Smart Sensors for Infrastructure and Structural Health Monitoring


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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to show how smart sensors are becoming more economically feasible and more widely used in infrastructure. This is enabling greater monitoring and self-healing of structures. Twenty years ago, it was improvements in MEMS, piezo-electric ceramics, and ultrasonic sensors that was enabling structural health monitoring. More recently, it has been improvements in fiber optic sensors, wireless sensors and RFID tags that are enabling this monitoring. Today, it is the falling cost of these components and their combination with more recently available ones such as ionomers (a type of polymer), carbon nano-tubes, and energy harvesters. Improvements in these sensors have enabled the absolute cost of sensors and their percentage of costs in for example bridges to fall over the last 20 years to fall. These trends are expected to continue and become applicable to a broader number of structures including buildings and vehicles.

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Smart Sensors for Infrastructure and Structural Health Monitoring

  1. 1. Name Matriculation ID Brian Cakra A0133496Y Muhamad Tomi Haetami A0133454L Arulmani Natarajan A0132656E Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi A0103024E Seyed Mohammad Hasheminejad A0094092A STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING GROUP PRESENTATION MT5009 ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES 2015 For presentations on other technologies see
  2. 2. MT5009 1. SHM Introduction 1.1. Past Catastrophic Structural (w/o SHM) Failures 1.2. SHM Process 1.3. SHM Applications 1.4. Wireless SHM Architecture and Applications 2. SHM Development and Technologies 3. Old SHM Technology 3.1. MEMS 3.2. Piezoelectric Sensors 3.3. Ultrasonic Sensors 2 4. New SHM Technology 4.2. Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS) 4.6. Wireless Sensors Network 4.7. Embedded RFID Systems 5. Emerging and Future SHM Technology 5.1. Self Healing SHM 5.2. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Sensors 5.3. Energy Harvesting 6. SHM Feasibility 6.1. How Far Can It Goes 7. Conclusion
  3. 3. MT5009 SHM is the process of implementing a damage detection and characterization strategy for structures. • Damage due to:  Mismanagement in construction,  Lack of quality control,  Temperature variation,  Initiation of cracks due to cyclic loadings. • Damage changes:  Geometry properties,  Boundary conditions,  Characteristics of the system. 3 Why SHM? 1. Safety. 2. Replace schedule- driven maintenance with condition-based maintenance. 3. Increase Structure’s Longevity. 4. Addressing Issues of Scale (e.g. monitoring millions of structure). 5. Detecting damage in early stage to enable proactive responses. 6. Total Cost Reduction. Human Health Monitoring SHM Analogy Structural Health Monitoring
  4. 4. MT5009 Sampoong Department Store Collapse due to Overload in Seoul, South Korea (1995). 4 Historical Archive of the City Collapse due to Ground Deformation in Cologne, Germany (2009) Tacoma Bridge Collapse due to Wind in Tacoma, US (1940) Sung-Su Bridge Collapse in Korea (1994) I-35 Bridge Collapse in Minessota, US (2007) Nicoll Highway Collapse due to Construction Failure and Overload, Singapore (2004)
  5. 5. MT5009 5 SHM steps: 1. Operational evaluation, 2. Data acquisition (Sensors such as piezoelectric, piezoresistive, MEMS, optical fibers, resistance strain, dip angle, acoustic emission, stress measurement sensors, selecting the excitation methods, the sensor types, number and locations ) 3. Analyzing the data (microprocessors, IC, microcontroller) 4. Developing a statistical model for feature discrimination
  6. 6. MT5009 6
  7. 7. MT5009 Status inside materials building, Bridges, Wind turbine, Dams, mines, oil Rig and Pipe lines. 7
  8. 8. MT5009 8
  9. 9. MT5009 9
  10. 10. MT5009 10
  11. 11. MT5009 11 OLD SHM NEW SHM EMERGING & FUTURE SHM 1970s 1990s 2000s  Wired  Independent Sensor / Not communicate with other sensors  Only Monitoring  Fiber Optic  Less Calibration  Wired and Wireless  Sensor Array.  Self-organization and near- neighbor awareness  Only Monitoring  Active SHM, Self Healing Structure  Smart Particle, self assembly  Energy Harvesting  Smart Sensors, cooperation between sensor nodes Problem:  Messy Wires and complex installation.  Need Calibration. Problem:  Power Management issue, many sensors need power.  Sensor’s reliability issue (life time).
