pentek Model 71620 8 mm Apple iPhone 4Xilinx Virtex-6 2010 2017 and beyondNallatech/Fidelity Comtech 2006 28 Microsoft-funded prototype cognitive radio Source: http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800528084_499488_NP_ec0ab0fd.HTM
  29. 29. TRADITIONAL PATCH ANTENNA Microstrip antenna is a printed antenna, consists of a flat "patch" of metal, mounted over a larger sheet of metal ground plane. Materials: Conducting layers: - Copper foil Insulating layers for dielectric (coated): - epoxy resin prepreg Dielectric material: - Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) - FR-4 (Woven glass and epoxy) - CEM-1 (Cotton paper and epoxy) - CEM-3 (Woven glass and epoxy)The improvement of microstrip antenna is mainly done by modify thepatch design and use in array 29
  30. 30. TRADITIONAL ANTENNA OF MOBILE DEVICE  Characteristic – customizable, small size and effective integration with transceiver chips on circuit boards U shape with different voltage settings to tune frequency band. Limitation:  Narrow frequency range,  Limited selectable bands 30Principles and Applications of The Folded Inverted Conformal Antenna (FICA) Technology – Marco Maddaleno, Timoteo Galia,Motorola, Conferge 2005
  31. 31. KEY COMPONENT OF COGNITIVE RADIO - ANTENNAS Cognitive radio requires 2 antennas :  “Sensing antenna” – wide-band antenna which continuously monitors the frequency spectrum for activity  “Reconfigurable antenna” – narrow-band antenna which dynamically tune to a specific range within the frequency spectrum to perform data transfer. Logic Flow Cycle: 1. Sense -> Sensing antenna 2. Analyze 3. Decide 4. Tune in -> Reconfigurable antennaSource: Implementation of a Cognitive Radio Front-End Using Optically Reconfigurable Antennas - Y. Tawk,M. Al-Husseini, S. Hemmady, A. R. Albrecht, G. Balakrishnan, C. G.Christodoulou
  32. 32. METHOD OF IMPROVEMENT FOR COGNITIVE RADIO ANTENNAS Microstrip antennas with both the sensing and reconfigurable antenna structure incorporated together on the same substrate. Substrate Patch • Size: Relatively small in size using flat "patch“. • Price: Relatively easy and cheap to fabricate (use etching and photolithography) • Performance • Sensing Antenna – improve the width of frequency spectrum sensing band • Reconfigurable Antenna – increase the number of selectable frequency bands 32 Grounding
  33. 33. SENSING ANTENNA –PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTSensing Antenna design contributes to improvement in the width ofsensing frequency range. A normal design yields sensing range of 4-9 GHz Improved design with fractal shapes yields wider sensing range of 2–11 GHz 33
  34. 34. RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA – PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT Number of selectable frequency bands can be increased by having more rotatable positions 5 rotatable 2 rotatable positions positions 2 selectable frequency bands  5 selectable frequency bands 34Source: Implementation of a Cognitive Radio Front-End Using Rotatable Controlled Reconfigurable Antennas - Y. Tawk, Student Member,IEEE, J. Costantine, Member, IEEE, K. Avery, Member, IEEE, and C. G. Christodoulou, Fellow Member, IEEEA New Reconfigurable Antenna Design for Cognitive Radio - Y. Tawk, and C. G. Christodoulou, Member, IEEE
  35. 35. RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA – PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT Number of selectable frequency bands can be increased by having more control switches 2 switches 3 switches  3 selectable frequency bands  8 selectable frequency bandsSource: Implementation of a Cognitive Radio Front-End Using Optically Reconfigurable Antennas - Y. Tawk1, M. Al-Husseini3, S.Hemmady1, A. R. Albrecht2, G. Balakrishnan2, C. G. Christodoulou1
  36. 36. POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE RADIO Integrated Circuits Reduction in scale of transistors increases speed, reduces cost & size of Cognitive Radio systems. Antennas Improvements in antennas enable Cognitive Radio systems to monitor and utilise wider spectrum range.  Sensing Antenna Width of sensing frequency range can be further improved with better design.  Reconfigurable Antenna Number of selectable frequency bands can be further increased by having more rotatable positions or/and control switches. 36