  12. 12. MT5009 12 OLD SHM NEW SHM EMERGING & FUTURE SHM 1970s Problem: Messy Wires and complex installation.  Wired  Independent Sensor / Not communicate with other sensors  Passive, Only Monitoring
  13. 13. MT5009 • MEMS inertial sensors (Strong motion Class B) • An acceleration sensor and angular velocity sensors (gyroscope) 13 Performance. S/N Dynamic range dB. Market Size by Application and Grade Advantages: • Miniaturized size, • Lower power consumption, • Improved linearity, • Extended FS range, • Integrated wireless, • Low cost, • Mass production, • Three-dimensional detection. MarketSize.$Million MEMS-based devices Market: CAGR of 11.7% and a total volume of $9.2 billion (2015). Unit production growth of 14%.
  14. 14. MT5009  Mechanical energy  Electrical energy (direct effect) and vice versa (converse effect). 14 Application:  to investigate the deformation and deflection (damage detection) for the structures including loaded pipes, beams, and plates.  to identify, locate, and quantify the structural performance of the system by the vibration and frequency response from a network of piezoelectric sensors. 1. Piezoelectric Ceramics (PZT): • Inexpensive, • Small, • Light weight, • Easily fabricated, • Less sensitive to temperature variation, • Low power consumption, • (-) Inflexible. 2. Piezoelectric Polymers (PVDF): • Very flexible, • (-) High cost of fabrication 3. Piezoelectric Ceramic / Polymer Composites
  15. 15. MT5009 This technique relies on shear waves (frequencies above 18kHz to MHz) generated by a probe (e.g. piezoelectric transducer) at a given point of the structure and sensed by another at a different point. The damaged areas affect the propagated ultrasonic wave in the structure and result in mixed modes. 15
  16. 16. MT5009 16 OLD SHM NEW SHM EMERGING & FUTURE SHM 1990s  Fiber Optic  Less Calibration  Wired and Wireless  Sensor Array.  Self-organization and near-neighbor awareness  Only Monitoring Faults in sensor nodes can be tolerated by using other available nodes.
  17. 17. MT5009 In SHM, type of FOS commonly used is Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors, with multiplexing capacity. 17 Advantages: • Suitable for long-term permanent. • More accuracy and reliability • No calibration needed • One cable can have hundreds of the Sensors • Simple installation • Light weight • Cable can run kilometers, no length limit • FOS uses light signal: High Bandwidth, No Electrical sparking, EMI immunity, etc. Fiber Bragg Grating principle
  18. 18. MT5009 Every sensors in the old days tended to transform its physical layer to wireless connection. 18 Example Wireless Sensors. Advantages: • No messy cabling, increase mobility • Faster Installation speed • Reduce infrastructure cost of cabling • Enabled communication between sensors through • (-) Security Issues • (-) Radio Interference Issues Wireless Sensor Network Market Forecast 400 - 800 - 600 - 200 - 1000 - MarketSize(inMillionUSD) $ 401 M $ 945 M $ 455 M
  19. 19. MT5009  Wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data,  Automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. 19 Hand Held RFID Reader RFID Temperature Sensor RFID Strain SensorRFID Temperature and Moisture Sensors Advantages: • Wireless data collection, Non-contact communication • Small Size • Stored data in built-in memory • Readable by both fixed RFID reader and hand held reader General configuration of RFID tag with sensor and built-in memory
  20. 20. MT5009 RFID Type Active RFID Passive RFID Battery-Assisted Passive (BAP) Tag Power Source Internal to tag Energy transfer from the reader via RF Internal power source to power on, and energy transferred from the reader via RF to backscatter Tag Battery Yes No Yes Availability of Tag Power Continuous Only within field of reader Only within field of reader Required Signal Strength from Reader to Tag Very Low Very high (must power the tag) Moderate (does not need to power tag, but must power backscatter) Available Signal Strength from Tag to Reader High Very Low Moderate Communication Range Long Range (100m or more) Short range (up to 10m) Moderate range (up to 100m) Sensor Capability Ability to continuously monitor and record sensor input Ability to read and transfer sensor values only when tag is powered by reader Ability to read and transfer sensor values only when tag receives RF signal from reader 20
  21. 21. MT5009 21 OLD SHM NEW SHM EMERGING & FUTURE SHM 2000s  Active SHM, Self Healing Structure  Smart Particle, self assembly  Energy Harvesting  Smart Sensors, cooperation between sensor nodes
  22. 22. MT5009 22 Application:  Fill the crack / gap  Protective coating for concrete Fiber Coating with Nano and Micro Capsules contain Resin / Glue / Sodium Silicate / Calcium Lactate as a healing agent. Advantages: • Inexpensive, • Environmentally friendly, • Catalyst free • Increase concrete structures’ life by 20% Bacteria H2O, CO2, O2 + + + FURTHER:  Self lubricating  Self cleaning  Metal Healing
  23. 23. MT5009 CNT spatial sensing skins: Using CNT (e.g. hybrid glass-fiber composite) attached to small-scale concrete beams formed a continuous conductive skin (layer in structure). 23 Advantages: • A direct means for measuring the distributed strain fields. • High Sensitivity and Accuracy to identify the existence, location and severity of structural cracks or corrosion. • Higher degree of miniaturization. • (-) Expensive and currently limited production Carbon nanotube-based sensing composites for structural health monitoring
  24. 24. MT5009 24 • Energy sources for wireless sensors. • e.g. solar, thermal, wind, and kinetic. Advantages: • Independent self-powered Sensors, • Less power cable infrastructure, • Reduce energy consumption, Eco-friendly. $ 45 M $ 227 M
  25. 25. MT5009 25 Example: Innowattech Piezoelectric Piezoelectric installed beneath the surface of the Road. Electricity generated from the Vibration.
  26. 26. MT5009 The Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) at Tsing Ma Bridge has four different levels of operation: sensory systems, data acquisition systems, local centralised computer systems and global central computer system. 26 FACTS: Origin: Hongkong Year: 1997 Structure Cost: 929 Million SHM Cost: USD 8 Million 350 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 22,875 Technology: FOS, Wireless Tsing Ma Bridge with positions of sensors
  27. 27. MT5009 The Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge across the Mississippi River, Missouri, USA. 27 FACTS: Origin: Missouri, USA Year: 2003 Structure Cost: USD 100 Million SHM Cost: USD 1.3 Million 86 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 15,116 Technology: Wireless
  28. 28. MT5009 The I-35 bridge which replaced the Minneapolis bridge that collapsed. This SHM is potentially saving 15 to 25 percent of long-term maintenance costs.FACTS: Origin: Minneapolis, USA. Year: 2008 Structure Cost: USD 234 Million SHM Cost: USD 1 Million 500 Sensors Cost per Sensor: USD 2,000 Technology: Wireless
  29. 29. MT5009 Item Tsing Ma Bridge Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge I-35 bridge Total Structure Cost USD 929 mil. USD 100 mil. USD 234 mil. Year 1997 2003 2008 SHM cost USD 8 mil. USD 1.3 mil. USD 1 mil. SHM cost (%) 0.9% 1.3% 0.4% Total sensors 350 sensors 86 sensors 500 sensors Cost per sensor USD 22,875 USD 15,116 USD 2,000 Sensor technology FOS, Wireless Wireless wireless -15% SHM Cost decrease 15% each year.
  30. 30. MT5009 1. Almost any structure that we want to maintain for any purpose. 2. By further improvements in the process of MEMS and better miniaturization of them, SHM can be applied to even small device like artificial heart, skin and limbs. 3. Using on daily life’s:  Self healing / self patching (hole in) tire.  Self inflating tire.  Self healing from scratch in any surface.  Monitoring stress, load, fatigue in furniture.  SHM in home appliances. • Crack in gas regulator / gas tank. • Exposed cable.  Etc. 4. New protocols to reduce energy usage.  Bluetooth 4, Zigbee, Thread, MiWi, Allseen, etc. 30 Part of Smart City. Internet of Things.
  31. 31. MT5009 1. Increasing in Market Size (CAGR)  mass production + technology growth  cheaper unit cost ↓  MEMS sensor/actuator = 12 %  Wireless Sensor Network = 13 %  Energy Harvesting = 50 %  These parts’ price will continuously reduce, at least until 2020 . 2. Other factors affect the decrement of SHM Cost:  Less labor and engineering cost due to wireless network and better monitoring system.  Smaller sensors, better performance, cheaper unit cost, lower energy consumption.  Internet of things 3. SHM Technologies applications depend on geographical location.  E.g. Energy harvesters (solar panel) need sunny environment. 4. SHM Technology will become more effective with “self-….” tech., energy harvesting, and new material. 5. s 31 CHEAPER SHM. Cost decrease 15% each year.