  37. 37. HOWEVER... HERE ARE SOME POTENTIAL LIMITS  Integrated Circuits processor performance improvement may be unable to keep up with the algorithmic complexity required for Cognitive Radio to utilize very high frequency spectrum. Improvements are limited by Shannon‟s Law: C=B*log(1+S/N) C = information capacity; B = bandwidth; S = signal power; N = noise To modulate at frequency of 1024 Hz, the Cognitive Radio systems have to sample the waveform at twice that rate and the ICs to perform this won‟t be available for 100 years. Performance of CR driven by Moore‟s Law (Improvements in IC) BUT impeded by Shannon‟s Law (error free wireless transmission) 37Source: Silicon Architectures for Wireless Systems Jan M. Rabaey BWRC University of California @ Berkeley Wireless Research Center
  38. 38. 384  Cognitive Radio – So what‟s next?
  39. 39. CRITERIA FOR CR OPPORTUNITY GENERATION To makeIndustry Abilities to decisions Worldwide Wide interpret data • context; goals; RegulatorsSupport as constraints Intervention knowledge CR Enabled Develop new Capabilities Meeting the conclusions Resolve to all threshold for from these Challenges for Performance, experiences implementation Size, & Price Enable New Wireless Applications 39 Opportunities
  40. 40. THE CHALLENGES FOR CR • Major revamp in networkRegulators • Major policy change for Spectrum Management infrastructure due to Network change in operating models • No defined international • Inertia for adoption standards forStandard interworking and co- • Network Customer existence Externalities Effect • Larger extent of • Size, weight, and Security exposure of spectrum cost Device to potential hacking 40
  41. 41. CR STAKEHOLDERS Software Software Application Testing Developers Laboratory Distributors Material Providers Equipment Manufacturers Material Security Chipset Science R&DApplication Manufacturer FirmDevelopers Wireless Services Providers Semi- conductor Electronics Content Firm Application Manufacturer Providers Many Developers More ... 41
  42. 42. OPPORTUNITIES AT A GLANCETechnologyEnabler Operators and TV White Manufacturers CPC Space Sensor Nomadic Consumers Network Broadband Enabled CR Service Cognitive Seamless Resilient Pilot Ambient Ubiquitous Mobility Emergency Channel Technology Radio Access Experience Services Manager 42Nolan, K. E. and Ambrose, E. and Doyle, L. E. and OMahony, D. Cognitive radio: value creation and value migration in Proceedings of the Software-Defined Radio Technical Conference and Product Exposition (SDR Forum 2006), Orlando, Florida, USA, 13-17 November 2006.Markku Lähteenoja and Pål Grønsund, “Business case proposal for a Cognitive Radio Network based on Wireless Sensor Network”, Telenor ASA
  43. 43. NEW MARKET SEGMENT Smart Home Consumer Applications Enterprise Applications Rural Agriculture CR Peer-to-Peer Gaming 43
  44. 44. CONCLUSIONS Today‟s spectrum management is still based on the same principles as set out at the time of the crystal radio. This results in highly ineffective use of spectrum. Cognitive Radio systems offer a huge potential to increase spectrum efficiency. In our study, we looked at the possible geometric scaling effects and the threshold of both hardware and software of CR, and also the opportunities of CR becoming the next disruptive technology in spectrum management. A market based approach can be a good addition to reach the goal of more efficient spectrum usage. This means access to spectrum is based 44 on actual market demand
  45. 45. THANK YOU45
  46. 46. BACKUP SLIDES46
  47. 47. MOBILE COMMUNICATION 101 Cell size vs Spectrum vs Mobile coverage possible radio coverage of the cell idealized shape of the cell cell  use of several carrier  hexagonal shape of cells is frequencies idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on  not the same frequency in geography) adjoining cells  if a mobile user changes cells  cell sizes vary from some 100  handover of the m up to 35 km depending on connection to the neighbor user density, geography, 47 cell transceiver power etc.
  48. 48. COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY 101Under the current radio frequency paradigm model, it is very difficult tomake the unused spectrum available. What is required is a dynamic spectrum management model Cognitive Radio, as a technology, is a tool to realize this goal Cognitive radio, a special class of software defined radio‟s, defies this principle as a cognitive radio monitors the use of the spectrum and selects an unused part for its transmission. This capability provides a new solution in 48 addressing the issue of spectrum scarcity.
  49. 49. MORE INFORMATION ON COGNITIVE RADIO The term Cognitive Radio was first suggested by Mitola in 1999. He defines CR as a radio driven by a large store of a prior knowledge, searching out by reasoning ways to deliver the service the users want. The Cognitive Radio is reconfigurable and built on the software- defined radio (SDR). They are controlled by powerful microprocessors which have been programmed to analyze a number of the radio channel parameters. The key feature of a Cognitive Radio is its ability to recognize the unused parts of spectrum that is licensed to a primary user and adapt its communication strategy to use these parts while minimizing the interference that it generates to the primary user. 49
  50. 50. COGNITIVE RADIO “SIMPLY” It knows where it is Itknows what services are available, for example, it can identify then use empty spectrum to communicate more efficiently It knows what services interest the user, and knows how to find them It knows the current degree of needs and future likelihood of needs of its user Learns and recognizes usage patterns from the user 50
  51. 51. THEN WHAT ARE SDRS? Allows the adoption of new communication technologies by means of simple software upgrades, rather than replacing expensive hardware. Reduces the cost of upgrading and allows immediate compatibility to be achieved among devices used by different agencies and organizations. This has the possibility of more flexibly Software managing spectrum by time, frequency, Defined Radio space, power and coding of the transmitted wave form. Cognitive Radio Cognitive radio is a subset Whitespace 51 of SDRs Technology
  52. 52. GROWING INTEREST IN COGNITIVE RADIO Statistics of Google search engine responses for CR (Cognitive Radio), DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Access) and OSA (Opportunistic Spectrum Access) phrases in terms of number of www pages found 52
  53. 53. COGNITIVE RADIO COMPONENTSHardware Software Antenna Tuning Unit Software (ATU) Modules Impedance Synthesizer  Wideband Frequency Sensing RF Power Sensor & Detector  Self-configuration Analog-Digital Converter (ADC)  Policy and configuration databases Antenna Control Unit (ACU)  Mission-oriented configuration  Adaptive algorithms  Distributed collaboration 53  Security for dynamic application
  54. 54. CHALLENGES – HW DEVELOPMENTKey Components Main Objectives Challenges To provide a complex-conjugate matching capability for aImpedance Synthesizer wide range of antenna impedances To convert the analog signal to a digital signal with highAnalog-to-digital sampling rate and resolution with large dynamic rangeconverter (ADC) for use in the ACU To reconfigure the antenna and impedance synthesizer such that the matching state is optimum by generatingAntenna-Control Unit the required switch control signals by using high speed(ACU) processorThe prominent feature of the ATU is an automatic feedback tuningsystem with a digital control circuitry to maintain an optimum antennamatching condition. •Efficient RF hardware re-configurability 54 •Efficient control of RF hardware with a short detection time.
  55. 55. CHALLENGES – SW COMPLEXITY Measuring which frequencies are used, estimating theWideband Frequency location of transmitters and receivers, and determining signalSensing modulation. Determine which frequencies can be used in which locationsPolicy and configuration and to constrain the operation of the radio to stay withindatabases regulatory or physical limits. Each module should be self-describing and the radio shouldSelf-configuration automatically configure itself for operation from the available modules.Mission-oriented Meet a wide set of operational requirements such as operation within buildings, operation over long distances, andconfiguration operation while moving at high speed. Able to sense its environment, adhering to policy andAdaptive algorithms configuration constraints, and negotiating with peers to best utilize the radio spectrum. Able to exchange current information on their localDistributed collaboration environment between themselves on a regular basis. Authenticate, authorize and protect information flows of 55Security participants.
  56. 56. CHALLENGES – IMPLEMENTATIONCOMPLEXITY Current implementation stage is the designers are able to address the CR software in FPGA chip: Processor Subsystem: -Execute software runtime system -Execute low intensity computations -Processed on software level Customizable Processor Subsystem: -Execute high intensity computations -Need to be reconfigured at run-time -Processed on hardware levelFuture challenge: to improve its level of automation and produce low cost device is it possible? 56
  57. 57. OUR FOCUS ON HW ANALYSISEmbedded Device Characteristic Application Does not versatile Customized for a particular use, Specific enough, and can only beASIC rather than intended for used to create single- Integrated general-purpose use. Circuit purpose devices Application Does not versatile Specific Implements a specific function enough, and can only beASSP (off-the-shelf components) used to create single- Standard Products purpose devices Electronic component used to Physically big, slow, Programmable power hungry, and PLD build reconfigurable digital Logic Device circuits expensive to be implemented for complex functions Integrated circuit designed to be Field Allow flexibility in configured by the customer orFGPA Programmable designer after manufacturing complex design 57 Gate Array compares to PLD (field-programmable)
  58. 58. KEY CHALLENGE – MAJORPOLICY CHANGE Government Policies •Implementation Complexity •Mismatch with Speed ofexisting regulations Adoption Improve overall•Inertia for adoption available network and •Control and spectrum management capacity difficulty 58
  59. 59. CR: A SOLUTION TO MOBILE CONSUMPTION?
  60. 60. TV WHITE SPACE TECHNOLOGY  TV bands are sparsely used today and are very suitable for long range, low power wireless networks  White space uses CR to utilise the scarce spectrum 60Carlos Cordeiro, “Cognitive Radios: Present and Future Directions”, Wireless Communications and Networking (WiCAN),Philips Research North America, 2006
  61. 61. NORMADIC BROADBAND SERVICE Sensor Network aided Cognitive Radio Services 3 Components  Sensing architecture  Communication architecture  Fusion centre Business Model  Rent spectrum usage from existing provider, utilise “available” spectrum  Provide complementary servicesMarkku Lähteenoja and Pål Grønsund, “Business case proposal for a Cognitive Radio Network based on Wireless SensorNetwork”, Telenor ASA
  62. 62. AMBIENT TECHNOLOGY
  63. 63. RESILIENT COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTUREDuring emergencies or when part of communicationsinfrastructure is damage, CR‟s self-configuring, ad-hocmesh wireless networks avoid disruption or failure by re-routing around node failures or congestion areas, therebyenabling more robust and reliable communications.
  64. 64. MARKET SEGMENT - RURAL Use of lower frequency range significantly improves the coverage. This reduces the cost of communications in the less densely populated, underserved, remote, and rural areas. Telemedicine Market in Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) is expected to reach $418.4 million by 2014Agri-sensors deploy out in the farm tomeasure data (humidity, soil moisture, air &soil temperature, wind speed, rainfall ) and Telemedicine devices transfer medical info ofthen transmit data for diagnose and rural patients - data, images and live audioalert/advice farmers on action to take. and video feeds to urban doctors to offer medical and treatment advice.
  65. 65. Souce: http://www.singularity.com/charts/page64.html
  66. 66. Souce: Virtex-6 FPGAs Push the Performance Envelope (2009).From http://www.pentek.com/pipeline/18_2/Virtex6.cfm

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